P

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Cursive.svg
Circle sheer blue 29.gif
Circle sheer blue 29.gif
Cursive script 'p' and capital 'P'

P (named pee /ˈp/[1] ) is the sixteenth letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Usage[edit]

In English orthography and most other European languages, p represents the sound /p/.

A common digraph in English is ph, which represents the sound /f/, and can be used to transliterate φ phi in loanwords from Greek. In German, the digraph pf is common, representing a labial affricate /pf/.

Arabic does not have a native phoneme /p/; the Proto-Semitic language phoneme /p/ developed into the Arabic phoneme /f/. P in modern loanwords is pronounced as /b/.[citation needed]

Most English words beginning with P are of foreign origin, primarily French, Latin, Greek, and Slavic;[citation needed] these languages preserve Proto-Indo-European initial /*p/. Native English cognates of such words often start with F, since English is a Germanic language and thus has undergone Grimm's law; a native English word with initial /p/ would reflect Proto-Indo-European initial /*b/, which is so rare that its existence as a phoneme is disputed.

However, native English words with non-initial P are quite common; such words can come from either Kluge's law or the sp combination; PIE /*p/ is preserved after s.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, [p] is used to represent the voiceless bilabial plosive.

History[edit]

Phoenician
P
Archaic Greek
Pi
Greek
Pi
Etruscan
P
Latin
P
PhoenicianP-01.svg GreekP-02.svg Pi uc lc.svg EtruscanP-01.svg RomanP-01.png

Related letters and other similar characters[edit]

The Latin letter P represents the same sound as the Greek letter pi, but it looks like the Greek letter rho.

Computing codes[edit]

Character P p
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P     LATIN SMALL LETTER P
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 80 U+0050 112 U+0070
UTF-8 80 50 112 70
Numeric character reference P P p p
EBCDIC family 215 D7 151 97
ASCII 1 80 50 112 70
1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations[edit]

NATO phonetic Morse code
Papa ·––·
ICS Papa.svg Semaphore Papa.svg {{{Braille}}}
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "P", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "pee," op. cit.

External links[edit]

  • Media related to P at Wikimedia Commons
  • The dictionary definition of P at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of p at Wiktionary