At its source, it serves as a channel for water-drainage for Mexico City. From there, it becomes the state border between Hidalgo and Querétaro as it moves towards San Luis Potosí. It takes the name Río Pánuco upon reaching Veracruz. It empties into the Gulf at Tampico and Ciudad Madero, on the border between the states of Tamaulipas and Veracruz.
It is approximately 500 km in length but only the last 15 km is navigable for larger ships.
According to the Atlas of Mexico, the Panuco River is the fourth largest river in Mexico by volume of runoff, and the sixth largest river basin in Mexico by area.
- Atlas of Mexico, 1975 (http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/atlas_mexico/river_basins.jpg).
- Panuco (Freshwater Ecoregions of the World)
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