Hont-Pázmány

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Genus (gens) Hont-Pázmány
Coa Hungary Family Hont-Pázmány.svg
Country Duke of Swabia
Kingdom of Hungary
Founded c. 983
Founder Hont and Pázmány (brothers)
Cadet branches House of Bozóky
House of Bényi
House of Csalomjai
House of Födémási
House of Forgách
House of Szegi
House of Garadnai-Pogány
House of Szentgyörgyi
House of Czibak
House of Ujhelyi
House of Pázmány
House of Besztercei

Hont-Pázmány (Hunt-Poznan) was the name of a gens ("clan") in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum ("Deeds of the Huns and Hungarians") mentions that the ancestors of the family (the brothers Hont and Pázmány) arrived, in the late 9th century, to the court of Grand Prince Géza of the Magyars from the Duchy of Swabia (in the Holy Roman Empire).

The next arrivals were Hunt and Pazman, two half-brothers, courageous knights of Swabian origin. These two and their retainers had been journeying through Hungary with the intention of passing over the sea when they were detained by Duke Géza, and finally they girded King Stephen with the sword of knighthood at the river Hron, after the German custom.[1]

—Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum[2]

The clan Hontpaznan was mentioned for the first time in 1226 in a charter. Several prominent families of the kingdom (e.g., Szentgyörgyi and Forgách) descended from the gens.

The branches of the clan[edit]

By the 13th century, the clan divided into 12 branches:

  • the branch of Bozók (today Bzovík in Slovakia) held possessions in Hont County and they had two castles;
  • the possessions of the branch of Födémes (now Ipeľské Úľany in Slovakia) were located in Hont and Borsod counties and their castle in Borsod County was built without royal authorization and therefore, it was demolished in 1298;
  • the members of the branch of Bény (today Bíňa in Slovakia) owned lands in Hont and Nyitra counties and they held three castles;
  • the branch of Csalomja (today Malá Čalomija in Slovakia) held possessions in Hont county;
  • the lands of the members of the branch of Gimes (now Jelenec in Slovakia) were located in Nyitra County and they had a castle built there;
  • the branch of Szeg possessed lands in Nyitra County;
  • the members of the branch of Szentgyörgy and Cseklész (today Svätý Jur and Bernolákovo respectively) held possessions in Pozsony County and they had three castles by the end of the 13th century;
  • the possessions of the branch Pogány of Garadna were located in Trencsén County;
  • the members of the branch of Újhely owned lands in Bihar County where they had a castle built;
  • the branch Pázmány of Panasz held possessions in Bihar County;
  • the members of the branch of Beszterce owned lands in Bihar County;
  • the possessions of the branch of Czibak-Batthyányi were also located in Bihar County.

Notable members of the clan[edit]

The first notable members of the clan were the brothers Hont and Pázmány who assisted Géza's son, the future King Stephen I of Hungary against his relative, the pagan Koppány who claimed for Géza's inheritance. The deed of foundation of the Pannonhalma Archabbey (issued in 1001) referred to both brothers as the king's military leaders (duces).[3] The brothers were granted possessions on the north-western parts of the kingdom (primarily in present-day Slovakia). Hont county was named after one of them.

Lampert from the kindred Hont-Pázmány (?–1132) founded the Abbey of Bozók. His first wife was the sister of King Ladislaus I of Hungary. He held about 30 possessions and thus he was one of the wealthiest landowners of the kingdom. In 1124, he took part in the campaign of King Stephen II of Hungary against Dalmatia. Lampert was murdered by the followers of King Béla II the Blind, because he was suspected of supporting Boris Kalamanos's claim to the throne.

Around 1201, Martin from the kindred Hont-Pázmány (?–1236/1245) held the office of count (comes) at the court of the future King Andrew II of Hungary, and served as the Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia. In 1202 and between 1212-1213, Martin was the Ban of Slavonia and he was styled Ban also in 1224 and 1234. In 1214, he held the office of judge royal (országbíró). He founded the Abbey of Ipolyság (today Šahy in Slovakia).

Achilles from the kindred Hont-Pázmány (b. 1210–1252) was bishop of Pécs between 1251 and 1252.

Lampert from the kindred Hont-Pázmány (of the branch of Csalomja) was bishop of Eger from 1247 to 1275.

Alternate theory on their origin[edit]

Some modern authors suggest that the clan Hont-Poznany was formed by intermarriages of two separate families, the Hunts and the Poznans ("Pázmánys", "Posnans") when the latter's male line died out in the mind-12th century. They claim that the ancestors both of the two families were already nobles at the time of Great Moravia and preserved their possessions after the incorporation of their territories into the arising Hungarian state.[4][5] The theory suggests that they kept their Christian faith during the 10th century and its followers claim that the foundation deed of the Benedictine monastery of Bzovík proves that hereditary estates from the time before the arrival of the Magyars prevailed in the Hunts' property. The Pázmánys oversaw the Benedictine monastery below Zobor hill near Nitra and became its secular patrons. According to the theory, the seat of the Hunt family was the Hont castle and they ruled in the Central Ipeľ region in today's southern Slovakia, while the Pázmánys ruled in the region of today's north western Slovakia in the 10th century. Both families acknowledged the sovereignty of Michael of the House of Árpád and thus they became nobles at the his court in Nitra. After Michael's death, the new ruler, Vajk (Stephen I) and the local nobility, spearheaded by the Pázmány and Hunt houses, developed very close personal ties and while fighting the Koppány rebellion in 997, Stephen took shelter with Pázmány and Hunt ("Poznano" and "Cuntio"); they in turn added their troops to the retinue of Stephen's Bavarian wife Giselle. The united forces then defeated Koppány, making Stephen the sole ruler of the emerging Hungarian state. In the 11th and 12th century the Hunts owned estates mainly in the county of Hont and along the Ipeľ river. By the 11th and 12th centuries the Pázmáns' estates were mainly in the valley of the Nitra river. According to the alternate theory, the Pázmáns' male line died out in the mid-12th century; allied by marriage to the Hunts, the line became "Hont-Pázmány".

Sources[edit]

  • Fügedi, Erik: Ispánok, bárók, kiskirályok - a középkori magyar arisztokrácia fejlődése (Counts, Barons and Petty Kings - The Development of the Hungarian Medieval Aristocracy); Magvető Könyvkiadó, 1986, Budapest; ISBN 963-14-0582-6.
  • Kristó, Gyula (editor): Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon - 9-14. század (Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History - 9-14th centuries); Akadémiai Kiadó, 1994, Budapest; ISBN 963-05-6722-9.
  • Kristó, Gyula: Néhány megjegyzés a magyar nemzetségekről (Some remarks on the Hungarian clans), in: Tanulmányok az Árpád-korról, pp. 26-50. (Studies on the Age of the Árpáds); Magvető Könyvkiadó, 1983, Budapest; ISBN 963-271-890-9.
  • Markó, László: A magyar állam főméltóságai Szent Istvántól napjainkig - Életrajzi Lexikon (The High Officers of the Hungarian State from Saint Stephen to the Present Days - A Biographical Encyclopedia); Magyar Könyvklub, 2000, Budapest; ISBN 963-547-085-1.
  • Ján Lukačka: Beginnings of the formation of Aristocracy on the territory of Slovakia (available online)
  • Lukačka, Ján. 2002. Formovanie vyššej šľachty na západnom Slovensku.
  • Ján Steinhübel: Nitrianske kniežatstvo [Nitrian principality], Veda, vydavateľstvo Slovenskej akadémie vied + Vydavateľstvo Rak, 2004, Bratislava [with several further Slovak and Hungarian genealogy and orher references listed in the book]
  • Hunt-Pázmán in: Slovakia and the Slovaks - A concise encyclopaedia, Encyklopedical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 1994

References[edit]

  1. ^ Post hæc venit Hunt et Pazman, duo fratres carnales, milites coridati orti de Svevia. Hi enim passagium per Hungariam cum suis militibus facientes ultra mare ire intendebant. Qui detenti per ducem Geicham, tandem sanctum regem Stephanum in flumine Goron Teutonico more gladio militari accinxerunt.
  2. ^ Simon of Kéza; Schaer, Frank (editor and translator) (1999). The Deeds of the Hungarians. Central European University Press. p. 163. ISBN 963-9116-31-9. 
  3. ^ Kristó, Gyula (editor) (1999). Az államalapítás korának írott forrásai (The written sources of the age of the foundation of the state). Szeged: Szegedi Középkortörténeti Könyvtár. pp. 37–41. ISBN 963-482-393-9. 
  4. ^ Lukačka, Ján (2002). Formovanie vyššej šľachty na západnom Slovensku. Bratislava: Minor. 
  5. ^ Lukačka, Ján. "K otázke etnického pôvodu veľmožského rodu Hont-Poznanovcov". Forum historiae. Forum historiae, SAV. Retrieved 2010.