P. Subbarayan

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Dr.
Paramasiva Subbarayan
பரமசிவ சுப்பராயன்
Psubbarayan.jpg
Paramasiva Subbarayan in 1934
Governor of Maharashtra
In office
17 April 1962 – 6 October 1962
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
Preceded by Sri Prakasa
Succeeded by Vijayalakshmi Pandit
Union Minister for Transport and Communication
In office
1959–1962
President Rajendra Prasad
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) for Tiruchengode
In office
1957–1962
President Rajendra Prasad
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
Preceded by S. Kandaswamy Baby
Succeeded by K. Anbazhagan
India's Ambassador to Indonesia
In office
1949–1951
Monarch George VI of the United Kingdom (till 26 January 1950)
President Rajendra Prasad (from 26 January 1950)
Governor General Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (till 26 January 1950)
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
Preceded by None
Succeeded by Alagappan
Minister of Police and Home (Madras Presidency)
In office
23 March 1947 – 1948
Premier O. P. Ramaswamy Reddiyar
Governor Archibald Edward Nye
Minister of Law and Education (Madras Presidency)
In office
14 July 1937 – 29 October 1939
Premier Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
Governor John Erskine, Lord Erskine
Chief Minister of Madras Presidency
In office
4 December 1926 – 27 October 1930
Governor George Goschen, 2nd Viscount Goschen,

Sir Norman Marjoribanks (acting)

Preceded by Raja of Panagal
Succeeded by P. Munuswamy Naidu
Minister of Local Self-Government (Madras Presidency)
In office
4 December 1926 – 27 October 1930
Premier P. Subbarayan
Governor George Goschen, 2nd Viscount Goschen,

Sir Norman Majoribanks (acting)

Preceded by Raja of Panagal
Succeeded by P. Munuswamy Naidu
Personal details
Born (1889-09-11)11 September 1889
Salem district, Madras Presidency
Died 6 October 1962(1962-10-06) (aged 73)
Madras
Nationality Indian
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) Radhabai Subbarayan
Children General P. P. Kumaramangalam,
Gopal Kumaramangalam,
Mohan Kumaramangalam,
Parvathi Krishnan
Alma mater Presidency College, Madras, Oxford University, Dublin University
Occupation politician
Profession lawyer
Religion Kongu Vellala Gounder
Signature
In this Indian name, the name Paramasiva is a patronymic, not a family name, and the person should be referred to by the given name, Subbarayan.

Paramasiva Subbarayan (Tamil: பரமசிவ சுப்பராயன்; 11 September 1889 – 6 October 1962) was an Indian politician, freedom fighter and diplomat and was the Chief Minister of Madras Presidency, India's ambassador to Indonesia and Union Minister of Transport and Communications in Jawaharlal Nehru's government. He is the father of General P. P. Kumaramangalam who served as India's Chief of Army staff and politician Mohan Kumaramangalam. He is also the grandfather of Indian National Congress and BJP politician and Union Minister Rangarajan Kumaramangalam.

Subbarayan was born on 11 September 1889 in the family estate at Kumaramangalam, Salem district and had his education at Presidency College, Madras, University of Dublin, the University of London and Christ Church, Oxford. In 1922, he was nominated to the Madras Legislative Council. He served as the Chief Minister of Madras Presidency from 4 December 1926 to 27 October 1930 .

In 1933, Subbarayan joined the Indian National Congress and served as the Minister of Law and Education in Rajaji's cabinet and the Minister of Police and Home in Ramaswamy Reddiar's cabinet. Subbarayan participated and was imprisoned in the Quit India Movement. He served as independent India's ambassador to Indonesia and as Union Minister from 1959 to 1962. Subbarayan died on 6 October 1962 at the age of 73. He was the Governor of Maharashtra at the time of his death.

Early life and education[edit]

Subbarayan was born to Paramasiva Gounder[1] in the family estate of Kumaramangalam near Tiruchengode, Namakkal district on 11 September 1889.[2][3] He belonged to the family of Zamindars.[4][5] He graduated from the Presidency College, Madras[2][4] and obtained his M.A.[6] and LLD[7] from the Christ Church, Oxford[6][8] and the University of Dublin respectively.[6] He started practising as an advocate of the Madras High Court in 1918.[5]

Politics[edit]

Further information: Raja of Panagal

In 1922, Subbarayan was nominated to the Madras Legislative Council as an independent candidate representing the landowners of the South-Central division of the Madras Presidency.[5] and served as a Council Secretary.[9][10] He took the side of C. R. Reddy and the Swarajists and voted against the Raja of Panagal during the no-confidence motion of 1923.[10]

As Chief Minister of Madras Presidency[edit]

In the Assembly elections which took place on 8 November 1926, no party was able to get a clean majority.[11] The Swaraj Party won 41 of the 98 seats and emerged as the single largest party while the Justice Party won 21.[11] It was a setback for the Justice Party and its incumbent Chief Minister, the Raja of Panagal. However, none of the parties could form the Government as they did not have a clean majority.

The Governor invited the Swarajya Party to take the lead in forming a coalition government but the latter refused.[11] The Justice Party did not have enough seats. Hence, the Governor chose Subbarayan, who was not affiliated to either of these parties, to form the Government and nominated 34 new members to the Madras Legislative Council to support him.[3][12] An independent ministry was formed with A. Ranganatha Mudaliar and R. N. Arogyaswamy Mudaliar as the second and third ministers. The Justice Party took the place of an opposition.[13]

Subbarayan's Cabinet
Portfolio Minister
Education, Local Self-Government P. Subbarayan (Also Chief Minister) (1926–1930)
Public health, excise A. Ranganatha Mudaliar (1926–1928)
S. Muthiah Mudaliar (1928–1930)
Development R. N. Arogyasamy Mudaliar (1926–1928)
M. R. Sethuratnam Iyer (1928–1930)
Source: Encyclopaedia of Political Parties

Because of the fact that Subbarayan's regime was appointed and largely controlled by the Governor, it became the target of strong criticism both from the Justicites as well as the Swarajists.[13] In March 1927, P. Munuswamy Naidu of the Justice Party passed a motion recommending salary cuts for Government ministers. However, they were defeated by a margin of 41 votes.[13] A no-confidence motion was passed on 23 August 1927, but was defeated 56 to 67 with the support of the Governor and the members nominated by him.[14]

The Simon Commission was appointed by the British Parliament in 1927 to report on the working of the progress of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms.[14] The Swarajya Party moved a resolution to boycott the Commission and this was passed 61 to 50 with 12 remaining neutral.[15] Subbarayan opposed the resolution but his cabinet ministers Ranganatha Mudaliar and Arogyaswamy Mudaliar supported it.[15] Subbarayan resigned as Chief Mnister, but at the same time, he also compelled his ministers to submit their resignations.[15] Fearing the possibility of the formation of a Swarajya Party-Justice Party coalition Government, the Governor stepped in to foster discord amongst the opposition. In order to obtain the support of the Raja of Panagal,he appointed Krishnan Nair, a leading member of the Justice Party as his Law Member.[15] Led by the Raja of Panagal, the Justice Party switched sides and lent its support to the Subbarayan government. Soon afterwards, the Justice Party passed a resolution welcoming the Simon Commission.[16] The Simon Commission visited Madras on 28 February 1928[16] and 18 February 1929[17] and was boycotted by the Swarajya Party and the Indian National Congress. However, the Justicites and the Subbarayan Government accorded the Commission a warm reception.[17]

In the 1930 elections, due to the non-participation of the Indian National Congress and the Swarajya Party, the Justice Party won an overwhelming majority and was voted to power. Subbarayan was succeeded as Chief Minister by Munuswamy Naidu.[18]

Reforms[edit]

The Raja of Panagal government had introduced the Communal Government Order (G. O. No. 613) in 1921 which introduced reservations in the Presidency.[19] However, the provisions of this act were not implemented till 1927. The Subbarayan government, therefore, introduced the Communal G. O. Ms No. 1021 to implement the 1921 order.[19][20][21] The act was introduced by S. Muthiah Mudaliar, the Education Minister in Subbarayan's cabinet on 11 April 1927.[20] This act, it is believed, introduced provisions for reservations for Dalits and increased representation for Indian Christians and Muslims.[22] At the same time, it reduced the reservations for Brahmins from 22% to 16% and non-Brahmins from 48% to 42%.[22] This act was in effect till India's independence on 15 August 1947.

Subbarayan introduced the Madras District Municipalities Act and Local Boards Act during his tenure.[21] The Annamalai University, founded by Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar was opened by Subbarayan in Chettinad in 1929.[23] The Annamalai University is the first residential university in Madras Presidency.[23]

From 1930 to 1937[edit]

Subbarayan was re-elected as an independent to the Madras Legislative Council in 1930. As a member of the legislature, Subbarayan was instrumental in introducing prohibition in Salem district in 1930. Prohibition was enforced in Salem till 1943 when it was scrapped by the British. In 1932, C. S. Ranga Iyer passed the Untouchability Abolition Bill in the Imperial Legislative Council.[24] On 1 November 1932, Subbarayan proposed the Temple Entry Bill which permitted low-caste Hindus and Dalits enter Hindu temples and made their prohibition illegal and punishable.[25][26][27] He also passed a copy of the resolution and the proceedings of the Council to Mahatma Gandhi who was in jail.[28] The Viceroy, however, refused permission explaining that temple entry was an all-India problem and should not be dealt with in a provincial basis even while clearing Ranga Iyer's bill.[29] The Temple Entry Bill was not passed until the Indian National Congress came to power in 1937.[25] Subbarayan had been a follower of Mahatma Gandhi from his early days[26] and he officially joined the Indian National Congress in 1933[26] He also served as the President of the Tamil Nadu Harijan Sevak Sangh.[26]

In the state cabinet and the Quit India Movement[edit]

Subbarayan was an admirer of Indian National Congress leader Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (Rajaji) right from his early days.[26] Rajaji had been his personal lawyer in property cases. In 1937, when the Indian National Congress swept to power in the Madras Presidency and Rajaji took over as the Chief Minister of the Presidency, he appointed Subbarayan the Minister of Law and Education.[2][3][30][31][32][33] Subbarayan resigned along with other members of the Rajaji cabinet when war was declared in 1939.[3] Subbarayan also served as the President of the Board of Control for Cricket in India from 1937–38 to 1945–46.[34]

Subbarayan actively participated in the Quit India Movement and was arrested along with other Congress leaders as Sathyamurthy and M. Bakthavatsalam.

In 1947, he served as a Minister for Home and Police in the Ramaswamy Reddiar Cabinet in Madras[2][3] and was a member of the Constituent Assembly of India[2][35] He served as a member of the Provincial COnstitution Committee.[36]

India's Ambassador to Indonesia[edit]

From 1949 to 1951, Subbarayan served as independent India's first ambassador to Indonesia.[3][37] He was instrumental in the signing of a mutual treaty of friendship with the Indonesian Foreign Minister Mohammed Roem on 3 March 1951.[38][39] Subbarayan's tenure came to an end in 1951 and he was succeeded by Alagappan.[37]

On his return to India, Subbarayan was elected President of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee (TNCC).[40]

Member of Indian Parliament[edit]

Subbarayan also served as a member of Rajya Sabha from 1954 to 1957.[3] In 1957, Subbarayan was elected to the Lok Sabha from Tiruchengode and served as a member till 1962.[41][42] He was elected again in 1962[43] but was instead made Governor of Maharashtra.[42]

Subbarayan was a member of the First Official Language Commission constituted by Prime minister Nehru on 7 June 1955, under the chairmanship of B. G. Kher. The commission delivered its report on 31 July 1956. It recommended a number of steps to eventually replace English with Hindi as the sole official language of India. Subbarayan and another member – Suniti Kumar Chatterji from West Bengal – did not agree with its findings and added dissenting notes to the report.[44][45] Later when the Indian President Rajendra Prasad sought his opinion on making Hindi as the sole official language, Subbarayan advised against it.[46][47]

In the Union cabinet[edit]

Subbarayan served as the Minister of Transport and Communications in the Government of India union cabinet from 1959[48] to 1962.[49][50][51]

Other interests[edit]

Subbarayan took a keen interest in sports during his lifetime. He wrote numerous articles on cricket[52] and was the Founder-President of the Indian Cricket Federation, the first association in the Madras Presidency to represent Indian cricketing interests. He also served as the President of the Board of Control for Cricket in India during the Second World War.[34] With Sir John Beaumont and Sikandar Hayat Khan, he formed the commission that investigated the return of Lala Amarnath from the India's tour of England in 1936. He also served as the President of the Madras Olympic Association and the Madras Hockey Association.[53]

Death[edit]

Subbarayan died at the age of 73 on 6 October 1962.[54]

Family and legacy[edit]

Subbarayan married Kailash Radhabai Kulmud,[3] a Mangalorean Brahmo of Brahmin parentage,[10][55] who was his colleague in Presidency College, Madras, by Brahmo rites despite opposition from family members. Radhabai Subbarayan was an active campaigner for women's rights and served as a member of the Indian parliament.

Subbarayan's eldest son Mohan Kumaramangalam was a minister in Indira Gandhi’s cabinet.[12] His second son, General P. P. Kumaramangalam was a Second World War veteran and served as India's Chief of Army staff. A third son Gopal Kumaramangalam headed important public sector undertakings. Mohan's son and Subbarayan's grandson Rangarajan Kumaramangalam was a minister in Indian National Congress and NDA governments.[12] Subbarayan's daughter Parvathi Krishnan was a politician belonging to the Communist Party of India. She was a Member of the Rajya Sabha from 1954 to 1957 and represented Coimbatore in the Lok Sabha three times.[56]

A portrait of Subbarayan was unveiled in the central hall of the Indian Parliament on 16 October 1989.[26][57]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kohli, A. B. (1988). Directory of Union Ministers, 1947–1987. Reliance Pub. House. p. 122. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Dictionary of Indian Biography. Indian Bibliographic Centre. 200. p. 438. ISBN 8185131155, ISBN 978-81-85131-15-3. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Rajya Sabha Who's Who". Rajya Sabha. Retrieved 2009-01-04. [dead link]
  4. ^ a b The Times of India Directory and Year Book, Including Who's who. Bennett, Coleman & Co. 1965. p. 775. 
  5. ^ a b c The Congress in Tamilnad: Nationalist Politics in South India, 1919–1937. Manohar. 1977. p. 236. ISBN 0908070004, ISBN 978-0-908070-00-8. 
  6. ^ a b c The Social Service Quarterly. Bombay: Social Service League. 1961. p. 32. 
  7. ^ Chatterjee, Ramananda (1941). The Modern Review. Prabasi Press Private, Ltd. p. 280. 
  8. ^ Panikkar, Kavalam Madhava (1954). Sardar K.M. Panikkar: Shashtyabdapoorthy Souvenir. Mathrubhumi Press. p. 92. 
  9. ^ The India Office and Burma Office List. Harrison and Sons,Ltd. 1922. p. 78. 
  10. ^ a b c South Indian Celebrities, Pg 101
  11. ^ a b c Encyclopedia of Political Parties, Pg 189
  12. ^ a b c "Kumaramangalam family's role in development remembered". The Hindu. 17 October 2004. 
  13. ^ a b c Encyclopedia of Political Parties, Pg 190
  14. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Political Parties, Pg 191
  15. ^ a b c d Encyclopedia of Political Parties, Pg 192
  16. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Political Parties, Pg 193
  17. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Political Parties, Pg 194
  18. ^ Encyclopedia of Political Parties, Pg 196
  19. ^ a b "Tamil Nadu swims against the tide". The Statesman. Retrieved 2009-01-05. [dead link]
  20. ^ a b Murugan, N. (9 October 2006). "RESERVATION (Part-2)". National. Retrieved 2009-01-05. 
  21. ^ a b South Indian Celebrities, Pg 107
  22. ^ a b Jaffrelot, Christophe (2003). India's silent revolution: Rise of lower castes in North India. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 175. ISBN 978-1-85065-670-8. 
  23. ^ a b "About University". Annamalai University. Retrieved 2009-01-05. 
  24. ^ Keer, Dhananjay (1971). Dr. Ambedkar: Life and Mission. Popular Prakashan. p. 225. ISBN 8171542379, ISBN 978-81-7154-237-6. 
  25. ^ a b Mohan, Pullam Ethiraj (1993). Scheduled Castes, History of Elevation, Tamil Nadu, 1900–1955: History of Elevation, Tamil Nadu, 1900–1955. New Era Publications. p. 132. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f Bakshi, Sri Ram; Om Prakash Ralhan (2008). Madhya Pradesh Through the Ages. Sarup & Sons. p. 136. ISBN 8176258067, ISBN 978-81-7625-806-7. 
  27. ^ South Indian Celebrities, Pg 108
  28. ^ Thangavelu, G.; K. Veeramani (1990). Social Justice in Tamilnadu. Fest[s]chrift Committee for Prof. G. Thangavelu, School of Historical Studies, Madurai Kamarajar University. p. 8. 
  29. ^ Keer, Dhananjay (1971). Dr. Ambedkar: Life and Mission. Popular Prakashan. p. 232. ISBN 8171542379, ISBN 978-81-7154-237-6. 
  30. ^ Parthasarathi, R. (1982). K. Kamaraj. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India. p. 22. 
  31. ^ Kesavan, C. R. (2003). Unfolding Rajaji. Madras: East West Books. p. 33. 
  32. ^ Ramanujam, K. S. (1967). The big change. Higginbotham's. p. 218. 
  33. ^ Bakshi, Sri Ram (1992). V.V. Giri: The Labour Leader. p. 259. ISBN 8170414938, ISBN 978-81-7041-493-3. 
  34. ^ a b "Presidents of the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI)". Retrieved 2008-12-11. 
  35. ^ Rao, B. Shiva; V. K. N. Menon; Subhash C. Kashyap; N. K. N. Iyengar (1966). The Framing of India's Constitution. Bombay: Indian Institute of Public Administration. p. 302. 
  36. ^ Rao, B. Shiva; V. K. N. Menon; Subhash C. Kashyap; N. K. N. Iyengar (1960). The Framing of India's Constitution. Indian Institute of Public Administration. p. 453. 
  37. ^ a b "Previous Indian Ambassador's to Indonesia". Embassy of India, Jakarta. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 
  38. ^ "TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN INDIA AND THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA". India's Ministry of External Affairs. 1951. Retrieved 2008-12-18. [dead link]
  39. ^ "India and Indonesia: Treaty of Friendship" (PDF). United Nations Treaty Collection. United Nations. Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
  40. ^ Nalanda Year-book & Who's who in India: An Indian and International Annual of Current Statistics, Events and Personalities. 1951. p. 738. 
  41. ^ "Statistical Reports of the general elections 1957 to the First LokSabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  42. ^ a b Singh, H. D. (1996). 543 Faces of India: Guide to 543 Parliamentary Constituencies. Newmen Publishers. p. 248. 
  43. ^ "Statistical Reports of the general elections 1962 to the First LokSabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  44. ^ Simpson, Andrew (2007). Language and national identity in Asia. Oxford University Press. p. 71. ISBN 0199267480, ISBN 978-0-19-926748-4. 
  45. ^ Kumar, Virendra (1993). Committees and commissions in India. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 53–66. ISBN 81-7596-312-3 ISBN 9788175963122. 
  46. ^ Prasad, Rajendra; Valmiki Choudhary (1992). Dr. Rajendra Prasad: Correspondence and Select Documents : Presidency Period. Allied Publishers. p. 125. ISBN 8170233437, ISBN 978-81-7023-343-5. 
  47. ^ Amarjit, S. Narang (1995). Ethnic Identities and Federalism. Indian Institute of Advanced Study. p. 154. 
  48. ^ Eminent Indians who was Who, 1900–1980, Also Annual Diary of Events. Durga Das Pvt. Ltd. 1985. p. 329. 
  49. ^ The Europa Year Book. Europa Publications Limited. 1961. p. 573. 
  50. ^ Great Britain Office of Commonwealth Relations (1960). The Commonwealth Relations Office List. H. M. Stationer Office. p. 175. 
  51. ^ C.P. 1959. p. 33. 
  52. ^ Natesan, G. A. (1939). The Indian Review. G.A. Natesan & Co. p. 276. 
  53. ^ Bakshi, Sri Ram; Om Prakash Ralhan (2008). Madhya Pradesh Through the Ages. Sarup & Sons. p. 137. ISBN 8176258067, ISBN 978-81-7625-806-7. 
  54. ^ The Social Service Quarterly. Bombay: Social Service League. 1961. p. 32. 
  55. ^ Rajannan, Busnagi (1992). Salem Cyclopedia: A Cultural and Historical Dictionary of Salem District, Tamil Nadu. Institute of Kongu Studies. p. 140. 
  56. ^ "Biographical sketch of Rajya Sabha members". Rajya Sabha. Retrieved 2009-01-04. [dead link]
  57. ^ The Journal of Parliamentary Information. India Parliament. Lok Sabha. 1989. p. 481. 

References[edit]

  • Ralhan, O. P. (2002). Encyclopaedia of Political Parties. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. ISBN 978-81-7488-865-5. 
  • Balasubramaniam, K. M. (1934). South Indian Celebrities Vol 1. Madras: Solden & Co. pp. 90–109. 

See also[edit]

Preceded by
Member of the Madras Legislative Council
1922 – 1939
1947 – 1948
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Raja of Panagal
Chief Minister of Madras Presidency
4 December 1926 – 27 October 1930
Succeeded by
P. Munuswamy Naidu
Preceded by
Minister of Law and Education (Madras Presidency)
1937–1939
Succeeded by
Governor's rule
Preceded by
Jamsahib Digvijaysinh of Nawanagar
President of the Board of Control for Cricket in India
1937/38 – 1945/46
Succeeded by
Anthony De Mello
Preceded by
T. Prakasam
Minister of Home and Police (Madras Presidency)
24 March 1947 – 5 April 1948
Succeeded by
Omandur Ramaswamy Reddiar
Preceded by
None
India's Ambassador to Indonesia
1949–1951
Succeeded by
Alagappan
Preceded by
Member of Indian Parliament (Rajya Sabha)
1954–1957
Succeeded by
Preceded by
S. K. Baby
Member of Indian Parliament (Lok Sabha) for Tiruchengode
1957–1962
Succeeded by
K. Anbazhagan