p21

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This article is about the p21/waf1 protein. For the p21/ras protein see Ras. For other uses, see P21 (disambiguation)
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)
PDB 1axc EBI.jpg
Structure of the C-terminal region of p21(WAF1/CIP1) complexed with human PCNA.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols CDKN1A ; CAP20; CDKN1; CIP1; MDA-6; P21; SDI1; WAF1; p21CIP1
External IDs OMIM116899 MGI104556 HomoloGene333 ChEMBL: 5021 GeneCards: CDKN1A Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CDKN1A 202284 s at.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 1026 12575
Ensembl ENSG00000124762 ENSMUSG00000023067
UniProt P38936 P39689
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000389 NM_001111099
RefSeq (protein) NP_000380 NP_001104569
Location (UCSC) Chr 6:
36.64 – 36.66 Mb
Chr 17:
29.09 – 29.1 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

p21 / WAF1 / CIP1 also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDKN1A gene located on chromosome 6 (6p21.2).[1][2][3]

Function[edit]

p21 is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI). The p21 (CIP1/WAF1) protein binds to and inhibits the activity of cyclin-CDK2, -CDK1, and -CDK4/6 complexes, and thus functions as a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1 and S phase.[4] In addition to growth arrest, p21 can mediate cellular senescence. One of the ways it was discovered was as a senescent cell-derived inhibitor.

The expression of this gene is tightly controlled by the tumor suppressor protein p53, through which this protein mediates the p53-dependent cell cycle G1 phase arrest in response to a variety of stress stimuli.[5] This was a major discovery in the early 1990s that revealed how cells stop dividing after being exposed to damaging agents such as radiation.

Studies of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) commonly report the nonfunctional p53-p21 axis of the G1/S checkpoint pathway, and its relevance for cell cycle regulation and the DNA damage response (DDR). p21 mRNA is clearly present and upregulated after the DDR in hESCs, but p21 protein is not detectable. In this cell type, p53 activates numerous microRNAs (like miR-302a, miR-302b, miR-302c, and miR-302d) that directly inhibit the p21 expression in hESCs.[6]

p21 can also interact with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair. This protein was reported to be specifically cleaved by CASP3-like caspases, which thus leads to a dramatic activation of CDK2, and may be instrumental in the execution of apoptosis following caspase activation. However p21 may inhibit apoptosis and does not induce cell death on its own.[7] Two alternatively spliced variants, which encode an identical protein, have been reported.

Sometimes p21 is expressed without being induced by p53. This kind of induction plays a big role in p53 independent differentiation which is promoted by p21. Expression of p21 is mainly dependent on two factors 1) stimulus provided 2) type of the cell. Growth arrest by p21 can promote cellular differentiation. p21 therefore prevents cell proliferation.

Despite regulation by tumor suppressor gene p53, loss-of-function mutations in p21 (unlike p53) do not accumulate in cancer nor do they predispose to cancer incidence. Mice genetically engineered to lack p21 develop normally and are not susceptible to cancer at a higher rate than wild-type mice (unlike p53 knockout mice).

Mice that lack the p21 gene gain the ability to regenerate lost appendages.[8]

Clinical significance[edit]

p21 mediates the resistance of hematopoietic cells to an infection with HIV[9] by complexing with the HIV integrase and thereby aborting chromosomal integration of the provirus. HIV infected individuals who naturally suppress viral replication have elevated levels of p21 and its associated mRNA. p21 expression affects at least two stages in the HIV life cycle inside CD4 T cells, significantly limiting production of new viruses.[10]

Metastatic canine mammary tumors display increased levels of p21 in the primary tumors but also in their metastases, despite increased cell proliferation.[11][12]

Interactions[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Entrez Gene: CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)". 
  2. ^ a b Harper JW, Adami GR, Wei N, Keyomarsi K, Elledge SJ (November 1993). "The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases". Cell 75 (4): 805–16. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90499-G. PMID 8242751. 
  3. ^ el-Deiry WS, Tokino T, Velculescu VE, Levy DB, Parsons R, Trent JM, Lin D, Mercer WE, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B (November 1993). "WAF1, a potential mediator of p53 tumor suppression". Cell 75 (4): 817–25. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90500-P. PMID 8242752. 
  4. ^ Gartel AL, Radhakrishnan SK (May 2005). "Lost in transcription: p21 repression, mechanisms, and consequences". Cancer Res. 65 (10): 3980–5. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-3995. PMID 15899785. 
  5. ^ Rodriguez R, Meuth M (January 2006). "Chk1 and p21 cooperate to prevent apoptosis during DNA replication fork stress". Mol. Biol. Cell 17 (1): 402–12. doi:10.1091/mbc.E05-07-0594. PMC 1345677. PMID 16280359. 
  6. ^ Dolezalova D, Mraz M, Barta T, Plevova K, Vinarsky V, Holubcova Z, Jaros J, Dvorak P, Pospisilova S, Hampl A.. MicroRNAs regulate p21(Waf1/Cip1) protein expression and the DNA damage response in human embryonic stem cells.. Stem Cells. 2012;7:1362-72.. doi:10.1002/stem.1108.. PMID 22511267.
  7. ^ Almond JB, Cohen GM (April 2002). "The proteasome: a novel target for cancer chemotherapy". Leukemia 16 (4): 433–43. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2402417. PMID 11960320. 
  8. ^ Bedelbaeva K, Snyder A, Gourevitch D, Clark L, Zhang X-M, Leferovich J, Cheverud JM, Lieberman P, Heber-Katz E (March 2010). "Lack of p21 expression links cell cycle control and appendage regeneration in mice". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (11): 5845–50. doi:10.1073/pnas.1000830107. PMC 2851923. PMID 20231440. Lay summaryPhysOrg.com. 
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  10. ^ Chen H, Li C, Huang J, Cung T, Seiss K, Beamon J, Carrington MF, Porter LC, Burke PS, Yang Y, Ryan BJ, Liu R, Weiss RH, Pereyra F, Cress WD, Brass AL, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Yu Xu G, Lichterfeld (April 2011). "CD4+ T cells from elite controllers resist HIV-1 infection by selective upregulation of p21". Journal of Clinical Investigation 121 (4). doi:10.1172/JCI44539. Lay summaryHarvard Gazette. 
  11. ^ Klopfleisch R, Gruber AD (August 2009). "Differential expression of cell cycle regulators p21, p27 and p53 in metastasizing canine mammary adenocarcinomas versus normal mammary glands". Res. Vet. Sci. 87 (1): 91–6. doi:10.1016/j.rvsc.2008.12.010. PMID 19185891. 
  12. ^ Klopfleisch R, von Euler H, Sarli G, Pinho SS, Gärtner F, Gruber AD. (2010). "Molecular Carcinogenesis of Canine Mammary Tumors: News From an Old Disease". Veterinary Pathology 228 (1): 91–96. doi:10.1177/0300985810390826. PMID 21149845. 
  13. ^ Chen W, Sun Z, Wang XJ, Jiang T, Huang Z, Fang D, Zhang DD (June 2009). "Direct interaction between Nrf2 and p21(Cip1/WAF1) upregulates the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response". Mol. Cell. 34 (6): 663–73. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2009.04.029. PMID 19560419. 
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  15. ^ Mitsui K, Matsumoto A, Ohtsuka S, Ohtsubo M, Yoshimura A (October 1999). "Cloning and characterization of a novel p21(Cip1/Waf1)-interacting zinc finger protein, ciz1". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 264 (2): 457–64. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1999.1516. PMID 10529385. 
  16. ^ a b c Abbas T, Sivaprasad U, Terai K, Amador V, Pagano M, Dutta A (September 2008). "PCNA-dependent regulation of p21 ubiquitylation and degradation via the CRL4Cdt2 ubiquitin ligase complex". Genes Dev. 22 (18): 2496–506. doi:10.1101/gad.1676108. PMC 2546691. PMID 18794347. 
  17. ^ a b McKenzie PP, Danks MK, Kriwacki RW, Harris LC (July 2003). "P21Waf1/Cip1 dysfunction in neuroblastoma: a novel mechanism of attenuating G0-G1 cell cycle arrest". Cancer Res. 63 (13): 3840–4. PMID 12839982. 
  18. ^ Law BK, Chytil A, Dumont N, Hamilton EG, Waltner-Law ME, Aakre ME, Covington C, Moses HL (December 2002). "Rapamycin potentiates transforming growth factor beta-induced growth arrest in nontransformed, oncogene-transformed, and human cancer cells". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (23): 8184–98. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.23.8184-8198.2002. PMC 134072. PMID 12417722. 
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  20. ^ Zhao H, Jin S, Antinore MJ, Lung FD, Fan F, Blanck P, Roller P, Fornace AJ, Zhan Q (July 2000). "The central region of Gadd45 is required for its interaction with p21/WAF1". Exp. Cell Res. 258 (1): 92–100. doi:10.1006/excr.2000.4906. PMID 10912791. 
  21. ^ Yang Q, Manicone A, Coursen JD, Linke SP, Nagashima M, Forgues M, Wang XW (November 2000). "Identification of a functional domain in a GADD45-mediated G2/M checkpoint". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (47): 36892–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005319200. PMID 10973963. 
  22. ^ Azam N, Vairapandi M, Zhang W, Hoffman B, Liebermann DA (January 2001). "Interaction of CR6 (GADD45gamma ) with proliferating cell nuclear antigen impedes negative growth control". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (4): 2766–74. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005626200. PMID 11022036. 
  23. ^ Nakayama K, Hara T, Hibi M, Hirano T, Miyajima A (August 1999). "A novel oncostatin M-inducible gene OIG37 forms a gene family with MyD118 and GADD45 and negatively regulates cell growth". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (35): 24766–72. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.35.24766. PMID 10455148. 
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  29. ^ Gulbis JM, Kelman Z, Hurwitz J, O'Donnell M, Kuriyan J (October 1996). "Structure of the C-terminal region of p21(WAF1/CIP1) complexed with human PCNA". Cell 87 (2): 297–306. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81347-1. PMID 8861913. 
  30. ^ Touitou R, Richardson J, Bose S, Nakanishi M, Rivett J, Allday MJ (May 2001). "A degradation signal located in the C-terminus of p21WAF1/CIP1 is a binding site for the C8 alpha-subunit of the 20S proteasome". EMBO J. 20 (10): 2367–75. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.10.2367. PMC 125454. PMID 11350925. 
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Further reading[edit]

  • Marone M, Bonanno G, Rutella S, et al. (2003). "Survival and cell cycle control in early hematopoiesis: role of bcl-2, and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors P27 and P21.". Leuk. Lymphoma 43 (1): 51–7. doi:10.1080/10428190210195. PMID 11908736. 
  • Fang JY, Lu YY (2002). "Effects of histone acetylation and DNA methylation on p21( WAF1) regulation.". World J. Gastroenterol. 8 (3): 400–5. PMID 12046058. 
  • Tokumoto M, Tsuruya K, Fukuda K, et al. (2003). "Parathyroid cell growth in patients with advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism: vitamin D receptor and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27.". Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 18 Suppl 3: iii9–12. PMID 12771291. 
  • Amini S, Khalili K, Sawaya BE (2004). "Effect of HIV-1 Vpr on cell cycle regulators.". DNA Cell Biol. 23 (4): 249–60. doi:10.1089/104454904773819833. PMID 15142382. 
  • Zhang Z, Wang H, Li M, et al. (2006). "Novel MDM2 p53-independent functions identified through RNA silencing technologies.". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1058: 205–14. doi:10.1196/annals.1359.030. PMID 16394138. 

External links[edit]