P2 (panel building)
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P2 is the abbreviation for the type of a residential panel building in former East Germany. The "P" stands for parallel, the load-bearing walls are arranged parallel to the wall surfaces and the "2" refers to the arrangement of two stairways in a building. The first house of this type of industrial building was built in 1961 as an experimental building in Berlin-Lichtenberg . The house is located in the Erich Kuttner, 9-15 in the district Fennpfuhl and now a listed building.
Stairs and arrangement of dwellings
Characteristic of this type is the arrangement of the apartments to an inner, nearly square , often equipped with a glass roof stairwell. The houses have five to eleven storeys. There are usually two per floor apartments, but there are also variations of this type of house with three apartments per floor above and below the stairwell access was implemented.
As a standard design, the P2 is five or six stories, whereby the ground floor is half a storey up from the ground. This allows natural light and ventilation to the basement, and the minimization of the excavation in the ground at the foundation of the buildings. The development of the buildings is, therefore, either via outside stairs, and / or a half-staircase in the entrance area. The staircase and its necessary development requires a reduction of area of a ground floor apartment. For the symmetric three-bedroom apartments on the upper floors was therefore, a 4-room and a one-bedroom apartment created. The lack of room has been designed as a hallway.
For buildings over six stories P2, there are three floors called a distributor gear. This is due to the input side of the building is the entrances to stairwells, elevators, waste discharge and closets. The apartments above or below the manifold transitions are not directly from the elevator, but each with a staircase up or down to achieve. Typically, the distributor gears are in the following order:
- P2/10 (with 10 storeys): 1st, 3rd, 6th and ninth Floor
- P2/11 (with 11 storeys): 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th Basement. In the 7th There is a basement level with evacuation passage that represents a connection to a neighboring building and as an escape route is used.
Was the standard equipment with 1 - to 4-room apartments. For houses with special elements, such as trapezoidal shape, there are also 5-room apartments, of which two rooms no right angles in plan.
Kitchens and Baths
A novelty was the bathrooms and kitchens of the houses inside and basically lay side by side, so that they could use a common utility shaft for water, waste and vent area and thus was saved.
There should be no kitchen type, which requires a long ways and spatially separates the family. Furthermore, living space and should therefore cost savings. The basic idea was to integrate women more effectively into the family, because the kitchen was designed to open to the living room. The man should therefore be encouraged to participate in the household. Life should no longer play at the stove, but in the living room. The kitchens were initially not connected by large hatches in the form of built-in furniture to the living room. After massive criticism, the kitchen was separated from the living room is not enough, we later used concrete walls with a small hatch window, with the last built apartments of the type, the kitchen was completely separated by a wall from the living room. Daylight she was only indirectly through the door or just the hatch.
For the first time came for the baths fully equipped sanitary room modules (toilet, sink, tub, faucets for bathroom and kitchen, washing machine connection, vertical supply and disposal lines) used in the piece on the carcass were collected. To install only the connection of the pipes at ground level was necessary. The walls of the service shaft were made of different materials. They range from press board over plaster walls full to massive concrete elements.
- Finished parts in the load level to 5.0 t
- Grid 6 m × 6 m
- Building depth (standard) 12 m
- Storey height from 2.60 to 2.80 m
- Number of floors: 5 to 11 - with retail and office floors and 14
- Susanne Hopf, Natalja Meier: Plattenbau Privat. 60 Interieurs. Nicolai, Berlin 2004. ISBN 3-89479-130-6 (Panel Private. 60 interiors.)
- Roland Sink: neues leben – neues wohnen - Der Muster- und Experimentalbau P 2 in Berlin-Lichtenberg. In: Der Bär von Berlin, Jahrbuch des Vereins für die Geschichte Berlins, 54.2005, S. 153-166. ISSN 0522-0033 (new life - new live - The model and experimental building P 2 in Berlin-Lichtenberg. In: The Bear of Berlin, Yearbook of the Association for the History of Berlin,) 54.2005, p. 153-166. ISSN 0522-0033