The arts are a vast subdivision of culture, composed of many creative endeavors and disciplines. It is a broader term than "art", which as a description of a field usually means only the visual arts. The arts encompass the visual arts, the literary arts and the performing arts – music, theatre, dance and film, among others. This list is by no means comprehensive, but only meant to introduce the concept of the arts. For all intents and purposes, the history of the arts begins with the history of art. The arts might have origins in early human evolutionary prehistory. According to a recent suggestion, several forms of audio and visual arts (rhythmic singing and drumming on external objects, dancing, body and face painting) were developed very early in hominid evolution by the forces of natural selection in order to reach an altered state of consciousness. In this state, which Jordania calls battle trance, hominids and early human were losing their individuality, and were acquiring a new collective identity, where they were not feeling fear or pain, and were religiously dedicated to the group interests, in total disregards of their individual safety and life. This state was needed to defend early hominids from predators, and also to help to obtain food by aggressive scavenging. Ritualistic actions involving heavy rhythmic music, rhythmic drill, coupled sometimes with dance and body painting had been universally used in traditional cultures before the hunting or military sessions in order to put them in a specific altered state of consciousness and raise the morale of participants.
Ancient Greek art saw the veneration of the animal form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty and anatomically correct proportions. Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans, shown with characteristic distinguishing features (i.e. Zeus' thunderbolt). In Byzantine and Gothic art of the Middle Ages, the dominance of the church insisted on the expression of biblical and not material truths. Eastern art has generally worked in a style akin to Western medieval art, namely a concentration on surface patterning and local colour (meaning the plain colour of an object, such as basic red for a red robe, rather than the modulations of that colour brought about by light, shade and reflection). A characteristic of this style is that the local colour is often defined by an outline (a contemporary equivalent is the cartoon). This is evident in, for example, the art of India, Tibet and Japan. Religious Islamic art forbids iconography, and expresses religious ideas through geometry instead. The physical and rational certainties depicted by the 19th-century Enlightenment were shattered not only by new discoveries of relativity by Einstein and of unseen psychology by Freud, but also by unprecedented technological development. Paradoxically the expressions of new technologies were greatly influenced by the ancient tribal arts of Africa and Oceania, through the works of Paul Gauguin and the Post-Impressionists, Pablo Picasso and the Cubists, as well as the Futurists and others.
is an interactive work of public art and video sculpture
featured in Chicago
's Millennium Park
. Designed by Catalan
artist Jaume Plensa
and executed by Krueck and Sexton
Architects, it opened in July 2004
. The fountain is composed of a black granite reflecting pool
placed between a pair of glass brick
towers. The towers are 50 feet (15.2 m) tall, and they use light-emitting diodes
to display digital videos on their inward faces. Weather permitting, the water operates from May to October, intermittently cascading down the two towers and spouting through a nozzle on each tower's front face. The fountain highlights Plensa's themes of dualism
, light, and water, extending the use of video technology from his prior works. Crown Fountain
has been the most controversial of all the Millennium Park features. Before it was even built, some were concerned that the sculpture's height violated the aesthetic tradition of the park. The fountain has survived its somewhat contentious beginnings to find its way into Chicago pop culture. It is a popular subject for photographers and a common gathering place. The fountain is a public play area and offers people an escape from summer heat, allowing children to frolic in the fountain's water.
"After the war, a medal and maybe a job", an anti-World War I editorial cartoon showing a soldier who is missing the lower half of his body dragging himself along with his hands, with his intestines trailing behind him. A fat capitalist sitting in a chair offers him a medal for his service.
- 6 July 1845 – Soprano Ángela Peralta, a leading figure in the operatic life of 19th century Mexico, is born in Mexico City
- 11 July 1561 – Spanish lyric poet Luis de Góngora, the author of La Fábula de Polifemo y Galatea, is born in Córdoba
- 14 July 1910 – The influential French ballet master and choreographer Marius Petipa dies in the Crimean resort of Gurzuf at the age of 92
- 25 July 1723 – Herr, gehe nicht ins Gericht mit deinem Knecht (Lord, do not pass judgment on Your servant), a sacred cantata composed by Johan Sebastian Bach, is performed for the first time
- 27 July 1946 – Gertrude Stein (pictured), American writer, poet and art collector dies in Neuilly-sur-Seine at the age of 72
was an English
emigrant to New Zealand
, where he became one of that country's most prominent 19th-century architects
. He was instrumental in shaping the city of Christchurch
. He was appointed the first official Provincial Architect of the developing province of Canterbury
. Heavily influenced by the Anglo-Catholic
philosophy behind early Victorian architecture he is credited with importing the Gothic revival
style to New Zealand. His Gothic designs constructed in both wood and stone in the province are considered to be unique to New Zealand. Today he is considered the founding architect of the province of Canterbury.
- Parent project
- Descendant projects