is a North American
country consisting of ten provinces and three territories
. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean
in the east to the Pacific Ocean
in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean
. It is the world's second largest country by total area
. Canada's common border
with the United States
to the south and northwest is the longest in the world.
The land that is now Canada was inhabited for millennia by various groups of Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Canada is a federation that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. One of the world's highly developed countries, Canada has a diversified economy that is reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship. It is a member of the G8, G-20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth, Francophonie, OAS, APEC, and UN.
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The Montreal Canadiens
are a professional ice hockey
team based in Montreal
. They are members of the Northeast Division
of the Eastern Conference
of the National Hockey League
(NHL). The club is officially known as Le Club de Hockey Canadien
. French nicknames for the team include Les Canadiens
(or Le Canadien
), Le Bleu-Blanc-et-Rouge
, La Sainte-Flanelle
, Le Tricolore
, Les Glorieux
(or Nos Glorieux
), Les Habitants
and Le Grand Club
. In English, the team's main nickname is the Habs
(coming from "Les Habitants"). The French spelling Canadiens
is always used in English (never Canadians
Founded in 1909, eight years before the founding of the NHL, the Canadiens are the oldest continuously-operating professional ice hockey team and the only continuously-operating club to predate the league. On account of playing in the NHL prior to its 1967 expansion, they are considered one of the "Original Six" teams. With the departure of the Quebec Nordiques in 1995, the Canadiens are the sole NHL team in Quebec. The team's championship season in 1992-93 still marks the last time that a Canadian team won the Stanley Cup.
The Canadiens have won 24 Stanley Cups (including their first in 1916, before the NHL existed), more than any other team. On a percentage basis, as of 2008, the franchise has won 26% of all Stanley Cup championships contested after the Challenge Cup era, making it one of the most successful professional sports teams of the traditional four major sports of Canada and the United States. As of July 2008, the Boston Celtics have the highest percentage of NBA championships with 28%, and in MLB, the New York Yankees have the highest percentage with 25%.
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(December 1, 1910 – May 30, 1946) was a Canadian physicist
who took part in the Manhattan Project
. He was born and raised in the North End
. After earning both his Bachelor of Science
and Master of Science
degrees from the University of Manitoba
, Slotin attended King's College London
, where he obtained his doctorate in physical chemistry in 1936. Afterwards, he joined the University of Chicago
as a research associate to help design a cyclotron
. In 1942, he was invited to participate in the Manhattan Project.
As part of the Manhattan Project, Slotin performed experiments with uranium and plutonium cores to determine their critical mass values. After World War II, Slotin continued his research at Los Alamos National Laboratory. On May 21, 1946, Slotin accidentally began a fission reaction, which released a burst of hard radiation. He was rushed to hospital, and died nine days later on May 30, the second victim of a criticality accident in history.
Slotin was hailed as a hero by the United States government for reacting quickly enough to prevent the deaths of his colleagues. However, some physicists argue that this was a preventable accident. The accident and its aftermath have been dramatized in fiction.
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