Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a propaganda film made by Leni Riefenstahl. It chronicles the 1934 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg. The film contains excerpts from speeches given by various Nazi leaders at the Congress, including portions of speeches by Adolf Hitler, interspersed with footage of massed party members. Hitler commissioned the film and served as an unofficial executive producer; his name appears in the opening titles. The overriding theme of the film is the return of Germany as a great power, with Hitler as the True German Leader who will bring glory to the nation. Triumph of the Will was released in 1935 and rapidly became one of the better-known examples of propaganda in film history. Riefenstahl's techniques, such as moving cameras, the use of telephoto lenses to create a distorted perspective, aerial photography, and revolutionary approach to the use of music and cinematography, have earned Triumph recognition as one of the greatest films in history. Riefenstahl won several awards, not only in Germany but also in the United States, France, Sweden, and other countries. The film was popular in the Third Reich and elsewhere, and has continued to influence movies, documentaries, and commercials to this day.
Cyrenaican rebel leader Omar Mukhtar (the man in robes with a chain on his left arm) after his arrest by Italian armed forces in 1931 at the end of the Pacification of Libya, an Italian colonial campaign of repressing indigeneous Libyan resistance to Italian colonial rule that occurred from 1928 to 1932. Fascist Italy authorized the use of concentration camps, deliberate targetting of civilians, and ethnic cleansing, resulting in mass deaths of the population of the region of Cyrenaica in Libya. Fascist Italy's ethnic cleansing in Libya was aimed at allowing Italian settlers to take the territories and property formerly held by indigenous Libyans.
The Fascist accepts life and loves it, knowing nothing of and despising suicide; he rather conceives of life as duty and struggle and conquest, life which should be high and full, lived for oneself, but not above all for others -- those who are at hand and those who are far distant, contemporaries, and those who will come after.
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15 June 2009: The Italian National Guard, a vigilante group set to begin foot patrols in Northern Italy, causes controversy when it unveils its uniform in Milan, which is seen as similar to that of the blackshirts.