is a term that does not have a universally accepted definition, but which has variably included all written work; writing that possesses literary merit; and language that foregrounds literariness, as opposed to ordinary language
the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura
"writing formed with letters", although some definitions include spoken or sung texts
. Literature can be classified according to whether it is fiction
, and whether it is poetry
; it can be further distinguished according to major forms such as the novel
, short story
; and works are often categorised according to historical periods, or according to their adherence to certain aesthetic
features or expectations (genre
Literature may consist of texts based on factual information (journalistic or non-fiction), a category that may also include polemical works, biographies, and reflective essays, or it may consist of texts based on imagination (such as fiction, poetry, or drama). Literature written in poetry emphasizes the aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as sound, symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, ordinary meanings, while literature written in prose applies ordinary grammatical structure and the natural flow of speech. Literature can also be classified according to historical periods, genres, and political influences. While the concept of genre has broadened over the centuries, in general, a genre consists of artistic works that fall within a certain central theme; examples of genre include romance, mystery, crime, fantasy, erotica, and adventure, among others.
More about literature…
The Autobiography of Malcolm X
was published in 1965, the result of a collaboration between human rights activist Malcolm X
and journalist Alex Haley
. Haley coauthored
the autobiography based on a series of in-depth interviews he conducted between 1963 and Malcolm X's 1965 assassination. The Autobiography
is a spiritual conversion narrative
that outlines Malcolm X's philosophy of black pride
, black nationalism
, and pan-Africanism
. After the death of his subject Haley authored the book's epilogue, which describes their collaboration and summarizes the end of Malcolm X's life.
While Malcolm X and scholars contemporary to the book's publication regarded Haley as the book's ghostwriter, modern scholars tend to regard him as an essential collaborator who intentionally muted his authorial voice to allow readers to feel as though Malcolm X were speaking directly to them. Haley also influenced some of Malcolm X's literary choices; for example, when Malcolm X left the Nation of Islam during the composition of the book, Haley persuaded him to favor a style of "suspense and drama" rather than rewriting earlier chapters into a polemic against the Nation. Furthermore, Haley's proactive censorship of the manuscript's antisemitic material significantly influenced the ideological tone of the Autobiography, increasing its commercial success and popularity although distorting Malcolm X's public persona.
Edgar Allan Poe
(born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American author, poet, editor, and literary critic, considered part of the American Romantic Movement
. Best known for his tales of mystery
and the macabre
, Poe was one of the earliest American practitioners of the short story
, and is generally considered the inventor of the detective fiction
genre. He is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction
.He was the first well-known American writer to try to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career.
His publishing career began with an anonymous collection of poems, Tamerlane and Other Poems (1827), credited only to "a Bostonian". Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the next several years working for literary journals and periodicals, becoming known for his own style of literary criticism. His work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York City. In Baltimore in 1835, he married Virginia Clemm, his 13-year-old cousin. In January 1845 Poe published his poem, "The Raven", to instant success. His wife died of tuberculosis two years after its publication. For years, he had been planning to produce his own journal, The Penn (later renamed The Stylus), though he died before it could be produced.
||I was awakened the next morning by an eerie sense of something unreal and terrible. I fought to adjust myself, and rose on the bed to peer out. I could see nothing except a yellow mass of something plastered against the window, and I fell back on the bed. Strangely, at the same time, I had a curious sensation of being both awake and in full possession of my senses, and in the grip of some awful nightmare. I was vaguely aware of a noise outside, and finally identified it positively as Buck's raging voice. There was a heavy, nauseous scent in my nostrils, but finally I shook myself awake and leaped out of bed. Just at that moment the window shattered and the terrible, complete reality of what was outside burst upon me with all the sharpness of a stinging whip lash.
—Jim Kjelgaard, "The Fangs of Tsan-Lo"
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Guy Mannering or The Astrologer is a novel by Sir Walter Scott, published anonymously in 1815. It tells the story of Harry Bertram, the son of the Laird of Ellangowan, who is kidnapped at the age of five, and follows the fortunes and adventures of Harry and his family in subsequent years. This illustration depicts several of the main characters in a ruined hamlet, Dernclough, which serves as a recurring location in the story.
- 1694 - Hermann Samuel Reimarus, German philosopher and writer born
- 1708 - Hedwig Sophia, duchess of Holstein-Gottorp, Swedish writer died
- 1767 - John Newbery, English publisher died
- 1807 - Johann Sebastian Welhaven, Norwegian poet born
- 1849 - The execution of Fyodor Dostoevsky is canceled at the last second.
- 1869 - Edwin Arlington Robinson, American poet born
- 1870 - Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, Spanish poet and writer died
- 1876 - Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Italian poet and editor born
- 1880 - George Eliot, English writer died
- 1905 - Kenneth Rexroth, American poet born
- 1937 - Eduard Uspenskiy, Russian writer born
- 1940 - Nathanael West, American writer died
- 1943 - Beatrix Potter, English writer died
- 1989 - Samuel Beckett, Irish writer died
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