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THE LONDON TRANSPORT PORTAL
London Transport system is one of the oldest and largest public transport systems in the world. Many components of its transport system, such as the double-decker bus, the Hackney Carriage black taxi and the London Underground, are internationally recognised symbols of London.
Most transport services in London are controlled by
Transport for London (TfL), an executive agency of the Greater London Authority. TfL-controlled services include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, the London Overground, Buses and Trams, most of which accept payment by the Oyster card. TfL also administers the congestion charge zone and the low emission zone.
London has a comprehensive rail network with several major
railway stations linking to the rest of the country. International travel is possible from two international railway stations at St Pancras International and Stratford International, which connect to mainland Europe through the Eurostar service, or from one of six international airports, including Heathrow or Gatwick.
London is the starting point for a number of motorway routes. The
M25 is an orbital motorway which enables vehicles to avoid travelling through central London and is one of the busiest motorways in Europe.
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, also known as the Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway (CCE&HR) Hampstead tube, was a deep-level underground "tube" railway constructed in London by the Underground Electric Railways Company of London Limited (UERL). The company was established in 1891 but construction was much delayed while funds were found and many variations of its route were proposed before work began. Work only started after the company was taken over by American financier Charles Yerkes who raised the money needed, mainly from international investors.
When opened in 1907, the line served 16 stations and ran for a distance of 12.34 kilometres (7.67 mi) in a pair of tunnels between its southern terminus at
Charing Cross and its two northern termini at Archway and Golders Green. Later extensions took the railway to Edgware and under the River Thames to Kennington, serving a total distance of 22.84 kilometres (14.19 mi) and 23 stations.
In the 1920s, connections were made to another of London's deep-level tube railways and services on the two lines were merged to become what was later named the
Northern line. In 1933, the CCE&HR and the rest of the Underground Group was taken into public ownership. Today, the CCE&HR's tunnels and stations form the Charing Cross and Edgware branches and part of the High Barnet branch of the London Underground's Northern line.
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Edward Johnston, CBE (11 February 1872 – 26 November 1944) was a British craftsman who is regarded, with Rudolf Koch, as the father of modern calligraphy, in the form of the broad edged pen as a writing tool, a particular form of calligraphy. He was born in San José, Uruguay. Johnston started teaching at the Central School of Arts and Crafts in London's Southampton Row, where he influenced the typeface designer and sculptor Eric Gill. Then he moved on to the Royal College of Art and many students were inspired by his teachings. In 1912 Johnston followed Gill to Ditchling where he died in 1944.
He is most famous for designing the
sans-serif Johnston typeface that was used throughout the London Underground system until it was re-designed in the 1980s, as well as the famous roundel symbol used throughout the system.
He has also been credited for reviving the art of modern
penmanship and lettering single-handedly through his books and teachings. Johnston also devised the simply crafted round calligraphic handwriting style, written with a broad pen, known as the foundational hand. In 1921, students of Johnston founded the Society of Scribes & Illuminators (SSI), probably the world's foremost calligraphy society.
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