New Zealand's pre-human biodiversity exhibited high levels of endemism in its flora and fauna. The range of ancient fauna is not well-known but at least one species of non-flying terrestrial mammal existed in New Zealand around 19 Ma ago. Prior to 65 Ma ago, the fauna included dinosaurs, pterosaurs and marine reptiles.
For at least several Ma before the arrival of humans and their commensal species, the islands had no terrestrial mammals except for bats, the main component of the terrestrial fauna being insects and birds. Its flora is dominated by Gondwanan plants, comprising historically of forests, most famously the giant kauri, Agathis australis.
New Zealand has developed a national Biodiversity Action Plan to address conservation of considerable numbers of threatened flora and fauna within New Zealand.
The Cathedral Caves are a series of sea caves on the Catlins Coast in New Zealand. They are one of the most popular tourist attractions in the area. The two main caves join together within the cliff, and one has a 30 m (100 ft) high ceiling. Access to the caves from the road crosses private land, and attracts a user fee. The caves are only accessible 2 hours either side of low tide.