Technology is the making, modification or improvement, applied activity or behavior, use and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, or environmental modifications or arrangement in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications, environmental arrangement and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The word technology comes from Greek τεχνολογία (technología); from τέχνη (téchnē), meaning "art, skill, craft", and -λογία (-logía), meaning "study of-". The term can be applied either generally or to many specific areas, examples of which include construction technology, medical technology and information technology.
The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.
Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.
The CFM International CFM56
series is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines
made by CFM International
with a thrust range of 18,500 to 34,000 pound-force
(lbf) (80 to 150 kilonewtons
(kN)). CFMI is a 50–50 joint-owned company of SNECMA
and GE Aviation
. Both companies are responsible for producing components and each has its own final assembly line. The CFM56 first ran in 1974 and, despite initial political problems, is now one of the most prolific jet engine
types in the world: more than 20,000 have been built in four major variants. It is most widely used on the Boeing 737 airliner
and under military designation F108 replaced the Pratt & Whitney JT3D
engines on many KC-135 Stratotankers
in the 1980s, creating the KC-135R variant of this aircraft. It is also one of two engines used to power the Airbus A340
, the other being the Rolls-Royce Trent
. The engine is also fitted to Airbus A320 series
aircraft. Several fan blade failure incidents were experienced during the CFM56's early service, including one failure that was noted as a cause of the Kegworth air disaster
, and some variants of the engine experienced problems caused by flight through rain and hail. However, both these issues were resolved with engine modifications.
was a German Lutheran mathematician
, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. He is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion
, codified by later astronomers based on his works Astronomia nova
, Harmonices Mundi
, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy
. Before Kepler, planets' paths were computed by combinations of the circular motions of the celestial orbs
. After Kepler, astronomers shifted their attention from orbs
—paths that could be represented mathematically as an ellipse
. Kepler's laws also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton
's theory of universal gravitation
. During his career Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a Graz
seminary school, an assistant to Tycho Brahe
, the court mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II
, a mathematics teacher in Linz
, and an adviser to General Wallenstein
. He also did fundamental work in the field of optics
and helped to legitimize the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei
- Parent project
- Related projects