The VICTORIA PORTAL
Victoria is a state located in the south-eastern corner of Australia. It is the smallest mainland state in area, but the most densely populated and urbanised. Victoria shares borders with New South Wales to the north, South Australia to the west, over the Tasman Sea towards the east, New Zealand, and across Bass Strait to the south, Tasmania
Victoria began in the 1830s as a farming community when the Hentys settled at Portland, Melbourne being founded soon after. With the discovery of gold in 1851 and Victorian independence from New South Wales, it was transformed into a leading industrial and commercial centre of the nation. In 1901, it became a part of the Commonwealth of Australia. Melbourne became the economic centre of both Australia and neighbour New Zealand at the time.
The Victorian economy is the second largest in Australia, accounting for a quarter of the nation's gross domestic product. The total gross state product at current prices for Victoria was at just over A$222 billion, with a GSP per capita of A$44,443. The economy grew by 3.4% in 2004, less than the Australian average of 5.2%. Finance, insurance and property services form Victoria's largest income producing sector, while the community, social and personal services sector is the state's biggest employer. Despite the shift towards service industries, the troubled manufacturing sector remains Victoria's single largest employer and income producer.
Rail transport in Victoria
, Australia, is provided by a number of railway operators who operate over the government owned railway
lines. Victorian lines use 5 ft 3 in
) broad gauge
, with the exception of a number of standard gauge 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in
) freight and interstate lines, a few experimental 2 ft 6 in
) narrow gauge
lines, and various private logging, mining and industrial railways.
Railways were privately owned and operated, until the State Government established the vertically integrated Victorian Railways in 1883. This remained until corporatisation occurred in the 1980s, followed by privatisation in the 1990s. Passenger services today are operated by Connex Melbourne in suburban Melbourne with electric multiple units, and V/Line in regional Victoria with diesel trains. Freight services are operated by Pacific National and other private operators such as El Zorro, Specialised Container Transport and QRNational. The rail network radiates from the state capital, Melbourne, with two main interstate links to Sydney and Adelaide, as well as major lines running to regional centres, upgraded as part of the Regional Fast Rail project. The rail network reached a peak in 1942 but steadily declined, as branch and cross country lines were closed up to the 1980s.
William Arras Johnston
(26 February 1922–24 May 2007) was an Australian cricketer
who played in forty Test matches
from 1947 to 1955. A left arm pace bowler
, as well as a left arm orthodox spinner
, Johnston was best known as a spearhead of Don Bradman's
undefeated 1948 touring team, well known as "The Invincibles
". Johnston headed the wicket-taking lists in both Test and first-class
matches on the tour, and was the last Australian to take over 100 wickets on a tour of England. In recognition of his performances, he was named by Wisden
as one of its Cricketers of the Year
in 1949. The publication stated that "no Australian made a greater personal contribution to the playing success of the 1948 side".
Regarded by Bradman as Australia's greatest-ever left-arm bowler, Johnston was noted for his endurance in bowling pace with the new ball and spin when the ball had worn. He became the fastest bowler to reach 100 Test wickets in 1951–52, at the time averaging less than nineteen with the ball.