The PACMAD clade (also PACCMAD) is the closely related evolutionary group or clade of grasses within which the C4 photosynthesis pathway has evolved multiple times. Within the Poaceae or grass family, only members of this clade have C4 photosynthesis. The name of the clade comes from the first initials of the included subfamilies Panicoideae, Arundinoideae, Chloridoideae, Micrairoideae, Aristidoideae, and Danthonioideae. It is one of two large monophyletic clades within the grass family, the other being the BEP clade, consisting of the subfamilies Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, and Pooideae.
- The phylogeny of the BEP clade in grasses revisited: Evidence from the whole-genome sequences of chloroplasts Zhi-Qiang Wu, Song Ge Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62 (2012) 573–578
- Phylogeny of the Paniceae (Poaceae: Panicoideae): integrating plastid DNA sequences and morphology into a new classiﬁcation Osvaldo Morrone, Lone Aagesen, Maria A. Scataglini, Diego L. Salariato, Silvia S. Denham, Maria A. Chemisquy, Silvana M. Sede, Liliana M. Giussani, Elizabeth A. Kellogg and Fernando O. Zuloag Cladistics 28 (2012) 333–356
- Phylogenomic Analyses of Nuclear Genes Reveal the Evolutionary Relationships within the BEP Clade and the Evidence of Positive Selection in Poaceae Zhao L, Zhang N, Ma P-F, Liu Q, Li D-Z, et al. (2013) Phylogenomic Analyses of Nuclear Genes Reveal the Evolutionary Relationships within the BEP Clade and the Evidence of Positive Selection in Poaceae. PLoS ONE 8(5): e64642. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064642
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