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PARK2 co-regulated
Symbols PACRG ; GLUP; HAK005771; PARK2CRG
External IDs OMIM608427 MGI1916560 HomoloGene16212 GeneCards: PACRG Gene
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 135138 69310
Ensembl ENSG00000112530 ENSMUSG00000037196
UniProt Q96M98 Q9DAK2
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001080378 NM_027032
RefSeq (protein) NP_001073847 NP_081308
Location (UCSC) Chr 6:
163.15 – 163.74 Mb
Chr 17:
10.4 – 10.84 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Parkin coregulated gene protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PACRG gene.[1][2]

This gene encodes a protein that is conserved across metazoans. In vertebrates, this gene is linked in a head-to-head arrangement with the adjacent parkin gene, which is associated with autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson's disease. These genes are co-regulated in various tissues and they share a bi-directional promoter. Both genes are associated with susceptibility to leprosy. The parkin co-regulated gene protein forms a large molecular complex with chaperones, including heat shock proteins 70 and 90, and chaperonin components. This protein is also a component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease patients, and it suppresses unfolded Pael receptor-induced neuronal cell death. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[2]


  1. ^ West AB, Lockhart PJ, O'Farell C, Farrer MJ (Jan 2003). "Identification of a novel gene linked to parkin via a bi-directional promoter". J Mol Biol 326 (1): 11–9. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(02)01376-1. PMID 12547187. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: PACRG PARK2 co-regulated". 

Further reading[edit]

  • Schurr E, Alcaïs A, de Léséleuc L, Abel L (2006). "Genetic predisposition to leprosy: A major gene reveals novel pathways of immunity to Mycobacterium leprae". Semin. Immunol. 18 (6): 404–10. doi:10.1016/j.smim.2006.07.005. PMID 16973374. 
  • Venter JC; Adams MD; Myers EW et al. (2001). "The sequence of the human genome". Science 291 (5507): 1304–51. doi:10.1126/science.1058040. PMID 11181995. 
  • Strausberg RL; Feingold EA; Grouse LH et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241. PMID 12477932. 
  • Mira MT; Alcaïs A; Van Thuc N et al. (2003). "Chromosome 6q25 is linked to susceptibility to leprosy in a Vietnamese population". Nat. Genet. 33 (3): 412–5. doi:10.1038/ng1096. PMID 12577057. 
  • Imai Y; Soda M; Murakami T et al. (2004). "A product of the human gene adjacent to parkin is a component of Lewy bodies and suppresses Pael receptor-induced cell death". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (51): 51901–10. doi:10.1074/jbc.M309655200. PMID 14532270. 
  • Mungall AJ; Palmer SA; Sims SK et al. (2003). "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6". Nature 425 (6960): 805–11. doi:10.1038/nature02055. PMID 14574404. 
  • Ota T; Suzuki Y; Nishikawa T et al. (2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40–5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039. 
  • Mira MT; Alcaïs A; Nguyen VT et al. (2004). "Susceptibility to leprosy is associated with PARK2 and PACRG". Nature 427 (6975): 636–40. doi:10.1038/nature02326. PMID 14737177. 
  • Lockhart PJ, O'Farrell CA, Farrer MJ (2004). "It's a double knock-out! The quaking mouse is a spontaneous deletion of parkin and parkin co-regulated gene (PACRG)". Mov. Disord. 19 (1): 101–4. doi:10.1002/mds.20000. PMID 14743368. 
  • Buschman E, Skamene E (2004). "Linkage of leprosy susceptibility to Parkinson's disease genes". Int. J. Lepr. Other Mycobact. Dis. 72 (2): 169–70. doi:10.1489/1544-581X(2004)072<0169:LOLSTP>2.0.CO;2. PMID 15301585. 
  • Gerhard DS; Wagner L; Feingold EA et al. (2004). "The Status, Quality, and Expansion of the NIH Full-Length cDNA Project: The Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121–7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC 528928. PMID 15489334. 
  • Deng H; Le WD; Xie WJ et al. (2005). "Genetic analysis of parkin co-regulated gene (PACRG) in patients with early-onset parkinsonism". Neurosci. Lett. 382 (3): 297–9. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2005.03.034. PMID 15925106. 
  • Agirre X; Román-Gómez J; Vázquez I et al. (2006). "Abnormal methylation of the common PARK2 and PACRG promoter is associated with downregulation of gene expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia". Int. J. Cancer 118 (8): 1945–53. doi:10.1002/ijc.21584. PMID 16287063. 
  • Malhotra D; Darvishi K; Lohra M et al. (2006). "Association study of major risk single nucleotide polymorphisms in the common regulatory region of PARK2 and PACRG genes with leprosy in an Indian population". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 14 (4): 438–42. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201563. PMID 16391553. 
  • Lesage S; Magali P; Lohmann E et al. (2007). "Deletion of the parkin and PACRG gene promoter in early-onset parkinsonism". Hum. Mutat. 28 (1): 27–32. doi:10.1002/humu.20436. PMID 17068781. 
  • Taylor JM; Song YJ; Huang Y et al. (2007). "Parkin Co-Regulated Gene (PACRG) is regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasomal system and is present in the pathological features of Parkinsonian diseases". Neurobiol. Dis. 27 (2): 238–47. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2007.04.014. PMID 17590346. 
  • Udina IG; Kordicheva SIu; Pospelov LE et al. (2007). "[Study of the polymorphic markers--the PARK2 and PACRG genes due to the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in two districts of the Republic of Tyva]". Problemy tuberkuleza i bolezneĭ legkikh (7): 27–9. PMID 17722288.