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P21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1
Protein PAK1 PDB 1e0a.png
PDB rendering based on 1e0a.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols PAK1 ; PAKalpha
External IDs OMIM602590 MGI1339975 HomoloGene1936 IUPHAR: 2133 ChEMBL: 4600 GeneCards: PAK1 Gene
EC number
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE PAK1 209615 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 5058 18479
Ensembl ENSG00000149269 ENSMUSG00000030774
UniProt Q13153 Q9R2B2
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001128620 NM_011035
RefSeq (protein) NP_001122092 NP_035165
Location (UCSC) Chr 11:
77.03 – 77.19 Mb
Chr 7:
97.84 – 97.91 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PAK1 gene.[1][2]


PAK proteins are critical effectors that link the Rho_family_of_GTPases (Rho GTPases) to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. PAK proteins, a family of serine/threonine p21-activated kinases, include PAK1, PAK2, PAK3 and PAK4. These proteins serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac and have been implicated in a wide range of biological activities. PAK1 regulates cell motility and morphology. Alternative transcripts of this gene have been found, but their full-length natures have not yet been determined.[3]


PAK1 has been shown to interact with:


  1. ^ Brown JL, Stowers L, Baer M, Trejo J, Coughlin S, Chant J (Mar 1997). "Human Ste20 homologue hPAK1 links GTPases to the JNK MAP kinase pathway". Curr Biol 6 (5): 598–605. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00546-8. PMID 8805275. 
  2. ^ Bekri S, Adélaïde J, Merscher S, Grosgeorge J, Caroli-Bosc F, Perucca-Lostanlen D, Kelley PM, Pébusque MJ, Theillet C, Birnbaum D, Gaudray P (Apr 1998). "Detailed map of a region commonly amplified at 11q13-->q14 in human breast carcinoma". Cytogenet Cell Genet 79 (1–2): 125–31. doi:10.1159/000134699. PMID 9533029. 
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: PAK1 p21/Cdc42/Rac1-activated kinase 1 (STE20 homolog, yeast)". 
  4. ^ Zenke FT, Krendel M, DerMardirossian C, King CC, Bohl BP, Bokoch GM (Apr 2004). "p21-activated kinase 1 phosphorylates and regulates 14-3-3 binding to GEF-H1, a microtubule-localized Rho exchange factor". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (18): 18392–400. doi:10.1074/jbc.M400084200. PMID 14970201. 
  5. ^ Vadlamudi RK, Li F, Barnes CJ, Bagheri-Yarmand R, Kumar R (Feb 2004). "p41-Arc subunit of human Arp2/3 complex is a p21-activated kinase-1-interacting substrate". EMBO Rep. 5 (2): 154–60. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400079. PMC 1298990. PMID 14749719. 
  6. ^ Bagheri-Yarmand R, Mandal M, Taludker AH, Wang RA, Vadlamudi RK, Kung HJ, Kumar R (Aug 2001). "Etk/Bmx tyrosine kinase activates Pak1 and regulates tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (31): 29403–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103129200. PMID 11382770. 
  7. ^ Zang M, Hayne C, Luo Z (Feb 2002). "Interaction between active Pak1 and Raf-1 is necessary for phosphorylation and activation of Raf-1". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (6): 4395–405. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110000200. PMID 11733498. 
  8. ^ a b Seoh ML, Ng CH, Yong J, Lim L, Leung T (Mar 2003). "ArhGAP15, a novel human RacGAP protein with GTPase binding property". FEBS Lett. 539 (1-3): 131–7. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(03)00213-8. PMID 12650940. 
  9. ^ a b Zhang B, Chernoff J, Zheng Y (Apr 1998). "Interaction of Rac1 with GTPase-activating proteins and putative effectors. A comparison with Cdc42 and RhoA". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (15): 8776–82. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.15.8776. PMID 9535855. 
  10. ^ Rashid T, Banerjee M, Nikolic M (Dec 2001). "Phosphorylation of Pak1 by the p35/Cdk5 kinase affects neuronal morphology". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (52): 49043–52. doi:10.1074/jbc.M105599200. PMID 11604394. 
  11. ^ Vadlamudi RK, Bagheri-Yarmand R, Yang Z, Balasenthil S, Nguyen D, Sahin AA, den Hollander P, Kumar R (Jun 2004). "Dynein light chain 1, a p21-activated kinase 1-interacting substrate, promotes cancerous phenotypes". Cancer Cell 5 (6): 575–85. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2004.05.022. PMID 15193260. 
  12. ^ Edwards DC, Sanders LC, Bokoch GM, Gill GN (Sep 1999). "Activation of LIM-kinase by Pak1 couples Rac/Cdc42 GTPase signalling to actin cytoskeletal dynamics". Nat. Cell Biol. 1 (5): 253–9. doi:10.1038/12963. PMID 10559936. 
  13. ^ Ku GM, Yablonski D, Manser E, Lim L, Weiss A (Feb 2001). "A PAK1-PIX-PKL complex is activated by the T-cell receptor independent of Nck, Slp-76 and LAT". EMBO J. 20 (3): 457–65. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.3.457. PMC 133476. PMID 11157752. 
  14. ^ Braverman LE, Quilliam LA (Feb 1999). "Identification of Grb4/Nckbeta, a src homology 2 and 3 domain-containing adapter protein having similar binding and biological properties to Nck". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (9): 5542–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.9.5542. PMID 10026169. 
  15. ^ Bokoch GM, Wang Y, Bohl BP, Sells MA, Quilliam LA, Knaus UG (Oct 1996). "Interaction of the Nck adapter protein with p21-activated kinase (PAK1)". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (42): 25746–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.42.25746. PMID 8824201. 
  16. ^ Xia C, Ma W, Stafford LJ, Marcus S, Xiong WC, Liu M (May 2001). "Regulation of the p21-activated kinase (PAK) by a human Gbeta -like WD-repeat protein, hPIP1". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (11): 6174–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.101137298. PMC 33441. PMID 11371639. 
  17. ^ Katoh H, Negishi M (Jul 2003). "RhoG activates Rac1 by direct interaction with the Dock180-binding protein Elmo". Nature 424 (6947): 461–4. doi:10.1038/nature01817. PMID 12879077. 

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