PATCO Speedline

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PATCO Speedline
PATCO Speedline.svg
Overview
Type Rapid transit
Locale Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Camden County, New Jersey
Termini 15–16th & Locust (westbound)
Lindenwold (eastbound)
Stations 13
Daily ridership 38,000
Color on map Red
Operation
Opening February 15, 1969
Owner Delaware River Port Authority
Operator(s) Port Authority Transit Corporation
Character Underground, surface, and elevated (grade separated)
Rolling stock 121 Budd PATCO I and II electric multiple units
Technical
Line length 14.2 mi (22.9 km)
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Electrification 750 volts DC third rail
Route map

The PATCO Speedline, also known colloquially as the PATCO High Speed Line, Lindenwold High Speed Line or most commonly simply the PATCO,[1][2][3] is a rapid transit system operated by the Port Authority Transit Corporation, which runs between Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Camden County, New Jersey. The Speedline runs underground in Philadelphia, crosses the Delaware River on the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, runs underground in Camden, then runs above ground in New Jersey until the east end of the line. The Port Authority Transit Corporation and the Speedline are owned and operated by the Delaware River Port Authority. Speedline operation began on February 15, 1969, with the first trip from Lindenwold, New Jersey, to Center City, Philadelphia. The line transports over 33,000 people daily,[4] and operates 24 hours a day, one of only six U.S. rapid transit systems (the others being the New York City Subway, Staten Island Railway, the Red and Blue Lines of the Chicago 'L', the PATH lines, and certain lines of the Minneapolis-St. Paul METRO) to do so. In 2012, the system carried 10,612,897 passengers, the highest number for any of the previous ten years.[5]

History[edit]

The modern-day PATCO Speedline follows the route of several mainline railroad lines, some dating back to the 19th century. These railroads all terminated in Camden, where passengers could catch ferries across the Delaware River to Philadelphia. Early in the 20th century, the idea of a fixed Delaware River crossing connecting Camden and Philadelphia gained traction, and in 1919, the states of Pennsylvania and New Jersey formed the Delaware River Bridge Joint Commission to build a bridge between the two cities.[6] The Delaware River Bridge (now Ben Franklin Bridge) was designed to accommodate rail as well as road traffic; when it opened on July 1, 1926, it had two outboard structures beside the main roadway for rail and space for two streetcar tracks (never installed) on the main road deck. Construction of the rail line did not actually begin until 1932, and the Bridge Line opened on June 7, 1936. Relatively short, it only had four stations: 8th Street and Franklin Square in Philadelphia (the latter currently closed) and City Hall and Broadway in Camden (connecting to the Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines at Broadway).

In Philadelphia, the line used a tunnel built in 1931 to serve both Ben Franklin Bridge trains and a Broad Street Subway spur designed to serve 8th and Market and the southern part of the city center via Locust Street. The tunnel, which replaced an earlier proposal for a downtown subway loop, extended under 8th to Locust, then under Locust to 16th, but as tracks were not laid beyond 8th and Market, the first Bridge Line trains did not run beyond 8th Street into the Locust Street Subway until February 10, 1952. This section is owned by the City of Philadelphia and leased by PATCO.[7]

No sooner had the Bridge Line entered service than neighboring communities in Southern New Jersey began agitating for rapid transit extensions to serve them. To facilitate their construction, the states of New Jersey and Pennsylvania expanded the powers of the Delaware River Joint Commission, which owned the Ben Franklin Bridge and the New Jersey portion of the Bridge Line, rechristening it as the Delaware River Port Authority (DRPA) in 1951. The agency commissioned Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Hall and MacDonald (now Parsons Brinckerhoff) to study possible rapid transit services for South Jersey; Parsons, Brinckerhoff's final report recommended building a new tunnel under the Delaware and three lines in New Jersey. Route A would run to Moorestown, Route B to Kirkwood (now Lindenwold), and Route C to Woodbury Heights. A later study by Louis T. Klauder & Associates recommended using the Bridge Line instead to reach Philadelphia and suggested building Route B first, as it had the highest potential ridership.[8]

The last Bridge Line and Broad-Ridge Spur trains ran through the subway on August 23, 1968, when work began to convert the Locust Street and Camden subways for use by the new PATCO Speedline, which would use the Bridge Line subway to enter Philadelphia.[9] The new Speedline from Camden to Lindenwold opened on February 15, 1969, along former Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines trackage. Woodcrest Station was added later, in 1980, between the existing Haddonfield and Ashland stations.

In 2005, PATCO officials began planning a new route in the corridor of the originally proposed Route C that would serve Gloucester County and end in Glassboro on the grounds of Rowan University (formerly Glassboro State College).[10] On May 12, 2009, Jon Corzine, the Governor of New Jersey, formally endorsed a diesel light rail along an existing Conrail right-of-way, which was selected because of its lower capital cost and operating cost. The proposed Glassboro-Camden Line would require riders to transfer to the Speedline at the Walter Rand Transportation Center for trips to Philadelphia.[11] The PATCO study also recommended a multimodal, regional initiative to introduce a Camden-Philadelphia BRT, a bus rapid transit system along Routes 42 and 55, as well as upgrading New Jersey Transit's Atlantic City Line to improve its usability.[12]

Possible reopening of Franklin Square Station[edit]

In 2009, the DRPA announced that it was commissioning a design plan for renovating, modernizing and reopening PATCO's underground Franklin Square Station, closed since 1979.[13] As a result of ongoing capital projects scheduled to continue through 2016, PATCO stated in 2014: "We do not presently have the capacity or capital resources to evaluate the feasibility of reopening the Franklin Square Station."[14]

Trains and cars[edit]

Rolling stock[edit]

A Philadelphia-bound PATCO train arrives at Woodcrest Station.

PATCO operates 121 67-foot (20.42 m) cars which were acquired in two separate orders, labeled PATCO I and PATCO II. The original PATCO I cars were designed and manufactured by Budd of Philadelphia, PA in 1968. Cars numbered 101-125 are single units, and cars numbered 201-250 are in permanently coupled married pairs.[15] The PATCO II cars were delivered in 1980 (in parallel with the opening of the Woodcrest Park and ride facility) and consisted of married pairs numbered 251-296. The PATCO II cars were manufactured by Vickers Canada under a license from Budd, but are nearly indistinguishable from the PATCO I's, the only differences being that the PATCO II cars have a fixed partition behind the operator's booth and lack a stainless steel shroud below the door line to ease access to traction components.[10]

The single units differ from the married pairs by having an extra single leaf door located behind each operators booth. This was installed before the fare collection system was finalized and there was a possibility of operators collecting fares on board during the late night hours.[15]

The PATCO I cars were originally fitted with WABCO Model N-2 MU couplers. Because of reliability issues these were replaced by Tomlinson type couplers manufactured by Ohio Brass Company. The original electrical system in the PATCO I cars was found to have certain reliability issues and was completely rebuilt after the PATCO II cars arrived to the PATCO II standard.[15]

PATCO cars use camshaft resistance type motor controllers common to DC powered rapid transit vehicles up through the 1980s. The unique whine of the motors and gear assemblies can lead many to mistake the cars for using thyristor drive or even a variable-frequency drive, but this is not the case. Bogies are of the Budd designed Pioneer III variety and while lightweight, provide for a very bouncy ride. The married pair cars share a single motor control unit and automatic operation box. Many PATCO Car design features later appeared in the M1/M3 class of MU railcars for the Long Island Rail Road which provides for a similar riding experience.[15]

Operation[edit]

PATCO 15-16th & Locust Station exit onto street in Philadelphia.

PATCO was one of the first transit systems to incorporate Automatic train operation for regular service. The PATCO ATO is an analogue system that makes use of pulse code cab signaling supplied by Union Switch and Signal. The cab signals supply one of five different speeds (20 mph or 32 km/h, 30 mph or 48 km/h, 40 mph or 64 km/h, 65 mph or 105 km/h and 0 mph or 0 km/h) and the on-board ATO gear will supply maximum acceleration or maximum braking force to reach that target speed. The frequent use of such high acceleration and deceleration rates makes for a quick ride, yet one that can occasionally be perilous for non-seated passengers. Automatic station stops are handled by track mounted transponders and can be overridden by the operator for non-stopping trains.[15]

The system suffers from problems handling slippery track conditions and human operators are required to take control in any sort of precipitation. Because of the ATO limitations, drivers must make one trip per day under manual operation to stay in practice and are not penalized for running their trains manually at any time of their choosing. In practice, most operators prefer automatic operation as not only is it less effort, but it also tends to result in faster trips. [15]

The system was designed for one person train operation by exclusively utilizing island platforms and right-handed operation with operators sitting on the left side of the vehicle where they can open their window and monitor the boarding process. Where trains have to use the "wrong" side, mirrors are provided to give the operator a proper view. The operator's booth is not isolated from the passenger cabin, instead being surrounded by a low partition. Operators wishing privacy can pull a curtain closed during operation, but are still on call to answer inquiries from passengers. When not in use, a lockable cover sits over the console controls. Operators are responsible for making station announcements, opening and closing the doors, sounding the horn, starting the train from station stops and full manual operation of the train (when necessary).

Trains operate at a maximum of 65 mph (105 km/h) on the surface portion of the system and 40 mph (64 km/h) in the subway portion and over the bridge. Trains used to have a top speed of 75 mph (121 km/h) on the surface portion, but this caused excessive wear on the traction motors and was cut back to 65 mph (105 km/h) in the 1970s.[15]

PATCO runs the majority of its trains in 2, 4 or 6 car configurations. Single unit trains are occasionally seen late at night while 3 or 5 car trains are encountered only when not enough cars available to meet the load line.[15] All stations are capable of handling 7 or 8 car trains, but these lengths have never been run except for brief testing and for the annual holiday "Santa Train" special for children. In an effort to contain costs, PATCO actively manages its consist length as opposed to running trains in fixed sets. Train length is matched to the demand level for that particular time of day. In peak periods trains are 6 cars long, on "shoulder" periods they are 4 cars long, off peak they are 2 cars long, and overnight sometimes single units are run alone.[15] Due to recent capital improvements, weekend and mid-day headways have grown, prompting PATCO to run 4-car trains all day, albeit less frequently than the 2-car trains.

Cabin[edit]

Original 1968 PATCO car interior.

The interior of a PATCO car can best be described as retro, not due to any intentional choice by PATCO, but simply because the interior styling has not been updated since its introduction in 1968. The color combination is a base of cream with a Moss green fill. Seating is a 2+2 arrangement, with half of the seats in each car facing the direction of travel, and half facing backward. Seats run the full length of the car with the front seats next to the operator's booth having the benefit of a large picture window.[15]

Each PATCO car has a pair of doors on each side with a foyer area inside the doors for standing passengers. There are also hand-holds on the seat backs for passengers to stand all the way down the aisles. A few PATCO cars have been modified in accordance with the ADA to have one standard 2-person seat replaced with a single side mounted seat to create a space for a wheelchair passenger.

Car end-doors are unlocked, but inter-car movement is discouraged because of the extreme motions between cars. Train end-doors are also left unlocked, but are also secured with additional non-locking latches.

Refurbishment[edit]

PATCO has announced plans for the complete refurbishment of the entire fleet, with work expected to begin in 2009.[16] The contract for rebuilding the rolling stock was awarded to Alstom, at a cost of $194.2 million, beating Bombardier's bid by $35 million, though Bombardier claimed the contract was incorrectly awarded.[17] PATCO began to ship the railcars with their trucks removed via flatbed truck to the Alstom facility in Hornell, New York, in March 2011.[citation needed]

The refurbishment will consist of a completely new interior with more modern colors, wheelchair access and more reliable HVAC systems. Also to be replaced are the propulsion and automatic train operation systems, which currently use technology last updated in the early 1980s. The camshaft resistance type motor controller will be replaced by a new solid state unit using IGBTs and the relay based ATO unit will be replaced by a computerized system. The DC type motors, Pioneer III trucks and gearboxes will not be replaced, but will also be rebuilt instead so that the PATCO cars will retain their distinctive[original research?] sound.[citation needed]

The first rebuilt cars were redelivered to PATCO's Lindenwold, New Jersey Shops on November 12, 2013, and will be tested accordingly before going into service. Rebuilt cars are being renumbered into the 1000 series instead of their former numbers. A public unveiling has yet to be announced. The rebuilding is expected to extend the lives of these cars by 20 years, similar to the rebuilds received by many of New York City Transit's rebuilt subway cars from R26's thru the R46's.

Route identification[edit]

One of the six possible routes is displayed on a fluorescent lit piece of glass in the car. There are six routes, cut through a dark tinted piece of glass. The light behind the correct one identifies the train route. There are also rolling signs on the car ends and sides displaying this same route.[15] The routes are as follows, with the current three service designations in bold:

Local routes Express routes
Lindenwold Local Lindenwold Express
Philadelphia Local Philadelphia Express
Woodcrest Local
Ferry Avenue Local

An additional sign is displayed (Special) when the train is accepting no passengers. The only currently operating express service is westbound from Lindenwold towards Philadelphia, which operates six times daily between 7:30 am – 8:45 am, skipping only Haddonfield, Westmont, and Collingswood stations. There is currently no eastbound express service, and all eastbound trains terminate at Lindenwold, as opposed to terminating early at Ferry Avenue or Woodcrest.

Signaling[edit]

PATCO trains are governed by a Pulse code cab signaling system which transmits signal codes to the trains via the running rails. Wayside signals are located only at interlockings and consist of two lamps on a single signal head, one lunar white, the other red. There are three typical signal indications, Red for "Stop", Lunar for "proceed under cab signals on main route" and flashing lunar for "proceed under cab signals on diverging route". [15]

There are 5 cab signals, each corresponding to a speed. The cab signals are displayed to the operator via a series of 5 lamps above the speedometer, red for Stop, yellow/red for 20 mph, yellow for 30 mph, yellow/green for 40 mph and green for 65 mph. These lamps correspond to the same cab signals in use by various northeastern railroads. Even when the Automatic Train Operation System is not in use, the cab signal speed control function is still enabled and if an operator goes above the permitted speed, the power is cut and the brakes are applied until the speed is back within the limit.[15]

The entire PATCO system is run from Center Tower, centrally located above a substation near the Broadway station in Camden, NJ. Center Tower is staffed by two operators at peak periods and a single operator otherwise. Wayside signals are marked with their corresponding lever in the old US&S fashion with R signals indicating a "right" lever motion and L signals indicating "left".[15] Signals and switches are numbered in ascending order from west to east with 15th/16th Locust using levers 1-4 and Lindenwold using levers 73-76. The interlocking at Woodcrest, which was added in 1980, uses levers 87-98.[15]

The following fixed signs are also present on PATCO:

  • H - Sound Horn
  • T - Station stop outer transponder, trains not stopping must cancel automatic stop.
  • AB - Absolute block, trains operating without cab signals prepare to stop.
  • Speed X mph - Speed limit sign in tunnel section for sharp curves.
  • Clear # - Train of # car lengths has cleared sharp curve.

In case of a cab signal failure or the need to disregard them, the cab signal may be cut out by the operator with permission from Center Tower.

Power[edit]

All PATCO trains are electrically powered. Power comes from a top contact covered third rail at 750 volts DC. There are two feeds from the commercial power grid, one located in Philadelphia from PECO Energy for the old Bridge Line tunnel segments and the other in New Jersey from PSE&G for the new mainline segments. In New Jersey power is distributed via wayside AC transmission lines in the 26.4kV range and a series of 7 substations, located approximately every 2 miles (3.2 km), transform and rectify the current to the 750V DC used in the third rail.[15]

Fare collection[edit]

Magnetic system[edit]

From its beginning in 1969, PATCO used a magnetic ticket as the sole means of collecting fares. The plastic tickets may still be bought for single rides through vending machines in the stations. These machines once required coins, so bill changers were placed in stations. Each vending machine was capable of selling two types of tickets, which the rider chose by pushing a button after inserting the correct fare. Several machines were needed in each station, since different types of one-way and two-way tickets needed to be sold. After the ticket was purchased, it was inserted through a turnstile gate. To exit the station, it was inserted again, and if it had rides remaining, returned to the rider. A ticket with no rides was re- encoded by the system and returned to use in the vending machine. Tickets could also be purchased in ten-trip passes, but these were obtained through mail or in office.[15]

At its inception, this system was state-of-the-art, but became more problematic as the years went on. Tickets were vulnerable to damage from magnetic sources such as cell phones and PDAs that did not exist when the system was put in place, and the equipment to read and code the farecards began to suffer from extreme reliability problems as well as replacement part availability.

Freedom system[edit]

See also: Freedom Card

In July 2006, PATCO announced that it would start the transition from a magnetic ticket fare system to an electronic smart card system. Magnetic tickets are still sold, for the occasional riders, however they are now in a paper form and can only be purchased with cash. The new computer vending machines allow more advanced purchasing options for Freedom Cards (the term used for the smart cards). Payment can now be in the form of coins, bills, credit cards, or debit cards; however, credit and debit cards can only be used to load fare onto a Freedom Card or purchase a new card. PATCO is also developing a system that will allow balances to be reloaded on the Internet.

Each fare machine in the unpaid areas (i.e. outside the gates) performs all transactions (except for SEPTA transfers in PA stations, as the transfers are only sold on the unpaid side of NJ stations). Also, to augment the call-for-aid phones, there are now exit fare machines located inside of the fare gates, so that if a rider has purchased the wrong fare, they may pay the remaining fare to exit.

The system has been in use by the general public at all PATCO stations since its launch in 2007.

The system was put into effect in an attempt to gain ridership, which had fallen sharply since its peak in 1990.[16] The system was designed, built and integrated by Cubic Transportation Systems, Inc.[4]

Because of the system's flexibility, it could one day operate seamlessly with SEPTA and RiverLine rail networks, allowing an integration of the systems.[16]

Because the smart cards store value (instead of "rides") and the paper tickets expire after three days, it is no longer possible to hoard "rides" in advance of a fare increase. Also, the combination of the contactless card payment and the new swinging fare gates have decreased turnstile throughput, resulting in long exit queues after a train discharges a load of passengers at a station.

Open Payment[edit]

In September 2011 PATCO started Phase One of a pilot program for a new form of open payment called PATCO Wave And Pay Anywhere. Phase One allowed for a PATCO-branded prepaid Visa card. The card was also put in by CUBIC Transportation Systems. It required a $6.00 balance to travel on PATCO. The card works the same as the Freedom Card except it could be used at any location that accepts Visa.

In April 2012, Phase Two of this open payment system was initiated. This phase allowed for station gates and parking terminals to accept other forms of contactless payment systems in use by Visa, MasterCard, or Discover. In addition to credit cards with the technology built in, the system also accepted Near field communication virtual wallet payment methods such as Google Wallet.[18] This pilot program ended in October 2012. Processing costs were deemed too high to continue the program, which was otherwise considered successful by PATCO management.[19]

Connections to other transit systems[edit]

New Jersey Transit connections[edit]

New Jersey Transit buses connect to most PATCO stations in New Jersey. The New Jersey Transit Atlantic City Line also stops at Lindenwold Station, and the River Line connects at Broadway Station (Walter Rand Transportation Center).

SEPTA connections[edit]

The SEPTA (Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority) Market-Frankford Line connects to PATCO at the 8th & Market Station, which is two blocks away from SEPTA's Jefferson Station, where all of SEPTA's regional trains stop.

SEPTA's Broad Street Line connects to PATCO at the Walnut-Locust station via a short underground walkway to PATCO's 12th-13th & Locust, and 15-16th & Locust stations. The Broad-Ridge Spur connects to PATCO at the 8th & Market Station via a pedestrian walkway.

A special "SEPTA Transfer" ticket may be purchased from the unpaid side of any NJ station. These tickets are sold for $2.60 ($1.30 per ride, a savings compared to a single $2 cash fare or a token for $1.55) and dispense two paper receipts, one good for a ride within one hour of the time of purchase and another good for a ride within 24 hours of the time of purchase. Originally, both transfers were going to be valid for 24 hours, however, PATCO changed the time limit to prevent the unauthorized sale of PATCO transfers at PA stations.

Union representation[edit]

PATCO train operators are represented by Teamsters Local 676.

Station list[edit]

Map of the PATCO Speedline system


State Municipality Station Notes Service
PA Philadelphia 15-16th & Locust end of the line; transfer by short walk by tunnel to SEPTA Broad Street Line Walnut–Locust station All trains
12-13th & Locust transfer by short walk by tunnel to SEPTA Broad Street Line Walnut–Locust station All trains
9-10th & Locust open from 4:45 AM to 12:07 AM All trains
8th & Market transfer to SEPTA Market-Frankford Line and Broad-Ridge Spur; access to SEPTA Regional Rail at Jefferson Station via The Gallery at Market East. All trains
Franklin Square closed since 1979; possible reopening in the future N/A
NJ Camden City Hall All trains
Broadway (Walter Rand Transportation Center) transfer to New Jersey Transit River Line All trains
Ferry Avenue All trains
Collingswood Collingswood Local trains only
Haddon Township Westmont Local trains only
Haddonfield Haddonfield The only station east of Camden to be located below street level (in an open cut). Local trains only
Cherry Hill Township Woodcrest parking lot very close to interchange (Exit 31) with I-295 All trains
Voorhees Township Ashland All trains
Lindenwold Lindenwold transfer to New Jersey Transit Atlantic City Line All trains

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Graham, Troy (January 7, 2011). "Man attacked, robbed in Mellon Center concourse". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved January 27, 2011.  The concourse connects to the Market-Frankford Line, the Ridge Avenue spur line, and the PATCO High Speed Line.
  2. ^ Stillwell, Eileen (January 20, 2011). "Google Transit features PATCO schedule". Courier-Post. Retrieved January 27, 2011.  "If you're not a regular user of the PATCO Hi-Speedline"
  3. ^ Barna, John (January 6, 2011). "DRPA to look at sale of PATCO". Gloucester County Times. Retrieved January 27, 2011.  "Exploring the sale or privatization of the PATCO High Speed Line"
  4. ^ a b "Card makes change for PATCO riders" by Eileen Stilwell, Courier-Post, July 11, 2006. Retrieved July 11, 2006.
  5. ^ "Delaware River Port Authority & Port Authority Transit Corp. February 20, 2013 Board Meeting". Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  6. ^ DRPA History Timeline
  7. ^ DRPA.org
  8. ^ PATCO: A History of Commitment
  9. ^ SEPTA Broad Street Subway. Retrieved July 9, 2006.
  10. ^ a b DRPA.org
  11. ^ PATCO Expansion Alternatives Analysis
  12. ^ Light Rail Extension Moves Forward, DRPA, May 12, 2009.
  13. ^ "DRPA Board Takes First Step Toward Reopening Franklin Square Station" (Press release). PATCO. July 15, 2009. Retrieved July 19, 2014. 
  14. ^ "Ben Franklin Bridge Track Rehabilitation Project: Frequently Asked Questions". PATCO. Retrieved July 19, 2014. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Vigrass, William (1990). The Lindenwold Hi-Speed Line: The First Twenty Years of the Port Authority Transit Corporation. 
  16. ^ a b c SJ Magazine Articles your South Jersey source
  17. ^ "Bombardier objects to Alstom-PATCO contract". Trains Magazine. 23 November 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
  18. ^ ContactlessNews (3 Apr 2012). "PATCO rolls into new phase of open payment system". ContactlessNews. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  19. ^ Progressive Railroading (8 Oct 2012). "PATCO to end contactless bank-card pilot program". Progressive Railroading. Retrieved 2012-01-29. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 39°57′07″N 75°08′02″W / 39.952°N 75.134°W / 39.952; -75.134