PINK1

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PTEN induced putative kinase 1
Identifiers
Symbols PINK1 ; BRPK; PARK6
External IDs OMIM608309 MGI1916193 HomoloGene32672 GeneCards: PINK1 Gene
EC number 2.7.11.1
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE PINK1 209018 s at tn.png
PBB GE PINK1 209019 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 65018 68943
Ensembl ENSG00000158828 ENSMUSG00000028756
UniProt Q9BXM7 Q99MQ3
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_032409 NM_026880
RefSeq (protein) NP_115785 NP_081156
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
20.96 – 20.98 Mb
Chr 4:
138.31 – 138.33 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) is a mitochondrial serine/threonine-protein kinase encoded by the PINK1 gene.[1][2]

It is thought to protect cells from stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. PINK1 activity causes the parkin protein to bind to depolarized mitochondria to induce autophagy of those mitochondria.[3][4] PINK1 is processed by healthy mitochondria and released to trigger neuron differentiation.[5] Mutations in this gene cause one form of autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson's disease.[6]

Enzyme Structure[edit]

PINK1 is synthesized as a 63000 Da protein which is often cleaved by PARL, between the 103-Alanine and the 104-Phenylalanine residues, into a 53000 Da fragment.[7] PINK1 contains an N-terminal mitochondrial localization sequence, a putative transmembrane sequence, a Ser/Thr kinase domain, and a C-terminal regulatory sequence. The protein has been found to localize to the outer membrane of mitochondria, but can also be found throughout the cytosol. Experiments suggest the Ser/Thr kinase domain faces outward toward the cytosol, indicating a possible point of interaction with parkin.[8]

Biological Function[edit]

PINK1 is intimately involved with mitochondrial quality control by identifying damaged mitochondria and targeting specific mitochondria for degradation. Healthy mitochondria maintain a membrane potential that can be used to import PINK1 into the inner membrane where it is cleaved by PARL and cleared from the outer membrane. Severely damaged mitochondria lack sufficient membrane potential to import PINK1, which then accumulates on the outer membrane. PINK1 then recruits parkin to target the damaged mitochondria for degradation through autophagy.[9] Due to the presence of PINK1 throughout the cytoplasm, it has been suggested that PINK1 functions as a "scout" to probe for damaged mitochondria.[10]

A damaged mitochondria being recognized by PINK1. PINK1 builds up on the outer membrane of the mitochondria and recruits parkin. The PINK1/parkin pathway then designates the mitochondria for degradation by lysosomes.
A healthy mitochondria can import PINK1 where it is subsequently cleaved by PARL. This prevents any buildup of PINK1 and parkin is not recruited to the mitochondria.

PINK1 may also control mitochondria quality through mitochondrial fission. Through mitochondrial fission, a number of daughter mitochondria are created, often with an uneven distribution in membrane potential. Mitochondria with a strong, healthy membrane potential were more likely to undergo fusion than mitochondria with a low membrane potential. Interference with the mitochondrial fission pathway led to an increase in oxidized proteins and a decrease in respiration.[11] Without PINK1, parkin cannot efficiently localize to damaged mitochondria, while an over-expression of PINK1 causes parkin to localize to even health mitochondria.[12] Furthermore, mutations in both Drp1, a mitochondrial fission factor, and PINK1 were fatal in Drosophila models. However, an over-expression of Drp1 could rescue subjects deficient in PINK1 or parkin, suggesting mitochondrial fission initiated by Drp1 recreates the same effects of the PINK1/parkin pathway.[13]

In addition to mitochondrial fission, PINK1 has been implicated in mitochondrial motility. The accumulation of PINK1 and recruitment of parkin targets a mitochondria for degradation, and PINK1 may serve to enhance degradation rates by arresting mitochondrial motility. Over-expression of PINK1 produced similar effects to silencing Miro, a protein closely associated with mitochondrial migration.[14]

Another mechanism of mitochondrial quality control may arise through mitochondria-derived vesicles. Oxidative stress in mitochondria can produce potentially harmful compounds including improperly folded proteins or reactive oxygen species. PINK1 has been shown to facilitate the creation of mitochondria-derived vesicles which can separate reactive oxygen species and shuttle them toward lysosomes for degradation.[15]

Disease Relevance[edit]

Parkinson's disease is often characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergenic neurons and associated with the build-up of improperly folded proteins and Lewy bodies. Mutations in the PINK1 protein have been shown to lead to a build-up of such improperly folded proteins in the mitochondria of both fly and human cells.[16] Specifically, mutations in the serine/threonine kinase domain have been found in a number of Parkinson's patients where PINK1 fails to protect against stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Unoki M, Nakamura Y; Nakamura (Aug 2001). "Growth-suppressive effects of BPOZ and EGR2, two genes involved in the PTEN signaling pathway". Oncogene 20 (33): 4457–65. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204608. PMID 11494141. 
  2. ^ Valente EM, Salvi S, Ialongo T, Marongiu R, Elia AE, Caputo V, Romito L, Albanese A, Dallapiccola B, Bentivoglio AR; Salvi; Ialongo; Marongiu; Elia; Caputo; Romito; Albanese; Dallapiccola; Bentivoglio (Sep 2004). "PINK1 mutations are associated with sporadic early-onset parkinsonism". Ann Neurol 56 (3): 336–41. doi:10.1002/ana.20256. PMID 15349860. 
  3. ^ Narendra DP, Jin SM, Tanaka A, Suen DF, Gautier CA, Shen J, Cookson MR, Youle RJ (2010). "PINK1 is selectively stabilized on impaired mitochondria to activate Parkin". PLOS Biology 8 (1): e1000298. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000298. PMC 2811155. PMID 20126261. 
  4. ^ Lazarou M, Narendra DP, Jin SM, Tekle E, Banerjee S, Youle RJ (2013). "PINK1 drives Parkin self-association and HECT-like E3 activity upstream of mitochondrial binding". Journal of Cell Biology 200 (2): 163–172. doi:10.1083/jcb.201210111. PMID 23319602. 
  5. ^ Dagda RK, Pien I, Wang R, Zhu J, Wang KZQ, Callio J, Das Banerjee T, Dagda RY, Chu CT (2013). "Beyond the mitochondrion: cytosolic PINK1 remodels dendrites through protein kinase A". J Neurochem. doi:10.1111/jnc.12494. PMID 24151868. 
  6. ^ "Entrez Gene: PINK1 PTEN induced putative kinase 1". 
  7. ^ Deas, E.; et al. (2011). "PINK1 cleavage at position A103 by the mitochondrial protease PARL". Hum. Mol. Genet. 20: 867–869. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddq526. PMC 3033179. PMID 21138942. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  8. ^ Springer, Wolfdieter; et al. (2011). "Regulation of PINK1-Parkin mediated mitophagy". Autophagy 7 (3): 266–278. doi:10.4161/auto.7.3.14348. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  9. ^ Youle, Richard; van der Bliek, Alexander M. (2012). "Mitochondrial fission, fusion, and stress.". Science 337 (6098): 1062–1065. doi:10.1126/science.1219855. 
  10. ^ Narendra, Derek; Walker, John E.; Youle, Richard (2012). "Mitochondrail quality control mediated by PINK1 and Parkin: links to parkinsonism". Cold Spring Harbor. Perspectives in Biology 4 (11): 1–19. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a011338. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  11. ^ Twig, Gilad; Twig, Gilad Elorza, Alvaro Molina, Anthony J A Mohamed, Hibo Wikstrom, Jakob D Walzer, Gil Stiles, Linsey Haigh, Sarah E Katz, Steve Las, Guy Alroy, Joseph Wu, Min Py, Bénédicte F Yuan, Junying Deeney, Jude T Corkey, Barbara E Shirihai, Orian S (2008). "Fission and selective fusion govern mitochondrial segregation and elimination by autophagy.". The EMBO Journal 27 (2): 433–446. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7601963. PMC 2234339. PMID 18200046. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  12. ^ Vivez-Bauza, Cristofol; Zhou, Chon; Huang, Yong; Cui, Mei; de Vries, Rosa L A; Kim, Jiho; May, Jessica; Tocilescu, Maja Aleksandra; Liu, Wenchang; Ko, Han Seok; Magrane, Jordi; Moore, Darren J; Dawson, Valina L; Grailhe, Regis; Dawson, Ted M; Li, Chenjian; Tieu, Kim; Przedborski, Serge (2010). "PINK1-dependent recruitment of Parkin to mitochondria in mitophagy". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (1): 378–83. doi:10.1073/pnas.0911187107. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  13. ^ Poole, Angela C; Thomas, Ruth E; Andrews, Laurie A; McBride, Heidi M; Whitworth, Alexander J; Pallanck, Leo J (2008). "The PINK1/Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial mitophagy". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (5): 1638–43. doi:10.1073/pnas.0709336105. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  14. ^ Liu, Song; Liu, Song Sawada, Tomoyo Lee, Seongsoo Yu, Wendou Silverio, George Alapatt, Philomena Millan, Ivan Shen, Alice Saxton, William Kanao, Tomoko Takahashi, Ryosuke Hattori, Nobutaka Imai, Yuzuru Lu, Bingwei (2012). "Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1 regulates Miro protein level and axonal transport of mitochondria.". PLoS Genetics 8 (3): e102537. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002537. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  15. ^ Mclelland, Gian-luca; McLelland, Gian-Luca Soubannier, Vincent Chen, Carol X McBride, Heidi M Fon, Edward A (2014). "Parkin and PINK 1 function in a vesicular trafficking pathway regulating mitochondrial quality control". The EMBO Journal 33 (4): 282–295. doi:10.1002/embj.201385902. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  16. ^ I. Pimenta de Castro, A.; Pimenta de Castro, I Costa, A C Lam, D Tufi, R Fedele, V Moisoi, N Dinsdale, D Deas, E Loh, S H Y Martins, L M (2012). "Genetic analysis of mitochondrial protein misfolding in Drosophila melanogaster.". Cell death and differentiation 19 (8): 1308–16. doi:10.1038/cdd.2012.5. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  17. ^ Valente, E. P.; Valente, Enza Maria Abou-Sleiman, Patrick M Caputo, Viviana Muqit, Miratul M K Harvey, Kirsten Gispert, Suzana Ali, Zeeshan Del Turco, Domenico Bentivoglio, Anna Rita Healy, Daniel G Albanese, Alberto Nussbaum, Robert González-Maldonado, Rafael Deller, Thomas Salvi, Sergio Cortelli, Pietro Gilks, William P Latchman, David S Harvey, Robert J Dallapiccola, Bruno Auburger, Georg Wood, Nicholas W (2004). "Hereditary early-onset Parkinson's disease caused by mutations in PINK1.". Science 304 (5674): 1158–60. doi:10.1126/science.1096284. PMID 15087508. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]