Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas-1930
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|Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas-1930|
|Chairman||Pedro P. Baguisa|
|Secretary-General||Antonio E. Paris|
|International affiliation||None (Formerly Comintern)|
|Politics of the Philippines
The original Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas (Filipino for 'Communist Party of the Philippines') was established on November 7, 1930, and it is now often[according to whom?] called PKP-1930 to separate it from its far more known splinter group, the Communist Party of the Philippines.
The party was established on November 7, 1930 (the Gregorian anniversary of the October Revolution). The founders of PKP came out of the Partido Obrero, a left-wing worker-centred faction of the Nacionalista Party, followed by the Progressive Workers Party, which had been established in the 1920s. The PKP was initially headed by Crisanto Evangelista.
On October 26, 1932 the PKP was banned by the Supreme Court, in which five of the nine sitting judges were American. This caused the PKP to go underground. In late 1932, a legal Marxist party, the Socialist Party, was created under the leadership of Pedro Abad Santos. In 1935, PKP was accepted into the Comintern. In 1937 the PKP was legalized again, under the Commonwealth in response to the growing threat of fascism in Germany and militarist Japan. And in 1938 the Socialist Party was merged into the PKP. The PKP participated in a Popular Front for municipal elections in 1940, which did well on the island of Luzon, where six communist mayors were elected.
Resistance against Japan and the United States
During World War II the PKP helped organize the fight against the Japanese invasion. Under PKP leadership, the Hukbalahap (People's Army against Japan) was created in 1942 under the leadership of Luis Taruc. The Hukbalahap carried on a struggle against the Japanese occupation for the next three years. After the end of Japanese occupation, the PKP found itself in a considerably strengthened position in the working class and peasant movements. The Congress of Labor Organizations was created in July 1945 under PKP management. In 1946 PKP participated in the presidential elections within the Democratic Alliance.
In 1948, the PKP began an armed struggle against the government. The party was banned that year. In early 1950, the PKP created the People's Liberation Army (Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan) which was made up of about 10,000 soldiers. On 18 Oct. 1950, the entire secretariat of the Central Committee of the PKP was arrested, including General Secretary Jose Lava, following the earlier capture of the Politburo in Manila:90 (and would remain in prison for the next two decades). Jose had taken over the leadership when his brother Vincente died, and another brother, Jesus, took over after Jose's capture.:96
In the course of the armed struggle, PKP and the People's Liberation Army sustained large losses.:95 By the end of 1954 the armed struggle was effectively over, although it took a few more years to die out, after which the PKP pursued a course of peaceful (legal and illegal) action. Although they created another guerilla force similar to the Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan, known as the Bagong Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan; more commonly known as the Army ng Bayan (or Ermeng Bayan according to the CPP), under Pedro Taruc and Sumulong.
Remnants of the PKP worked from the underground to rebuild the organisations and affiliated groups.
In 1964, Jose Maria Sison co-founded the Kabataang Makabayan (Patriotic Youth) with Nilo S. Tayag. This organisation rallied the Filipino youth against the Vietnam War, against the Marcos presidency, and corrupt politicians. On December 26, 1968, he formed and chaired the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), an organisation within the Communist Party founded on Marxist-Leninist-Mao Zedong Thought, stemming from his own experiences as a youth leader, labour, and land reform activist. This is known as the "First Great Rectification" movement where Sison and other radical youths criticised the existing Party's leadership and failure. The reformed CPP included Maoism within the political line as well as the struggle for a National Democratic Revolution in two-stages, consisting of a protracted "People's War" as its first part to be followed by a Socialist Revolution. On December 26, 2007, the Communist Party of the Philippines commemorated its 39th anniversary. Jose Maria Sison confirmed its birth, at Barangay Dulacac along the boundaries of Alaminos, Bani and Mabini, Pangasinan, where the December 26, 1968 "Congress of Reestablishment" was held; the site was a hut near the house of the Navarette family, the parents-in-law of Arthur Garcia, one of the CPP founders. Sison announced that communist guerillas held "cultural activities" and celebrated the 39th anniversary of the movement.
Soon after this, the leadership of the PKP sought to eliminate and marginalise Sison. However, the reorganised CPP had a larger base and renewed political line that attracted thousands to join its ranks. The old leadership and its followers was pro-Soviet, while the other, mostly younger faction was oriented towards Maoism. On December 26, 1968, the Maoist faction announced it was re-establishing the Communist Party of the Philippines. Over time the Maoist party eclipsed the pro-Soviet faction, which is now commonly referred to as PKP-1930.
The PKP-1930 survived the martial law era as pro-government supporters, after being pardoned by President Ferdinand Marcos. They supported the government in its land reform programme, attempt for Land Collectivisation, and the "Democratic Revolution from the centre" envisioned by Marcos. The Maoist faction, led by Jose Maria Sison, continues to fight to this day. As of now, the PKP-1930 is a minor party and was lately led by Pedro P. Baguisa, and issues the publication Ang Komunista and being led by Antonio Paris.
- The Philippines: Colonialism, Collaboration, and Resistance! by William J. Pomeroy (ISBN 0-7178-0692-8)
- The Long Struggle to Silence the Guns of Rebellion: A Review of the Long and Winding Trail to the Elusive Peace Agreements by The CenSEI Report
- Taruc, L., 1967, He Who Rides the Tiger, London: Geoffrey Chapman Ltd.
- Inquirer.net, Joma Sison recalls birth of CPP in Alaminos
- Abs-Cbn Interactive, Sison: 'Cultural activities' to mark CPP 39th anniversary