PKP class ET22
|Build date||Prototypes: 1969
Main series: 1971–1989
|Gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)|
|Wheel diameter||1,250 mm (4 ft 1 in)|
|Length||19.240 m (63 ft 1 in)|
|Width||3.000 m (9 ft 10 in)|
|Height||4.456 m (14 ft 7 in)|
|Axle load||20 tonnes (20 long tons; 22 short tons)|
|Locomotive weight||114 tonnes (112 long tons; 126 short tons)|
|Electric system(s)||3000 V DC|
|Traction motors||6 × EE541, 1:4.39 gear ratio|
|Top speed||125 km/h (78 mph)|
|Power output||3,000 kW (4,020 hp)|
|Tractive effort||420 kN (94,420 lbf)|
|Locomotive brake||Oerlikon Contraves|
PKP class ET22 is a Polish six-axle electric freight locomotive built by Pafawag from 1969 to 1989. Due to the sharp drop in heavy industry production (and hence cargo transport) after 1989, this class is now also frequently used for passenger service.
Soon after Pafawag started the production of EU07 The Rolling-stock Industry Central Bureau of Construction (Pl.: Centralne Biuro Konstrukcyjne Przemysłu Taboru Kolejowego) began to develop a new heavy Co-Co locomotive. The electrical part of the locomotive including the traction motors was based on the equipment used in EU07 locomotive.
The first two prototypes of the class 201E were ready in 1969. Large scale production started in 1971 PKP bought 1183 locomotive until the production was ceased in 1989. This made the ET22 class one of the largest locomotive series built in Europe, trailing to some 8000 pieces of Russian Class TEM2 and Class CHME3 (built in Czechoslovakia).
During the production the design of the ET22 locomotive was slightly altered. Some changes were also made during repair and maintenance.
The body of the locomotives in use is different from the prototypes. There are two basic types of locomotive bodies where the main differences are the size and placement of the side windows, resistors, air intakes and ventilation grids. The older body design was used in locomotives with serial numbers below 240.
In 1973 Pafawag built a prototype locomotive of the building type 201Ea-53, which had a different transmission for top speed 160 km/h. The locomotive was classified as EP23-001. After a series of tests the decision was made not to continue the production. Possible causes are problems in shunting operation and adhesion. The prototype was rebuilt as ET22-121 in place of former 121 locomotive scraped in 1977. Today this locomotive is conserved in Jaworzyna Śląska railway museum.
Another two prototype locomotives were produced 1977 as building type 201Ec-1 and 201Ec-2. Main changes introduced were a modernised secondary suspension, multiple unit control and several small modernisations, like automatic door control. Those locomotives were first given the numbers 301 and 302. As the production of ET22 continued, those were renumbered to 501 and 502, than to 701 and 702 and finally to 1001 and 1002, which they still bear today.
In the 1980s PKP needed locomotives for passenger service. Since the freight service declined, the ET22 could be used for passenger service. They were fitted with main reservoir pipes required for the automatic door control of the passenger coaches.
In 2004 the locomotive ET22-2000 was modernised in Gliwice. Main modifications affected the electrical and mechanical main components as well as the driver's cab which was equipped with a modern computerised control system and joysticks. The locomotive is painted in PKP Cargo colours.
ET22 is classified as a highly efficient freight locomotive. Its maximum continuous power is 3,000 kW (4,000 hp) and it is the biggest single-box Co-Co locomotive in PKP service. Technical features enable this engine to pull heavy freight trains of up to 3150 t. with speed of 70 km/h. Trains of up to 2700 t. are able to be pulled at 80 km/h. When used as passenger locomotive it can pull trains weighing up to 700 t at 125 km/h. This being caused by several features and solutions based on passenger EU07 and EU06 locomotives. Four EE-451A engines are isolated in H class with maximum temperature allowed of 180°C. They have four main and four commutative poles. Because of its length and distance between axles ET22 locomotive performs poorly on tight curves, unlike the older ET21 locomotives, despite the fact that the designers were requested the same parameters for minimum curve diameter. Driving ET22 at winding tracks causes severe damage both to rails and locomotive drivers. This forced several modifications, which are made presently. Such changes are essential, as fewer and fewer ET21 locomotives stay in service and ET41 are ineffective on highland tracks due to serious loss of power. Most, but not all, locomotives are painted with a narrow yellow stripe on the front and massive letters and figures used for classification and serial numbers
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to ET22.|
- "Technical data of ET22 locomotive". Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- Wojciech Cupiał. "Tabor, czyli co jeździ po polskich torach". Archived from the original on 2007-03-31. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- "Gallery of ET22 locomotive". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- Atlas ŽM (Czech), page 154,date=2003