PNC Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
PNC Park
Pedro goes to Pittsburgh.jpg
A view of the field from upper-level seating
Location 115 Federal Street
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212
Coordinates 40°26′49″N 80°0′21″W / 40.44694°N 80.00583°W / 40.44694; -80.00583Coordinates: 40°26′49″N 80°0′21″W / 40.44694°N 80.00583°W / 40.44694; -80.00583
Broke ground April 7, 1999
Opened March 31, 2001
Owner Sports & Exhibition Authority of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County[1]
Operator Pittsburgh Pirates[1]
Surface Grass
Construction cost $216 million
($288 million in 2014 dollars[2])
Architect HOK Sport[3]
L.D. Astorino & Associates
Project manager Project Management Consultants LLC[4]
Structural engineer Thornton-Tomasetti Group Inc.[5]
Services engineer M*E Engineers[5]
General contractor Dick Corporation/Barton Malow JV[6]
Capacity 37,898 (2001-2003)
38,496 (2004-2007)
38,362 (2008-present)
Record attendance 40,493 (October 7, 2013)
Field dimensions Left Field – 325 feet (99 m)
Left-Center – 383 feet (117 m)
Deep Left-Center Field – 410 feet (125 m)
Center Field – 399 feet (122 m)
Right-Center – 375 feet (114 m)
Right Field – 320 feet (98 m)
Backstop – 51 feet (16 m)
Public transit access Liberty Avenue at Market Street
Tenants
Pittsburgh Pirates (MLB) (2001–present)

PNC Park is a baseball park located on the North Shore of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is the fifth home of the Pittsburgh Pirates, the city's Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise.[7][8] It opened during the 2001 MLB season, after the controlled implosion of the Pirates' previous home, Three Rivers Stadium. The ballpark is sponsored by PNC Financial Services, which purchased the naming rights in 1998.[9] PNC Park features a natural grass playing surface and seats 38,362 people for baseball.

Funded in conjunction with Heinz Field and the David L. Lawrence Convention Center, the $216 million park stands along the Allegheny River, on the North Shore of Pittsburgh with a view of Downtown Pittsburgh. Plans to build a new stadium for the Pirates originated in 1991, but did not come to fruition for five years. Built in the style of "classic" stadiums, such as Pittsburgh's Forbes Field, PNC Park also introduced unique features, such as the use of limestone in the building's facade.[7] The park also features a riverside concourse, steel truss work, an extensive out-of-town scoreboard, and many local eateries. Constructed faster than most modern stadiums, PNC Park was built in a 24-month span.

History[edit]

Planning and funding[edit]

On September 5, 1991, Pittsburgh mayor Sophie Masloff proposed a new 44,000-seat stadium for the Pittsburgh Pirates on the city's Northside.[10] Three Rivers Stadium, the Pirates' home at the time, had been designed for functionality rather than "architecture and aesthetics".[10] The location of Three Rivers Stadium came to be criticized for being in a hard-to-access portion of the city, where traffic congestion occurred before and after games.[11] Discussions about a new ballpark took place, but were never seriously considered until entrepreneur Kevin McClatchy purchased the team in February 1996. Until McClatchy's purchase, plans about the team remaining in Pittsburgh were uncertain.[10] In 1996, Masloff's successor, Tom Murphy, created the "Forbes Field II Task Force". Made up of 29 political and business leaders, the team studied the challenges of constructing a new ballpark. Their final report, published on June 26, 1996, evaluated 13 possible locations. The "North Side site" was recommended due to its affordable cost, potential to develop the surrounding area, and opportunity to incorporate the city skyline into the stadium's design.[10] The site selected for the ballpark is just upriver from the site of early Pirates home field Exposition Park.[12][13]

After a political debate, public money was used to fund PNC Park. Originally, a sales tax increase was proposed to fund three projects: PNC Park, Heinz Field, and an expansion of the David L. Lawrence Convention Center. However, after the proposal was soundly rejected in a referendum, the city developed Plan B.[14] Similarly controversial, the alternative proposal was labeled Scam B by opponents.[15] Some members of the Allegheny Regional Asset District felt that the Pirates' pledge of $40 million toward the new stadium was too little, while others criticized the amount of public money allocated for Plan B. One member of the Allegheny Regional Asset District board called the use of tax dollars "corporate welfare."[16][17] The plan, totaling $809 million, was approved by the Allegheny Regional Asset District board on July 9, 1998—with $228 million allotted for PNC Park.[16][18] Shortly after Plan B was approved, the Pirates made a deal with Pittsburgh city officials to remain in the city until at least 2031.[15]

There was popular sentiment by fans for the Pirates to name the stadium after former outfielder Roberto Clemente. However, locally-based PNC Financial Services purchased the stadium's naming rights in August 1998.[9][19] As per the agreement, PNC Bank will pay the Pirates approximately $2 million each year through 2020, and also has a full-service PNC branch at the stadium.[20][21] The total cost of PNC Park was $216 million.[7][8] Shortly after the naming rights deal was announced, the city of Pittsburgh renamed the Sixth Street Bridge near the southeast corner of the site of the park the Roberto Clemente Bridge as a compromise to fans who had wanted the park named after Clemente.[22]

Design and construction[edit]

Kansas City-based HOK Sport, which designed many other major league ballparks of the late 20th and early 21st century, designed the ballpark.[23][24] The design and construction management team consisted of the Dick Corporation and Barton Malow.[7] An effort was made in the design of PNC Park to salute other "classic style" ballparks, such as Fenway Park, Wrigley Field, and Pittsburgh's Forbes Field; the design of the ballpark's archways, steel truss work, and light standards are results of this goal.[7][25] PNC Park was the first two-deck ballpark to be built in the United States since Milwaukee County Stadium opened in 1953.[8][25] The park features a 24 by 42 foot (7.3 by 12.8 m) Sony JumboTron, which is accompanied by the first-ever LED video boards in an outdoor MLB stadium.[26] PNC Park is the first stadium to feature an out-of-town scoreboard with the score, inning, count, number of outs, and base runners for every other game being played around the league.[26]

The 6th Street Bridge was renamed the Roberto Clemente Bridge in honor of the former Pirate.

Ground was broken for PNC Park on April 7, 1999,[27] after a ceremony to rename the Sixth Street Bridge as the "Roberto Clemente Bridge" in honor of the late Pirate Roberto Clemente.[28] As part of original plans to create an enjoyable experience for fans, the bridge is closed to vehicular traffic on game days to allow spectators to park in Pittsburgh's Golden Triangle and walk across the bridge to the stadium.[29][30] PNC Park was built with Kasota limestone shipped from a Minnesota river valley, to contrast the brick bases of other modern stadiums.[31] The stadium was constructed over a 24-month span—at the time of construction, three months faster than any other modern major league ballpark—and the Pirates played their first game less than two years after groundbreaking.[32] The quick construction was accomplished with the use of special computers, which relayed building plans to builders 24 hours per day.[32] In addition, all 23 labor unions involved in the construction signed a pact that they would not strike during the building process.[32] As a result of union involvement and attention to safety regulations, the construction manager, the Dick Corporation, received a merit award for its safety practices from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.[33] PNC Park is inspected yearly, along with Heinz Field, by Chronicle Consulting, LLC, for structural defects and maintenance.[34]

Statues of Pirates' Hall of Famers Honus Wagner, Roberto Clemente, Willie Stargell and Bill Mazeroski are positioned at various points outside of PNC Park. Wagner and Clemente's statues were previously located outside of Three Rivers Stadium, and after the venue was imploded, the two statues were removed from their locations, refurbished, and relocated outside PNC Park.[35] Wagner's statue was originally unveiled at Forbes Field in 1955.[36][37] The base of Clemente's statue is shaped like a baseball diamond, with dirt from three of the fields Clemente played at—Santurce Field in Carolina, Puerto Rico, Forbes Field, and Three Rivers Stadium—at each base.[38] On October 1, 2000, after the final game at Three Rivers Stadium, Stargell threw out the ceremonial last pitch. He was presented with a model of a statue that was to be erected in his honor outside of PNC Park.[39] The statue was officially unveiled on April 7, 2001; however, Stargell did not attend due to health problems and died of a stroke two days later.[40][41] A statue for Bill Mazeroski was added at the right field entrance, at the south end of Mazeroski Way, during the 2010 season. This was the 50th anniversary of the Pirates' 1960 World Series championship, which Mazeroski clinched with a Game 7 walk-off home run at Forbes Field. The statue itself was designed based on that event.[42]

Opening and reception[edit]

A view of PNC Park from Downtown Pittsburgh across the Allegheny River

The Pirates opened PNC Park with two exhibition game games against the New York Mets—the first of which was played on March 31, 2001.[43] The first official baseball game played in PNC Park was between the Cincinnati Reds and the Pirates, on April 9, 2001. The Reds won the game by the final score of 8–2.[44] The first pitch—a ball—was thrown from Pittsburgh's Todd Ritchie to Barry Larkin. In the top of the first inning, Pittsburgh native Sean Casey's two-run home run was the first hit in the park. The first Pirates' batter, Adrian Brown, struck out; however, later in the inning Jason Kendall singled—the first hit by a Pirate in their new stadium.[7]

PNC Park had an average attendance of 30,742 people per game throughout its inaugural season,[45] though it would drop approximately 27% the following season to 22,594 spectators per game.[46] Throughout the 2001 season, businesses in downtown and on the Northside of Pittsburgh showed a 20–25% increase in business on Pirate game days.[47]

Pirates' vice-president Steve Greenberg said, "We said when construction began that we would build the best ballpark in baseball, and we believe we've done that."[48] Major League Baseball executive Paul Beeston said the park was "the best he's seen so far in baseball."[48] Many of the workers who built the park said that it was the nicest that they had seen.[33] Jason Kendall, Pittsburgh's catcher at the opening of the park, called PNC Park "the most beautiful ballpark in the game."[49] Different elements of PNC Park were used in the design of New York's Citi Field.[50]

The bordering street Mazeroski Way is named for former Pirate Bill Mazeroski.

Upon opening in 2001, PNC Park was praised by fans and media alike. ESPN.com writer Jim Caple ranked PNC Park as the best stadium in Major League Baseball, with a score of 95 out of 100.[51] Caple compared the park to Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater, calling the stadium itself "perfect", and citing high ticket prices as the only negative aspect of visiting the park.[51] Jay Ahjua, author of Fields of Dreams: A Guide to Visiting and Enjoying All 30 Major League Ballparks, called PNC Park one of the "top ten places to watch the game."[52] Eric Enders, author of Ballparks Then and Now and co-author of Big League Ballparks: The Complete Illustrated History, said it was "everything a baseball stadium could hope to be" and "an immediate contender for the title of best baseball park ever built." [53] In 2008, Men's Fitness named the park one of "10 big league parks worth seeing this summer."[54][55] A 2010 unranked list of "America's 7 Best Ballparks" published by ABC News noted that PNC Park "combines the best features of yesterday's ballparks—rhythmic archways, steel trusswork and a natural grass playing field—with the latest in fan and player amenities and comfort."[56]

Alterations[edit]

In 2007, Allegheny County passed a ban on smoking in most public places, thus making PNC Park completely smoke-free.[57] Prior to the 2008 season, the Pirates made multiple alterations to PNC Park.[58] The biggest change was removing the Outback Steakhouse located underneath the scoreboard, and adding a new restaurant known as The Hall of Fame Club.[59] Unlike its predecessor, The Hall of Fame Club is open to all ticket-holders on game days; it includes an outdoor patio with a bar and seats with a view of the field.[59] The Pirates feature bands in The Hall of Fame Club after the completion of select games—the first performance was by Joe Grushecky and the Houserockers.[58][59] The Pirates also announced a program to make the park more environmentally friendly, by integrating "greening initiatives, sustainable business practices and educational outreach."[60] In addition, club and suite sections were outfitted with high-definition televisions.[59] In 2012, the "Budweiser Bow Tie", a 5,000 square foot bar and lounge located in the right field corner of the ballpark, was added. The section includes ticketed seats along with areas for groups and the general public. This addition was expected to cost about $1,000,000.[61]

College baseball[edit]

The first collegiate baseball game at PNC Park was played on May 6, 2003, between the Pitt Panthers and the Duquesne Dukes, a rivalry that was referred to as the City Game.[62] Duquesne won the game by a score of 2–1.[63] However, due to Duquesne's decision to disband their baseball program following the 2010 season, the series between the two schools came to an end.[64] The PNC Park City Game series ended in Pitt's favor, four games to two, with the 2007 game canceled because of poor field conditions.[65][66][67]

Concerts[edit]

PNC Park has also hosted various concerts, including Bruce Springsteen & The E Street Band on Aug. 6, 2003, [68] The Rolling Stones[69] and Pearl Jam on September 28, 2005, Jimmy Buffett on June 26, 2005 and Me First and the Gimme Gimmes on August 24, 2006 and Dave Matthews Band with opening act, Zac Brown Band, on July 10, 2010. The park also served as one of the locations for the 2010 film She's Out of My League and the 2011 film Abduction. Jason Aldean will stop here on his 2014 Burn It Down Tour With Miranda Lambert, Florida Georgia Line & Tyler Farr as openers.

All-Star Game[edit]

PNC Park hosted the 77th Major League Baseball All-Star Game on July 11, 2006.[70] The American League defeated the National League by a score of 3–2, with 38,904 spectators in attendance.[71] The first All-Star Game in PNC Park, it was the fifth All-Star Game hosted in Pittsburgh, and the first since 1994.[72] During the game, late Pirate Roberto Clemente was honored with the Commissioner's Historic Achievement Award; his wife, Vera, accepted on his behalf.[73] The stadium hosted the Century 21 Home Run Derby the previous evening; Ryan Howard, of the Philadelphia Phillies, won the title.[74] During the Derby, Howard and David Ortiz hit home runs into the Allegheny River.[75]

Other events[edit]

PNC Park has hosted various evacuation and response drills, which would be used in the event of a terrorist attack. Members of the United States Department of Homeland Security laid out the groundwork for the initial drill in February 2004.[76] In May 2005, 5,000 volunteers participated in the $1 million evacuation drill, which included mock explosions.[77] A goal of the drill was to test the response of 49 western Pennsylvania emergency agencies.[78] In April 2006, the Department of Homeland Security worked in conjunction with the United States Coast Guard to develop a plan of response for the 2006 All-Star Game.[79] Similar exercises were conducted on the Allegheny River in 2007.[80]

No-hitter[edit]

On September 28, 2012 PNC Park saw its first no-hitter when Reds pitcher Homer Bailey no-hit the Pirates 1–0. PNC Park has yet to see a no-hitter and/or perfect game thrown by a Pirate.

An evening game between the Los Angeles Dodgers and Pittsburgh Pirates - August 7, 2001

Features[edit]

Playing surface and dimensions[edit]

The playing surface of PNC Park is Tuckahoe Bluegrass, which is a mixture of various types of Kentucky Bluegrass.[81] Installed prior to the 2009 season, the grass surface was selected for its "high quality pedigree that is ideal for Northern cities such as Pittsburgh."[81] The infield dirt is a mixture known as "Dura Edge All-Star Infield Mix" and was designed solely for PNC Park.[81] The 18-foot warning track is crushed lava rock.[81][82] The drainage system underneath the field is capable of handling 14 inches (36 cm) of rain per hour.[83] The original playing surface consisted of sand-based natural grass,[84] and was replaced prior to the 2006 season.[81] Unlike most ballparks, PNC Park's home dugout is located along the third base line instead of the first base line; giving the home team a view of the city skyline.[85] The outfield fence ranges from a height of 6 feet (2 m) in left field to 10 feet (3 m) in center field and 21 feet (6 m) in right field, a tribute to former Pirate right fielder Roberto Clemente, who wore number 21.[54][86] The distance from home plate to the outfield fence ranges from 320 feet (98 m) in right field to 410 feet (125 m) in left center; the straightaway center field fence is set at 399 feet (122 m).[7] At its closest point, the Allegheny River is 443 feet (135 m) and 4 inches (10 cm) from home plate.[7][8] On July 6, 2002, Daryle Ward became the first player to hit the river on the fly. On, June 2, 2013, Garrett Jones became only the second player to do so and additionally became the first Pirate to accomplish this, although the water is 20 feet lower than ground level.[87][88]

Seating and ticket prices[edit]

During its opening season, PNC Park's seating capacity of 38,496 was the second-smallest of any major league stadium—the smallest being Fenway Park.[7][89] Seats are angled toward the field and aisles are lowered to give spectators improved views of the field.[90] The majority of the seats, 26,000, are on the first level,[48] and the highest seat in the stadium is 88 feet (27 m) above the playing surface.[91] At 51 feet (16 m), the batter is closer to the seats behind home plate than to the pitcher.[92] At their closest point, seating along the baselines is 45 feet (14 m) from the bases.[90] The four-level steel rotunda and a section above the out-of-town scoreboard offer standing-room only space.[93] With the exception of the bleacher sections, all seats in the park offer a view of Pittsburgh's skyline.[94]

From its opening through the 2009 season, PNC Park's tickets have remained between $9 to $35 for general admission.[48][95][96] The stadium includes 69 luxury suites and 5,558 suite and club seats, with prices ranging from $47 to $210 per ticket throughout the 2008 season.[96] One of only two teams not to increase ticket prices entering the 2009 season, PNC Park ranks as having the third-cheapest average ticket prices in the league.[97] Attendance throughout the 2008 season averaged 20,113 spectators per game, 28th in the 30-team league.[98] The low attendance has come as a result of the Pirates' play; as of 2013, the Pirates have only had one winning record since 1992.[99] Through 2004, 5% of games played at PNC Park were sold out.[90]

Eateries[edit]

A traditional Primanti Brothers sandwich

As with its predecessor, PNC Park's concessions service provider is Aramark,[100][101] while the premium seating areas (The Lexus Club, PBC Level and Suites Level) are serviced by Levy Restaurants.[102] The main eating concourse, known as "Tastes of Pittsburgh",[94] features a wide range of options including traditional ballpark foods, hometown specialties, and more exotic fare like sushi.[103] Pittsburgh's hometown specialties include Primanti Brothers sandwiches, whose signature item consists of meat, cheese, hand-cut French fries, tomatoes, and coleslaw between two slices of Italian bread.[104][105] Other local eateries offered include Mrs. T's Pierogies, Quaker Steak & Lube, Augustine's Pizza, and Benkovitz Seafood.[103] Located behind center field seating is Manny's BBQ, which offers various barbecue meals. It is named for former Pirates' catcher Manny Sanguillén, who has been known to sign autographs for fans waiting in line.[89][106] For the 2008 season, the Pirates created an all-you-can-eat section in the right field corner.[59] Fans seated in the section are allowed "unlimited hotdogs, hamburgers, nachos, salads, popcorn, peanuts, ice cream and pop" for an entire game.[107] In addition to the food offered, fans are free to bring their own food into the stadium, a rarity among the league's ballparks.[86]

For its first thirteen years, PNC Park sold Pepsi products, a stark contrast from its predecessor Three River Stadium, which sold Coca-Cola products, as well as Heinz Field and Mellon Arena. This was shown in right field, where several versions of the Pepsi Globe as well as a Pepsi bottle were shown on posts behind the stands and lit up every time the Pirates hit a home run. For 2014, the Pirates will switch to Coca-Cola. With Heinz Field having switched to Pepsi in 2012 and Consol Energy Center (which opened in 2010 to replace the Mellon Arena) having a contract with Dr Pepper Snapple Group, this will mark the first time since 2012 that all three of Pittsburgh's major sporting venues will sell different soft drinks.[108] There were initially conflicting reports as to whether or not Coke would replace the Pepsi signage in right field after it is taken down.[108][109] The posts were later shown to have generic advertising by locally-based health insurance company Highmark, although Coke did have traditional advertising on one of the mechanical billboards in right field.[108][110]

Transportation access[edit]

PNC Park is located at exit 1B of Interstate 279 and within one mile of both Interstate 376 and Interstate 579. The park is also served by the North Side transit station of the Pittsburgh subway system.

Fictional portrayals[edit]

PNC Park has been featured in the following big budget films and TV series:

References[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ a b "History". www.pgh-sea.com. Sports & Exhibition Authority of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County. September 1, 2009. Retrieved October 28, 2009. 
  2. ^ Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  3. ^ PNC Park architect: Populous
  4. ^ Project Management Consultants: Pittsburgh Pirates PNC Park
  5. ^ a b Architects Contractors and Subcontractors of Current Big Five Facility Projects
  6. ^ Ballparks.com - PNC Park
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i "PNC Park". PittsburghPirates.com. Retrieved April 3, 2008. 
  8. ^ a b c d "PNC Park at North Shore". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on June 5, 2008. Retrieved April 10, 2008. 
  9. ^ a b Jaeger, Lauren (August 17, 1998). "PNC Bank Purchases Naming Rights To Pittsburgh Pirates' New Stadium". Amusement Business 110 (33): 10. 
  10. ^ a b c d Bouma, Ben (1998). "Heading for Home". On Deck: the Official Magazine of the Pittsburgh Pirates 3 (3): 42–8. 
  11. ^ Smith, Curt (2001). Storied Stadiums. New York City: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1187-6. 
  12. ^ Potter, Chris (June 12, 2008). "Was There A Baseball Field That the Pittsburgh Pirates Played in Before Forbes Field in Oakland?". Pittsburgh City Paper; You Had To Ask. Retrieved July 30, 2008. 
  13. ^ "Exposition Park". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. July 11, 2006. Retrieved July 30, 2008. 
  14. ^ "Plan B". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 5, 2008. 
  15. ^ a b Dvorchak, Robert (June 21, 1998). "A TD for Plan B". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 5, 2008. 
  16. ^ a b Barnes, Tom; Dvorchak, Robert (July 10, 1998). "Plan B Approved: Play ball!". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 5, 2008. 
  17. ^ Cook, Ron (June 22, 1998). "Plan B flawed; Option Is Worse". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on December 8, 2004. Retrieved April 5, 2008. 
  18. ^ Barnes, Tom (February 11, 1998). "Arena Won't Be Part of Plan B". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 5, 2008. 
  19. ^ Fried, Gil (2005). Managing Sport Facilities. Human Kinetics. p. 223. ISBN 0-7360-4483-3. 
  20. ^ Wolfley, Bob (February 28, 2008). "Values of venue naming rights can vary widely". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel; Sports. Archived from the original on March 2, 2008. Retrieved July 23, 2008. 
  21. ^ "Stadium naming rights". Sports Business. ESPN.com. September 29, 2004. Archived from the original on October 21, 2007. Retrieved July 23, 2008. 
  22. ^ Clemente Bridge Too Much or Too Little? Ariba’s Popularity Extends From Fans to Collectors Pittsburgh Sports Report September 1998
  23. ^ Dulac, Gerry (September 28, 1998). "Football Stadium Architect Selected". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 5, 2008. 
  24. ^ "PNC Park". Populous.com. Retrieved June 5, 2012. 
  25. ^ a b Plunkett, Jack W. (2006). Plunkett's Sports Industry Almanac 2007: Sports Industry Market Research. Plunkett Research Ltd. pp. Pittsburgh Pirates. ISBN 1-59392-073-3. 
  26. ^ a b Bouchette, Ed (April 15, 2001). "Technology Park". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 20, 2008. 
  27. ^ Barnes, Tom (April 8, 1999). "City, Pirates Break Ground for PNC Park With Big Civic Party". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 11, 2008. 
  28. ^ Pro, Johnna A. (April 8, 1999). "Clemente's Family Helps to Christen Renamed Bridge". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette; Local News. Retrieved July 19, 2008. 
  29. ^ Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Kevin Joseph Patrick (2006). Pittsburgh and the Appalachians: Cultural and Natural Resources in a Postindustrial Age. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 115. ISBN 0-8229-4282-8. 
  30. ^ Castiglione, Joe; Lyons, Douglas B. (2004). Broadcast Rites and Sites: I Saw It on the Radio with the Boston Red Sox. Taylor Trade Publications. p. 223. ISBN 1-58979-081-2. 
  31. ^ Lowry, Patricia (April 15, 2001). "The New Jewel on the Allegheny Might Be the Best Ballpark". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved July 29, 2008. 
  32. ^ a b c Dvorchak, Robert (April 15, 2001). "PNC Park: The Political Struggle Over Financing PNC Park Went Into Extra Innings". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved July 29, 2008. 
  33. ^ a b McKay, Jim (April 15, 2001). "Workers Proud of What They Have Wrought". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 20, 2008. 
  34. ^ Chronicle Consulting. "Sports & Exhibition Authority of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County". ChronicleConsulting.com. Retrieved April 21, 2008. 
  35. ^ Barnes, Tom (November 22, 2000). "Sports Bar Planned Outside PNC Park". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  36. ^ DeValeria 1995, p. 298
  37. ^ Hittner, Arthur D. (2003). Honus Wagner: The Life of Baseball's Flying Dutchman. McFarland. p. 257. ISBN 0-7864-1811-7. 
  38. ^ Ruff, Donna (2006). 60 Hikes Within 60 Miles: Pittsburgh. Menasha Ridge Press. p. 71. ISBN 0-89732-591-5. 
  39. ^ Finoli, Dave (2006). The Pittsburgh Pirates. Arcadia Publishing. p. 127. ISBN 0-7385-4915-0. 
  40. ^ "Stargell's Death Linked to Hypertension". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. April 9, 2001. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  41. ^ Associated Press (April 9, 2001). "Pittsburgh Native Casey Paces Reds Over Pirates, 8-2". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  42. ^ Kovacevic, Dejan (January 28, 2010). "Mazeroski On Statue Plan: 'Couldn't Believe It'". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved January 18, 2013. 
  43. ^ Biertempfel, Bob (April 1, 2001). "Pirates Lose First Test Run at PNC Park". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved July 20, 2008. 
  44. ^ Smith, Curt (2003). Storied Stadiums: Baseball's History Through Its Ballparks. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. p. 562. ISBN 0-7867-1187-6. 
  45. ^ "MLB Attendance Report - 2001". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on April 6, 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2008. 
  46. ^ "MLB Attendance Report - 2002". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on April 6, 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2008. 
  47. ^ Brown, Charles (November–December 2001). "Pittsburgh's Putting on its Game Face". Pittsburgh International Airport Magazine 1 (1): 10–3. 
  48. ^ a b c d "PNC Park Gets Rave Reviews". ThePittsburghChannel.com. February 21, 2001. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  49. ^ Kendall, Jason (April 1, 2001). "New Ballpark Something to Behold". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved July 20, 2008. 
  50. ^ Kovacevic, Dejan (May 9, 2009). "Pirates Notebook: Mets' Stadium Inspired by PNC". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved May 9, 2009. 
  51. ^ a b Caple, Jim. "Pittsburgh's Gem Rates the Best". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on April 11, 2008. Retrieved April 15, 2008. 
  52. ^ Phillips 2005, pp. 314–5
  53. ^ Enders, Eric (2009). Big League Ballparks: The Complete Illustrated History. New York: Metro Books Publishers. p. 512. ISBN 978-1-4351-1452-4. 
  54. ^ a b Pratt, Devin. "Top Stadiums: Pittsburgh's PNC Park". Men's Fitness. Retrieved April 10, 2008. 
  55. ^ Langosch, Jenifer (April 2, 2008). "PNC in Men's Fitness Top 10 Stadiums". PittsburghPirates.com. Retrieved April 10, 2008. 
  56. ^ Mayerowitz, Scott (April 2, 2010). "America's 7 Best Ballparks". ABC News. Retrieved April 5, 2010. 
  57. ^ "PNC Park Becomes Smoke-Free Facility" (Press release). PittsburghPirates.com. March 20, 2007. Retrieved April 19, 2008. 
  58. ^ a b Belko, Mark (April 4, 2008). "Pirates Show Off Park Features". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 5, 2008. 
  59. ^ a b c d e Langosch, Jennifer (April 3, 2008). "Offseason Face-Lift Complete at PNC". PittsburghPirates.com. Retrieved April 5, 2008. 
  60. ^ "Pirates Launch Greening Initiatives Program at PNC Park" (Press release). PittsburghPirates.com. March 11, 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2008. 
  61. ^ Belko, Mark (January 31, 2012). "Bud-Branded Lounge Set for PNC Park". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved February 26, 2012. 
  62. ^ "Pittsburgh Baseball Falls to Duquesne, 2-1, at PNC Park". PittsburghPanthers.com. May 6, 2003. Retrieved April 15, 2008. 
  63. ^ Fittipaldo, Ray (May 7, 2003). "Pitcher's Big-League Effort Lifts Duquesne Past Pitt, 2-1". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette; Duquesne/Atlantic 10. Retrieved May 13, 2008. 
  64. ^ Dunlap, Colin (May 17, 2010). "Duquesne's Baseball Team Plays (and Loses) in Its Final Appearance at Home". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  65. ^ Axelrod, Phil (April 17, 2008). "Baseball: Three Freshmen Step Up as Panthers Rout Dukes". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved September 13, 2008. 
  66. ^ Axelrod, Phil (April 15, 2005). "Baseball: Pitt, Duquesne to Treat Game Like Exhibition". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved September 13, 2008. 
  67. ^ "Panthers Fall to Duquesne, 5-2 at PNC Park". PittsburghPanthers.com. May 6, 2005. Retrieved May 8, 2009. 
  68. ^ http://www.setlist.fm/setlist/bruce-springsteen/2003/pnc-park-pittsburgh-pa-23d5b06b.html
  69. ^ "The Rolling Stones Concert Information" (Press release). PittsburghPirates.com. September 27, 2005. Retrieved May 14, 2008. 
  70. ^ "Pittsburgh Pirates Host 2006 All-Star Week, Including 77th MLB All-Star Game" (Press release). MLB.com. April 28, 2006. Retrieved April 9, 2006. 
  71. ^ Eagle, Ed (July 12, 2006). "Young Rallies AL to Victory". MLB.com. Retrieved April 8, 2008. 
  72. ^ "All-Star Results". MLB.com. Retrieved July 29, 2008. 
  73. ^ Bloom, Barry M. (July 12, 2006). "Baseball Honors Clemente". MLB.com. Retrieved April 8, 2008. 
  74. ^ Bloom, Barry M. (July 10, 2006). "Howard Powers Way to Derby Crown". MLB.com. Retrieved April 8, 2008. 
  75. ^ Briggs, David (July 10, 2006). "Pirates of the Allegheny". MLB.com. Retrieved April 20, 2008. 
  76. ^ "Terrorism Drill Scheduled For PNC Park". Pittsburgh News (WTAE-TV). February 25, 2004. Retrieved August 2, 2008. 
  77. ^ Roberts, Josie (May 4, 2005). "Goodie Bags, Entertainment Part of PNC Park Drill". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved August 2, 2008. 
  78. ^ May, Glenn; Heinrichs, Allison M. (May 8, 2005). "Drills and Thrills 5,000 Volunteers Go to Bat as Victims of Mock Disaster". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved August 2, 2008. 
  79. ^ "Coast Grd. To Keep Rivers Safe During All-Star Gm.". KDKA-TV. April 14, 2006. Archived from the original on September 23, 2008. Retrieved August 2, 2008. 
  80. ^ "Terror Drill on Allegheny River Today". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. September 14, 2007. Retrieved August 2, 2008. 
  81. ^ a b c d e "PNC Park Surface Getting Full Makeover". PittsburghPirates.com. October 14, 2008. Retrieved October 14, 2008. 
  82. ^ Langosch, Jenifer (April 6, 2009). "Pirates Show Off Revamped PNC Park". PittsburghPirates.com. Retrieved April 7, 2009. 
  83. ^ Cagan, Jonathan; Craig M. Vogel (2002). Creating Breakthrough Products: Innovation from Product Planning to Program. FT Press. p. 218. ISBN 0-13-969694-6. 
  84. ^ "Sod Installed At PNC Park". ThePittsburghChannel.com. October 30, 2000. Retrieved April 10, 2008. 
  85. ^ Pahigian 2004, p. 228
  86. ^ a b Ahuja 2001, p. 68
  87. ^ Rossi, Rob (July 11, 2006). "Howard Has a Blast". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved July 26, 2008. 
  88. ^ Stats Inc. "Scouting Report". Daryle Ward (FOX Sports). Retrieved April 10, 2008. 
  89. ^ a b Warner, Gary A. (May 10, 2005). "Boutique Ballparks". The Orange County Register; News. Retrieved July 26, 2008. 
  90. ^ a b c Pahigian 2004, p. 218
  91. ^ Phillips 2005, p. 314
  92. ^ "New Ballpark Comparisons". New Ballpark. MinnesotaTwins.com. Retrieved July 29, 2008. 
  93. ^ Pahigian 2004, pp. 220–1
  94. ^ a b Ahuja 2001, p. 67
  95. ^ "PNC Park Info". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved April 11, 2008. 
  96. ^ a b "PNC Park Seating Chart - 2009". PittsburghPirates.com. Retrieved March 16, 2009. 
  97. ^ Krise, Todd (June 12, 2008). "PNC Park a Big League Bargain". MLB.com. Retrieved June 12, 2008. 
  98. ^ "MLB Attendance Report - 2008". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved October 23, 2009. 
  99. ^ Robinson, Alan; Wilson, Bernie (September 29, 2008). "Pirates’ Losing Run Reaches the Record Book". USA Today. Retrieved October 21, 2011. 
  100. ^ "Aramark to Feature Local Favorites From Around the League During Mid-Summer Classic". Aramark. May 27, 2006. Archived from the original on June 22, 2008. Retrieved July 20, 2008. 
  101. ^ "Food Services". Major League Partners. Aramark. Archived from the original on June 12, 2008. Retrieved July 20, 2008. 
  102. ^ Levy Restaurants - PNC Park
  103. ^ a b Jones, Diana Nelson (April 15, 2001). "Buy Me Some Peanuts and Uh, Sushi?". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 19, 2008. 
  104. ^ Kadushin, Raphael; McLain, David (August 2003). "15222: Come Hungry". National Geographic Magazine: 114–22. Retrieved August 24, 2008. 
  105. ^ Bradish, Kelly (December 19, 2002). "The Primanti's Tradition". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved July 26, 2008. 
  106. ^ Meehan, Peter (June 8, 2008). "Finding the Hits, Avoiding the Errors". The New York Times; Travel. Retrieved July 26, 2008. 
  107. ^ Batz Jr., Bob (April 3, 2008). "At PNC Park, 'All-You-Can-Eat' Seats". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  108. ^ a b c http://pittsburgh.cbslocal.com/2014/03/08/pirates-to-switch-soft-drinks-in-2014/
  109. ^ "PNC Park, Pirates switching to Coca-Cola sponsorship - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. March 7, 2014. 
  110. ^ http://scores.espn.go.com/mlb/photos?gameId=340331123&photoId=3733232
Bibliography

External links[edit]

Events and tenants
Preceded by
Three Rivers Stadium
Home of the
Pittsburgh Pirates

2001 – present
Succeeded by
Current
Preceded by
Comerica Park
Host of the
MLB All-Star Game

2006
Succeeded by
AT&T Park