PRC2

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3D reconstruction of the human PRC2-AEBP2 complex.

PRC2 (Polycomb Repressive Complex 2) is one of the two classes of polycomb-group proteins or (PcG). The other component of this group of proteins is PRC1.

This complex has histone methyltransferase activity and primarily trimethylates histone H3 on lysine 27 (i.e. H3K27me3),[1][2] a mark of transcriptionally silent chromatin. PRC2 is required for initial targeting of genomic region (PRC Response Elements or PRE) to be silenced, while PRC1 is required for stabilizing this silencing and underlies cellular memory of silenced region after cellular differentiation. These proteins are required for long term epigenetic silencing of chromatin and have an important role in stem cell differentiation and early embryonic development. PRC2 are present in all multicellular organisms.

The mouse PRC2 has four subunits: Suz12 (zinc finger), Eed, Ezh1 or Ezh2 (SET domain with histone methyltransferase activity[1][2]) and RbAp48 (histone binding domain)

PRC2 has a role in X chromosome inactivation, in maintenance of stem cell fate, and in imprinting. Aberrant expression of PRC2 has been observed in cancer.[1][2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Yoo KH, Hennighausen L (November 2012). "EZH2 methyltransferase and H3K27 methylation in breast cancer". INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 8 (1): 59–65. PMC 3226033. PMID 22211105. 
  2. ^ a b c Chase A, Cross NC (May 2011). "Aberrations of EZH2 in cancer". CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH 17 (9): 2613–2618. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-2156. PMID 21367748.