PlayStation 2

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PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2 logo.svg
PS2-Versions.jpg
Left: Original PlayStation 2, with vertical stand
Right: Slimline PlayStation 2, with vertical stand, 8 MB memory card and DualShock 2 controller
Developer Sony
Manufacturer Sony Computer Entertainment
Product family PlayStation
Type Video game console
Generation Sixth generation
Release date
Discontinued
  • JP December 28, 2012[1]
  • NA January 4, 2013[2]
  • EU January 4, 2013
Units sold 155 million (as of March 31, 2012)[3]
Media DVD, CD
CPU "Emotion Engine" clocked at 294.912 MHz (launch), 299 MHz (newer models), with 128-bit SIMD capabilities [4][5][6]
Memory 32 MB of Direct RAMBUS or RDRAM
4 MB eDRAM
Storage
  • PlayStation 2 memory card 8 megabyte
  • PlayStation memory card (128 kilobytes/1 megabit)
  • 40 GB Hard Drive (add-on)
Display
  • SCART
  • VGA (progressive scan capable software only)
Graphics "Graphics Synthesizer" clocked at 147.456 MHz
Controller input DualShock 2, DualShock, EyeToy
Connectivity 100 Mbit Ethernet/modem (requires adapter on SCPH-10000-500xx models), 2 × USB 1.1, 1 × IEEE 1394 interface
Online services Dynamic Network Authentication System
Best-selling game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas: 20.81 million sold (as of April 2014)[7]
Backward
compatibility
PlayStation
Predecessor PlayStation
Successor PlayStation 3

The PlayStation 2 (PS2) is a video game console that was manufactured by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is Sony's second installment in the PlayStation Series. It was released on March 4, 2000, in Japan followed by North America and Europe later the same year. The sixth-generation console competed with the Sega Dreamcast, Microsoft Xbox, and Nintendo GameCube.

The PlayStation 2 went on to become the best-selling video game console in history, selling over 155 million units.[8] More than 3,870 game titles have been released for the PS2 since launch, and more than 1.5 billion copies have been sold.[9] Sony later manufactured several smaller, lighter revisions of the console known as "slimline" models, and in 2006 introduced the successor, the PlayStation 3.

Even with the PlayStation 3 release, the PlayStation 2 remained popular well into the seventh generation and continued to be produced until January 4, 2013, when Sony finally announced that the PlayStation 2 had been discontinued after almost 13 years of production – one of the longest runs for a video game console. Despite the announcement, new games for the console continue to be produced including Final Fantasy XI: Seekers of Adoulin for Japan and Pro Evolution Soccer 2014 for Occident. Sony unveiled the PlayStation 4 console the following month on February 20, 2013.[2]

History[edit]

Sony announced the PlayStation 2 (PS2) on March 1, 1999. The video game console was positioned as a competitor to Sega's Dreamcast, the first sixth-generation console to be released.[10][11] Despite Sony's announcement, the Dreamcast went on to a very successful North American launch later that year selling over 500,000 units within two weeks.[12]

Soon after the Dreamcast's North American launch, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 2 at the Tokyo Game Show in September 1999.[13] Sony showed fully playable demos of upcoming PlayStation 2 games including Gran Turismo 2000 (later released as Gran Turismo 3: A-Spec) and Tekken Tag Tournament - which showed the console's graphic abilities and power.[14]

The PS2 was launched in October 2000 in North America and November in Europe. Sales of the console, games, and accessories pulled in $250 million on the first day, beating the $97 million made on the first day of the Dreamcast.[15] Directly after its release, it was difficult to find PS2 units on retailer shelves[16] due to manufacturing delays.[17] Another option was purchasing the console online through auction websites such as eBay, where people paid over a thousand dollars for the console.[18] The PS2 initially sold well partly on the basis of the strength of the PlayStation brand and the console's backward compatibility, selling over 980,000 units in Japan by March 5, 2000, one day after launch.[19] This allowed the PS2 to tap the large install base established by the PlayStation — another major selling point over the competition. Later, Sony added new development kits for game developers and more PS2 units for consumers. The PS2's built-in functionality also expanded its audience beyond the gamer,[2] as its debut pricing was the same or less than a standalone DVD player. This made the console a low cost entry into the home theater market.[20]

The success of the PS2 at the end of 2000 caused Sega problems both financially and competitively, and Sega announced the discontinuation of the Dreamcast in March 2001, just 18 months after its successful launch. The PS2 remained as the only active sixth generation console for over 6 months, before it would face competition from newer rivals; the Nintendo GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox, which were then released. Many analysts predicted a close three-way matchup among the three consoles; the Xbox having the most powerful hardware, while the GameCube was least expensive console and Nintendo changed its policy to encourage third-party developers, and while the PlayStation 2 theoretically had the weakest specs of the three, it had a head start due to its installed base plus strong developer commitment, as well as a built-in DVD video player (the Xbox required an adapter, while the GameCube lacked support entirely).[21] While the PlayStation 2's initial games lineup was considered mediocre, this changed during the 2001 holiday season with the release of several blockbuster games that maintained the PS2's sales momentum and held off its newer rivals. Sony also countered the Xbox by temporarily securing PlayStation 2 exclusives for highly anticipated games such as the Grand Theft Auto series and Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty.[22]

Sony cut the price of the console in May 2002 from US$299 to $199 in North America,[23] making it the same price as the GameCube and $100 less than the Xbox. It also planned to cut the price in Japan around that time.[24] It cut the price twice in Japan in 2003.[25] In 2006, Sony cut the cost of the console in anticipation of the release of the PlayStation 3.[25]

Sony, unlike Sega with its Dreamcast, originally placed little emphasis on online gaming during its first few years, although that changed upon the launch of the online-capable Xbox. Coinciding with the release of Xbox Live, Sony released the PlayStation Network Adapter in late 2002, with several online first–party titles released alongside it, such as SOCOM: U.S. Navy SEALs to demonstrate its active support for Internet play.[citation needed] Sony also advertised heavily, and its online model had the support of Electronic Arts (EA); EA did not offer online Xbox titles until 2004. Although Sony and Nintendo both started out late, and although both followed a decentralized model of online gaming where the responsibility is up to the developer to provide the servers, Sony's moves made online gaming a major selling point of the PS2.

In September 2004, in time for the launch of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, Sony revealed a newer, slimmer PS2 (see Hardware revisions). In preparation for the launch of the new models (SCPH-700xx-9000x), Sony stopped making the older models (SCPH-3000x-500xx) to let the distribution channel empty its stock of the units.[citation needed] After an apparent manufacturing issue—Sony reportedly underestimated demand—caused some initial slowdown in producing the new unit caused in part by shortages between the time the old units were cleared out and the new units were ready. The issue was compounded in Britain when a Russian oil tanker became stuck in the Suez Canal, blocking a ship from China carrying PS2s bound for the UK. During one week in November, British sales totalled 6,000 units — compared to 70,000 units a few weeks prior.[26] There were shortages in more than 1700 stores in North America on the day before Christmas.[27]

Hardware[edit]

PlayStation 2 software is distributed on CD-ROM and DVD-ROM. In addition the console can play audio CDs and DVD movies, and is backwardly compatible with PlayStation games. The PS2 also supports PlayStation memory cards and controllers, although PS1 memory cards only work with PS1 games and the controllers may not support all functions (such as analog buttons) for PS2 games.

The standard PlayStation 2 memory card has an 8 MB capacity. There are a variety of non-Sony manufactured memory cards available for the PlayStation 2, allowing for a memory capacity larger than the standard 8 MB.

The console also features USB and IEEE 1394 expansion ports. A hard disk drive can be installed in an expansion bay on the back of the console, and is required to play certain games, notably the popular Final Fantasy XI.[28] This is only available on certain models.

Technical specifications[edit]

The PlayStation 2 may natively output video resolutions on SDTV and HDTV from 480i to 480p while other games, such as Gran Turismo 4 and Tourist Trophy are known to support upscaled 1080i resolution using any of the following standards: composite video(480i), S-Video(480i), RGB(480i/p, VGA (for progressive scan games and PS2 Linux only), YPBPR component video (which display most PS1 games in their native 240p mode which most HDTV sets don't support), and D-Terminal. Cables are available for all of these signal types; these cables also output analog stereo audio. Additionally, an RF modulator is available for the system to connect to older TVs.

Digital (S/PDIF) audio may also be output by the console via its TOSLINK connector which outputs 5.1ch Sound.

Retail configurations[edit]

The PS2's controller, the DualShock 2, had the same form factor as the PlayStation DualShock.

The PS2 has undergone many revisions, some only of internal construction and others involving substantial external changes.

The PS2 is primarily differentiated between models featuring the original "fat" case design and "slimline" models, which were introduced at the end of 2004. In 2010, a television incorporating a PS2 was made available to consumers.

The PS2 standard color is matte black. Several variations in color were produced in different quantities and regions, including ceramic white, light yellow, metallic blue (aqua), metallic silver, navy (star blue), opaque blue (astral blue), opaque black (midnight black), pearl white, Sakura purple, satin gold, satin silver, snow white, super red, transparent blue (ocean blue), and also Limited Edition color Pink, which was distributed in some regions such as Oceania, and parts of Asia.[29][30][31]

In September 2004, Sony unveiled its third major hardware revision. Available in late October 2004, it is smaller, thinner, and quieter than the original versions and includes a built-in Ethernet port (in some markets it also has an integrated modem). Due to its thinner profile, it does not contain the 3.5" expansion bay and therefore does not support the internal hard disk drive. It also lacks an internal power supply, similar to the GameCube, and has a modified Multitap expansion. The removal of the expansion bay has been criticized as a limitation due to the existence of titles such as Final Fantasy XI, which require the use of the HDD.

Sony also manufactured a consumer device called the PSX that can be used as a digital video recorder and DVD burner in addition to playing PS2 games. The device was released in Japan on December 13, 2003, and was the first Sony product to include the XrossMediaBar interface. It did not sell well in the Japanese market and was not released anywhere else.

Disc Read Error (DRE) lawsuit[edit]

A class action lawsuit was filed against Sony Computer Entertainment America Inc. on July 16, 2002, in the Superior Court of California, County of San Mateo. The lawsuit addresses consumer reports of inappropriate "no disc error" (disc read error) messages and other problems associated with playing DVDs and CDs on the PlayStation 2.

Sony settled its "disc read error" lawsuit by compensating the affected gamers with USD $25, a free game from a specified list, and the reduced cost repair or replacement (at SCEA's discretion) of the damaged system. This settlement was subject to the courts' approval, and hearings began in the US and Canada on April 28, 2006, and May 11, 2006, respectively.[32]

Games[edit]

PlayStation 2 software is distributed on CD-ROM and DVD-ROM. The PlayStation 2 offered some particularly high profile exclusive games. Most main entries in the Grand Theft Auto, Final Fantasy, and Metal Gear Solid series were released exclusively for the console. Several series got their start on the PlayStation 2, including God of War, Ratchet & Clank, Jak and Daxter, Devil May Cry, and Kingdom Hearts. Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas was the best-selling game on the console.

Game releases peaked in 2004, but declined with the release of the PlayStation 3 in 2006. The last new game for the console in Japan is Final Fantasy XI: Seekers of Adoulin and in North America and Europe is Pro Evolution Soccer 2014.

Online functionality[edit]

PlayStation 2 users have the option to play select games over the Internet, using a broadband Internet connection and a PlayStation 2 Network Adaptor. Instead of having a unified, subscription-based online service like Xbox Live as competitor Microsoft had chosen for its Xbox console, online multiplayer functionality on the PlayStation 2 is the responsibility of the game publisher and is run on third-party servers. Most recent[when?] PlayStation 2 online games have been developed to exclusively support broadband internet access. Xbox Live similarly requires a broadband Internet connection. The servers for many games have been shut down.[33]

Reception[edit]

Sales[edit]

Main article: PlayStation 2 sales

The PlayStation 2 has sold over 155 million units worldwide as of March 31, 2012.[34][35] In Europe, it has sold 48 million units as of May 6, 2008 according to Sony Computer Entertainment Europe,[36] while in North America, it has sold 50 million units as of December 2008.[37] In Japan, the PS2 has sold 21,454,325 units as of October 1, 2008, according to Famitsu/Enterbrain.[38] In 2005, the PlayStation 2 became the fastest game console to reach 100 million units shipped, accomplishing the feat within 5 years and 9 months from its launch.

Accessories[edit]

The EyeToy – a motion detecting camera.

The PlayStation 2's DualShock 2 controller is largely identical to the PlayStation's DualShock, with the same basic functionality. However, it includes analog pressure sensitivity on the face, shoulder and D-pad buttons, replacing the digital buttons of the original.[39] Like its predecessor, the DualShock 2 controller has force feedback, or "vibration" functionality. It is lighter and includes two more levels of vibration.

The PlayStation 2 DVD remote control.

General[edit]

Optional hardware includes DualShock or DualShock 2 controllers, a PS2 DVD remote control, an internal or external hard disk drive (HDD), a network adapter, horizontal and vertical stands, PlayStation or PS2 memory cards, the multitap for PlayStation or PS2, a USB motion camera (EyeToy), a USB keyboard and mouse, and a headset.

The original PS2 multitap cannot be plugged into the newer slim models, as the multitap connects to the memory card slot as well as the controller slot and the memory card slot on the slimline is shallower. New slim-design multitaps are manufactured for these models, however third-party adapters also exist to permit original multitaps to be used.

Early versions of the PS2 could be networked via an i.LINK port, though this had little game support and was dropped. Some third party manufacturers have created devices that allow disabled people to access the PS2 through ordinary switches etc.

Some third-party companies, such as JoyTech, have produced LCD monitor and speaker attachments for the PS2, which attach to the back of the console. These allow users to play games without access to a television as long as there is access to mains electricity or a similar power source. These screens can fold down onto the PS2 in a similar fashion to laptop screens.

Music[edit]

Singstar microphones

There are many accessories for musical games, such as dance pads for Dance Dance Revolution, In the Groove, and Pump It Up titles, Konami microphones for use with the Karaoke Revolution games, dual microphones (sold with and used exclusively for SingStar games), various "guitar" controllers (for the Guitar Freaks series and Guitar Hero series), the drum set controller (sold in a box set (or by itself) with a "guitar" controller and a USB microphone (for use with Rock Band and Guitar Hero series, World Tour and newer), and a taiko drum controller for Taiko: Drum Master.

Controllers[edit]

Specialized controllers include light guns (GunCon), fishing rod and reel controllers, a Dragon Quest VIII "slime" controller, a Final Fantasy X-2 "Tiny Bee" dual pistol controller, an Onimusha 3 katana controller, and a Resident Evil 4 chainsaw controller.

Mouse[edit]

Unlike the PlayStation, which requires the use of an official Sony PlayStation Mouse to play mouse-compatible games, the few PS2 games with mouse support work with a standard USB mouse as well as a USB Trackball.[40]

Homebrew development[edit]

Using homebrew programs, it is possible to play various audio and video file formats on a PS2. Homebrew programs can also be used to play patched backups of original PS2 DVD games on unmodified consoles, and to install retail discs to an installed hard drive on older models. Homebrew emulators of older computer and gaming systems have been developed for the PS2.[41]

Sony released a Linux-based operating system for the PS2 in a package that also includes a keyboard, mouse, Ethernet adapter and HDD. In Europe and Australia, the PS2 comes with a free Yabasic interpreter on the bundled demo disc. This allows users to create simple programs for the PS2. A port of the NetBSD project and BlackRhino GNU/Linux, an alternative Debian-based distribution, are also available for the PS2.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "プレイステーション2の日本国内での出荷が本日(2012年12月28日)で完了". Famitsu (in Japanese). Enterbrain. December 28, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c "PlayStation 2 manufacture ends after 12 years". The Guardian. January 4, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Sony stops shipping PlayStation 2 units in Japan". Rappler. December 29, 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2013. 
  4. ^ Shiloy, Anton (26 February 2007). "Sony Removes Emotion Engine, Graphics Synthesizer from PAL PlayStation 3". X-bit labs. Retrieved 7 May 2014. 
  5. ^ John L. Hennessy and David A. Patterson. "Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, Third Edition". ISBN 1-55860-724-2
  6. ^ Keith Diefendorff. "Sony's Emotionally Charged Chip". Microprocessor Report, Volume 13, Number 5, April 19, 1999. Microdesign Resources.
  7. ^ Guinness World Records 2009 Gamer's Edition. pp. 108–109. ISBN 1-904994-45-8. "GTA: San Andreas is the best-selling PlayStation 2 game, with a massive 17.33 million copies sold." 
  8. ^ "PLAYSTATION2 sales reach 155 million units worldwide". Sony Computer Entertainment. February 14, 2011. Retrieved February 14, 2011. 
  9. ^ Makuch, Eddie (February 15, 2011). "155 million PS2 units shipped worldwide – News at GameSpot". Asia.gamespot.com. Retrieved March 27, 2011. 
  10. ^ Whitehead, Dan (2009-02-01). "Dreamcast: A Forensic Retrospective Article • Page • Articles • Retro •". Eurogamer.net. Retrieved 2012-10-21. 
  11. ^ "PlayStation 2 Timeline". GameSpy. p. 3. Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  12. ^ A look back at the Sega Dreamcast
  13. ^ TGS 1999: Sony's grand showing
  14. ^ History of PS2
  15. ^ Sony Pulls in Over $250 Million at Launch. IGN. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
  16. ^ "PlayStation 2 Timeline". GameSpy. pp. 2–3. Retrieved December 19, 2007. 
  17. ^ "PS2 history". gamesindustry.biz. November 22, 2006. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved September 25, 2007. 
  18. ^ "PlayStation 2 Timeline". GameSpy. p. 3. Retrieved December 19, 2007. 
  19. ^ "PlayStation 2 Timeline". GameSpy. p. 2. Retrieved December 19, 2007. 
  20. ^ What Ever Happened To The Dreamcast?. TechnoBuffalo. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
  21. ^ "Hardware Behind the Consoles - Part II: Nintendo's GameCube". AnandTech. Retrieved 2012-10-21. 
  22. ^ Morris, Chris (May 14, 2002). "Sony slashes PlayStation prices: Preemptive move undercuts competition and could spark video game price war". CNN. 
  23. ^ Gaither, Chris. "Sony to Cut PlayStation 2 Price by $100." New York Times: 0. May 14, 2002. ProQuest. Web. 29 July 2013.
  24. ^ "Sony to Cut Price of PlayStation 2 in Japan Market --- Move Follows Plan to Lower Cost of Product in U.S. by a Third." Asian Wall Street Journal: 0. May 15, 2002. ProQuest. Web. 29 July 2013.
  25. ^ a b "Sony to Cut Price of PlayStation 2 Game Console by 20 Percent." Knight Ridder Tribune Business News: 1. Nov 04 2003. ProQuest. Web. 29 July 2013.
  26. ^ Elliott, Valerie (December 9, 2004). "Merry Christmas, your PlayStation 2 is stuck in Suez". Times Online (News International). 
  27. ^ "2004 Holiday Sales Results Call". GameStop. Retrieved September 9, 2006. 
  28. ^ "Final Fantasy XI Review for PlayStation 2 – GameSpot". Uk.gamespot.com. March 23, 2004. Retrieved November 11, 2010. 
  29. ^ Calvert, Justin (November 4, 2003). "PS2 price drop, new colors for Japan". GameSpot. Retrieved July 10, 2007. 
  30. ^ Fahey, Rob (March 9, 2004). "Sony launches new PS2 colors in Japan". gamesindustry.biz. Retrieved July 10, 2007. 
  31. ^ A list of all console colors and console Limited Editions. Consolecolors.com
  32. ^ Sony Settles PS2 "Disc Read Error" Class Action Gamasutra, November 10, 2005
  33. ^ List of PS2 multiplayer games with servers both running and terminated.
  34. ^ "Slimmer, Lighter PlayStation 3, new PlayStation Network services, plenty of content and a great value price" (PDF) (Press release). Sony Computer Entertainment. August 18, 2009. p. 2. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  35. ^ "PlayStation2 Worldwide Hardware Unit Sales". Sony Computer Entertainment. Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  36. ^ Ellie Gibson (May 6, 2008). "PS3 has outsold Xbox 360 in Europe". Eurogamer. Retrieved October 25, 2008. 
  37. ^ Koller, John (January 15, 2009). "PS2 Sells Over 50 Million Units in North America, Breaks Console Sales Record". PlayStation.Blog. Retrieved January 17, 2009. 
  38. ^ Brightman, James (October 20, 2008). "Xbox 360 Growth in Japan Has Topped All Platforms from March to September". GameDaily. AOL. Archived from the original on 2010-03-16. Retrieved October 25, 2008. 
  39. ^ "Dual Shock 2 Review". IGN. September 27, 2001. Retrieved February 7, 2011. "The biggest difference between the Dual Shock 2 and the original… all of the buttons and even the digital pad offer analog support. This means that the d-pad, the four face buttons and the four shift buttons are all pressure-sensitive and have 255 degrees of sensitivity. It is also worth noting that the Dual Shock 2 is a bit lighter than the original Dual Shock because it appears to have less in the way of gears for the vibration function of the controller." 
  40. ^ "PlayStation Knowledge Center | Support - PlayStation.com". Us.playstation.com. January 10, 2011. Retrieved March 27, 2011. 
  41. ^ PS2 Emulators – http://www.sksapps.com/index.php?page=emus.html