PSA Peugeot Citroën

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Peugeot S.A.
Trading name PSA Peugeot Citroën
Type Société Anonyme
Traded as
Industry Automotive
Founded Paris, France (1976)
Headquarters Paris, France
Area served Worldwide except United States, and Canada
Key people Carlos Tavares (CEO and Chairman of the management board)
Thierry Peugeot (Chairman of the supervisory board)
Products Automobiles (73.8%)
Automotive parts (21%)
Financing (2.8%)
Logistics (2.2%)
Motorcycles (0.2%)[1]
Production output 2.97 million units (2012)[2]
Revenue €55.446 billion (2012)
Operating income €-4.698 billion (2012)
Net income €-4.925 billion (2012)
Total assets €68.49 billion (end 2010)[3]
Total equity €10.557 billion (2012)
Owners Peugeot family (50%)
Employees 117,541 Automobile division (end 2012)
202,108 Company total (end 2012)
Subsidiaries
Website www.psa-peugeot-citroen.com

PSA Peugeot Citroën (officially Peugeot S.A., informally PSA) is a French multinational manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles sold under the Peugeot and Citroën marques. PSA is listed on the Euronext Paris stock exchange and is not a constituent of the CAC 40 index.[5][6]

Headquartered in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, PSA (with 2.9 million units) is in 2012 the second-largest Europe-based automaker after Volkswagen Group (9.2 million units), and the 9th largest in the world measured by unit production (6th in 2009).[7]

History[edit]

In December 1974 Peugeot S.A. acquired a 38.2% share of Citroën. On 9 April 1976[8] they increased their stake of the then bankrupt company to 89.95%, thus creating the PSA Group (where PSA is short for Peugeot Société Anonyme), becoming PSA Peugeot Citroën.[9] Since Citroën had two successful new designs in the market at this time (the GS and CX) and Peugeot was typically prudent in its own finances, the PSA venture was a financial success from 1976 to 1979.

In late 1978, PSA purchased the failing Chrysler Europe (which was formerly Rootes and Simca), from the troubled U.S. parent firm for a nominal USD $1.00, plus assumption of outstanding debt, leading to losses for the consortium from 1980 to 1985.[10] Further investment was required because PSA decided to create a new brand for the entity for the disparate French and British models, based on the Talbot sports car last seen in the 1950s. From then on, the whole Chrysler/Simca range was sold under the Talbot badge until production of Talbot-branded passenger cars was shelved in 1987 and on commercial vehicles in 1992.[11]

All of this investment caused serious financial problems for the entire PSA group; PSA lost money from 1980 to 1985. In 1986, the company dropped the Talbot brand for passenger cars when it ceased production of the Simca-based Horizon, Alpine and Solara models. What was to have been the Talbot Arizona became the 309, with the former Rootes plant in Ryton and Simca plant in Poissy being turned over for Peugeot assembly. Producing Peugeots in Ryton was significant, as it signalled the first time that PSA would build cars in the UK. The Talbot name survived for a little longer on commercial vehicles until 1992 before being shelved completely.

Philippe Varin - in Berlin 2013

On 29 February 2012, PSA formally announced the creation of a major alliance with General Motors (GM), as part of which GM became PSA's second-largest shareholder, after the Peugeot family, with a holding of 7%. The alliance is intended to enable $2 billion per year of cost savings through platform sharing, common purchasing and other economies of scale.[12]

In July 2012, a union official said that PSA Peugeot Citroen will cut as 10 percent (8,000-10,000) of its French workforce of 100,356 employees on permanent and temporary contract. The jobs cut is more than previously announced.[13][14]

On October 24, PSA said it was close to an agreement with creditor banks on 11.5 billion euros ($14.9 billion) of refinancing and had won state guarantees on 7 billion euros in further borrowing by its Banque PSA Finance.[15] In that same year, PSA Group along with other major European car makers was under pressure by the European Union, the United States, and its partial owner General Motors, to leave Iran, in which forced PSA Group to end their partnership with Iran Khodro and leave the country. And in doing so, PSA ended up losing revenue rapidly.

CEO Philippe Varin says that "Citroën and Peugeot are too close", so he plans on positioning Citroen C-line models lower than Peugeot with DS models above Peugeot.[16]

On 12 December 2013, General Motors announces it is selling its entire 7% stake in PSA Peugeot Citroën.

On January 2014, DongFeng Motors, the Chinese manufactor with which PSA sells cars in China, and the French government said that they take both 13% of PSA, downing the Peugeot family from 35% to 25%.

Operations[edit]

World locations of PSA factories

The Peugeot and Citroën brands retain separate sales and marketing structures, but share common technology, development and assembling assets.

PSA is actively committed to develop its market presence and sales in many fast growing developing countries and regions of the world. This led to huge investments and partnerships in South America, Iran (Iran Khodro) and China (Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroën Automobile). It announced plans to invest €650 million in a manufacturing plant in Sanand, India. With a capacity of 170,000 vehicles, the Sanand plant is expected to be operational by 2014.[17] In Kazakhstan, assembly of the Peugeot passenger cars will start in June 2013 with a production capacity of 4,000 units per year at the beginning and more than 10,000 units in the near future.[18]

Jean-Martin Folz was PSA's CEO between 1996 and early 2007, when he was replaced by former Airbus head Christian Streiff. Streiff was sacked on 29 March 2009, a day after the company posted a full year loss for 2008.[19] Streiff was replaced by Corus Group chief executive Philippe Varin.[19]

Peugeot Citroën Automobiles SA[edit]

The manufacturer of Peugeot and Citroën branded cars and vans, 100% owned by PSA Peugeot Citroën and formed from the combination of Automobiles Citroën and Automobiles Peugeot. Automobiles Citroën and Automobiles Peugeot remain in operation in relation to specific retail operations in various countries but not in the development or manufacture of vehicles.

Peugeot Citroën Moteurs[edit]

Peugeot Citroën Moteurs is a manufacturer of petrol and diesel engines for a range of companies including Citroën, Ford, Jaguar, Mini and Peugeot. Initially founded by Peugeot in 1898 in Lille and subsequently named Compagnie Lilloise de moteurs (CLM). In 1992 SCM-CLM as it was then known became Peugeot Citroën Moteurs.[20]

The company has a partnership with Ford Motor Company since 1998,[21] currently supplies and receives a range of petrol and diesel engines to Ford and its subsidiaries.

PSA and BMW have an agreement to develop the Prince engine. PSA also sell their engines, gearboxes and other parts to small independent manufacturers such as DeLaChapelle and PGO.[22]

Process Conception Ingénierie[edit]

Process Conception Ingénierie (PCI) is a French based manufacturer of machine-tools for the automotive and aircraft industry.[23]

Peugeot Motocycles[edit]

Peugeot Motocycles is 99.9% owned by PSA and manufacturers a range of mopeds and scooters. The subsidiary owns 50% of the Chinese Jinan Quigqu Peugeot Motocycles joint venture.

Faurecia[edit]

PSA owns 57.43% of automotive supplier Faurecia,[24] a company created by a 1997 merger between Bertrand Faure and PSA-owned ECIA. It provides various components to Citroen and Peugeot together with significant interior and exterior parts to companies such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz.[25]

Gefco[edit]

Gefco is a large international logistics company,[26] established by Peugeot in 1949 and was originally named Les Groupages Express de Franche-Comté. In November 2012, PSA sold a 75% share to Russian Railways (RZD) for €800m.[27]

Motaquip[edit]

Motaquip is an aftermarket parts company established in the UK in 1981.[28]

Financial services[edit]

PSA wholly owns Banque PSA Finance which provides financial services and also 98.67% of GIE PSA Tresorerie which was founded in 1990 as a treasury and cash management services division.

Former marques and subsidiaries[edit]

A number of marques were inherited following the acquisition of Chrysler Europe in 1978, and some were merged to re-establish Talbot, a previously dormant marque. Chrysler marques included the British Sunbeam (1901–1976), Humber (1868-1976), Singer (1905–1970), Commer (1905–1979), Hillman (1907–1976), Karrier (1908–1977), the French Simca (1934–1977) and the Spanish Barreiros (1959–1978)

Cycles Peugeot produced bicycles from 1882 until 2005. In 1987 ProCycle of Canada acquired rights to distribute French-made Peugeots in North America and in 1990, Cycles Peugeot sold the North American rights to market bicycles under the Peugeot name to the Canadian firm ProCycle. In 2001, ProCycle discontinued the Peugeot bicycle brand. In Europe, the license to produce Peugeot-branded bicycles was sold to Cycleurope, a company making bicycles under different names, on condition that it would be reconsidered in 2004. That license was later withdrawn for Europe, though production of bicycles for export continued for another year.

Citer SA is a French based car rental company originally established by Citroën in 1968 was sold to Enterprise Holdings in 2011.[29]

Joint ventures and collaborations[edit]

Sevel SpA[edit]

Main article: Sevel

Seval (Société Européenne de Véhicules Légers SA and Società Europea Veicoli Leggeri-Sevel S.p.A.) was established in 1978 and is equally owned by Peugeot Citroen and Fiat. As a result of this, two factories have been built assembling three ranges of vehicles, Sevel Nord and Sevel Sud. Peugeot and Fiat's Argentinian operations were also joined under the name of Sevel Argentina S.A. (Sociedad Europea de Vehículos para Latinoamérica), although Fiat withdrew in 1995. Currently Sevel builds the Fiat Ducato, Peugeot Boxer and Citroen Dispatch vans.

Dongfeng Peugeot Citroën Automobile Company[edit]

The joint venture with the Chinese company Dongfeng was established in 1992 and produces the 207, 307 and 408 models at factories in Wuhan and Xiangyang.[30]

Toyota Peugeot Citroën Automobile[edit]

In 2002, the joint venture with Toyota Motor Corporation for the development and manufacturing of a series of city cars in a new factory in the Czech Republic was signed. The resulting company is called TPCA (Toyota Peugeot Citroën Automobile) and it currently manufactures the Citroën C1, Peugeot 107 and Toyota Aygo.[31]

Peugeot Citroën Mitsubishi Automotiv Rus[edit]

The Kaluga factory was built by the Russian based joint venture between PSA Peugeot Citroën (70%) and Mitsubishi Motors (30%) established in 2011. The site builds the joint venture Peugeot 4007, Citroën C-Crosser and Mitsubishi Outlander, and the Peugeot 308 and Citroën C4.[32]

BMW Peugeot Citroën Electrification[edit]

In 2011, PSA Peugeot Citroën and BMW agreed an equal joint venture to develop and manufacture hybrid components including battery packs, generators, power electronics and chargers, and software for hybrid systems.[33]

Changan PSA Automobile[edit]

A 50–50 joint venture with the Chinese Chang'an Automobile Group. Based in Shenzhen with an initial annual production capacity of 200,000 vehicles & engines.[34]

Other interests[edit]

In 2008, the company investigated the option to buy Mitsubishi Motors but a deal could not be concluded and was called off in 2010.[35] One outcome of the talks resulted in the Mitsubishi Outlander and Mitsubishi i-MiEV to be sold as Peugeot and Citroen in Europe.[36]

Former joint ventures[edit]

Locations[edit]

Head office[edit]

Head office in Paris, 75 avenue de la Grande Armée, Paris 16th arr.

The head office of PSA Peugeot Citroën is located in the 16th arrondissement of Paris.[38][39] The 50,000-square-metre (540,000 sq ft) 1961 building houses around 2,000 employees. 900 square metres (9,700 sq ft) of space in the lobby includes an automobile showroom.[39]

United Kingdom[edit]

In the United Kingdom, Peugeot Motor Company PLC is a wholly owned UK subsidiary of PSA Peugeot Citroën that operates the Peugeot UK and Citroën UK brands. Peugeot UK's retail arm is Robins & Day which once was part of Rootes Group before becoming a wholly owned subsidiary of Peugeot Motor Company PLC in 1970.

Other locations[edit]

PSA has a number of manufacturing and development sites around the world. Vigo, in Galicia has PSA's biggest factory in the world.

PSA invested INR4 billion establishing new plant in Chennai, India[40]

Vehicles[edit]

Notable vehicles and innovations[edit]

Hybrid Air[edit]

PSA Peugeot Citroën exhibited the "Hybrid Air" engine, an experimental petro-hydraulic hybrid, at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show. The engine is the result of a secret development project involving about 100 people. The basic technology is not new, it has been used in heavy vehicles such as garbage trucks or buses which frequently start and stop, but its application to passenger cars is.[41] The vehicle uses nitrogen gas compressed by energy harvested from braking or deceleration to power an hydraulic drive which supplements power from its conventional gasoline engine. The hydraulic and electronic components were supplied by Robert Bosch GmbH. Production versions were scheduled for 2015 or 2016 to sell at about $25,000, £17,000. Mileage was estimated to be about 80 miles per gallon for city driving if installed in a Citroën C3.[42]

European Car of the Year[edit]

Peugeot S.A., Citroën and PSA have produced a number of European Car of the Year winners:[43]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Peugeot Company Information". NYSE EURONEXT. Retrieved 4 January 2012. 
  2. ^ Mathieu Rosemain (9 January 2013). "Peugeot Quarterly Sales Fall 20% on European Market Drop". bloomberg. Retrieved Jan 9, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Annual Report 2010" (PDF). PSA Peugeot Citroën. Retrieved 25 April 2011. [dead link]
  4. ^ http://www.hindustantimes.com/News-Feed/Auto/Peugeot-to-sell-75-stake-in-Gefco-to-Russia-s-RZD-for-800-mn/Article1-933165.aspx
  5. ^ Ahad, Abdul (2012-09-03). "Embattled Peugeot booted from French CAC 40 index". Brecorder.com. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  6. ^ La Voix Du Nord. "Peugeot éjecté du CAC 40 : un nouveau coup dur pour l'image du constructeur - Journal Numérique - France-Monde". www.lavoixdunord.fr. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  7. ^ "WORLD RANKING OF MANUFACTURERS 2010" (PDF). oica.net. Retrieved 6 October 2011. 
  8. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=MZxAAAAAIBAJ&sjid=GKUMAAAAIBAJ&pg=6208,1716150&dq=citroen&hl=en
  9. ^ Peugeot Motion and Emotion, Corporate interactive history, Undated. Retrieved: 9 April 2012.
  10. ^ "Development of the Simca 180 cars". Rootes-Chrysler.co.uk. Retrieved 11 June 2006. 
  11. ^ "Austin Rover Online". Aronline.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2011. 
  12. ^ "GM and Peugeot announce alliance". BBC News. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012. 
  13. ^ Rosemain, Mathieu (3 July 2012). "July 3, 2012 - Peugeot to Raise French Workforce Cuts to 10,000, Union Says". Bloomberg. 
  14. ^ "Peugeot Citroën may cut 5000 jobs in Europe". Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  15. ^ "Peugeot gets government rescue as crisis deepens". Reuters. October 24, 2012. 
  16. ^ Automotive News Europe. http://europe.autonews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20130312/ANE/130309964/psa-launches-new-brand-strategy-for-peugeot-and-citroen#axzz2NN9OA2to. Retrieved 2013-06-29.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. ^ Pearson, David (1 September 2011). "Peugeot-Citroen to Invest €650 Million in Indian Assembly Plant". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2 September 2011. [dead link]
  18. ^ "Peugeot-Citroën Will Begin Assembly in Kazakhstan in June". The Gazette of Central Asia (Satrapia). 7 March 2013. 
  19. ^ a b "French carmaker Peugeot fires CEO to weather crisis". Reuters. 30 March 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2010. 
  20. ^ "Official website". Peugeot Citroen Moteurs. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  21. ^ "Ford And PSA Peugeot Citroen Announce Plans For Expansion Of Diesel Engine Production". Carpages.co.uk. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  22. ^ "PGO Cévennes". Evo. September 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2013. 
  23. ^ "Official website". PCI. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  24. ^ "2010 Registration Document". PSA Peugeot Citroen. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  25. ^ "Geneva 2011 press pack". Faurecia. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  26. ^ "Official website". Gefco. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  27. ^ "Russian Railways to keep "most" Gefco staff after sale approval". Just Auto. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  28. ^ "About Motaquip". Motaquip. Retrieved 4 January 2012. 
  29. ^ Webb, Alex (21 November 2011). "Enterprise Buys Peugeot Rental-Car Unit". Bloomberg. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  30. ^ "China : Wuhan". PSA Peugeot Citroen. Retrieved 4 January 2012. 
  31. ^ "About us". TPCA website. Retrieved 4 January 2012. 
  32. ^ "PSA Peugeot Citroën and Mitsubishi Motors Corporation begin production at their jointly owned plant in Kaluga". PSA Peugeot Citroën press release. 23 April 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2012. 
  33. ^ "BMW Group and PSA Peugeot Citroën Create Joint Venture to Enhance Cooperation on Hybrid Technologies". BMW Press release. Retrieved 4 January 2012. 
  34. ^ [11311756269.pdf "FIRST HALF RESULTS"]. 2011 FIRST HALF RESULTS – July 27th, 2011. PSA Peugeot Citroen. Retrieved 4 January 2012. 
  35. ^ "Mitsubishi left at the altar – again". Go Auto. 11 March 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2012. 
  36. ^ Lawrence J. Speer (2009). "PSA to launch electric cars next year". autonews.com. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  37. ^ "China Press Kit – September 2010". PSA Peugeot Citroen. Retrieved 8 January 2012. 
  38. ^ "Contact." PSA Peugeot Citroën. Retrieved on 7 July 2010.
  39. ^ a b "Axa allie patrimoine et modernité." Le Journal du Net. Retrieved on 7 July 2010.
  40. ^ "Peugeot to set up Rs 4,000-cr plant in Tamil Nadu". The Times Of India. 30 June 2011. 
  41. ^ Tim Lewis (March 23, 2013). "Peugeot's Hybrid Air: the car of the future that runs on air". The Observer The Guardian (London). Retrieved March 25, 2013. 
  42. ^ David Jolly (March 1, 2013). "Compressing Gas for a Cheaper, Simpler Hybrid". The New York Times. Retrieved March 2, 2013. 
  43. ^ "European Car of the Year webpage" (in Spanish). Caroftheyear.org. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  44. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/motor-shows/geneva-motor-show/10673573/Peugeots-308-wins-2014-Car-of-the-Year.html

External links[edit]