Location of Pabna in Bangladesh
|• Total||2,371.50 km2 (915.64 sq mi)|
|flood plain and marsh land|
|Elevation||8 m (26 ft)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• Density||1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||BST (UTC+6)|
Pabna District (Bengali: পাবনা জেলা Paabna Jela) is a district in north-western Bangladesh. It is the southern most district of Rajshahi Division. Its administrative capital is eponymous Pabna town.
Pabna forms the south-east boundary of Rajshahi Division. Sirajganj District is on the north-east, while the Padma River, main stream of the holy river Ganges, in the south separates it from Rajbari District and Kushtia District. The Jamuna River runs along its eastern border separating it from Manikgonj District; and on the north-west it has a common boundary with the Natore District. Average maximum temperature 36.8°C, minimum 9.6°C; annual rainfall 1872 mm. Characteristically the soil of the district is divided into four, viz flood plains of the Ganges, Karatoya, Jamuna and Barind Tract. Main rivers are Ganges, Ichamati, Gumani, Baral and Hurasagar.
|Climate data for Pabna|
|Average high °C (°F)||23.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.4
|Average low °C (°F)||9.6
|Precipitation mm (inches)||19
The district is intersected by rivers of varying magnitude. But in fact, the river system is constituted by the Padma and the Jamuna with their interlacing offshoots and tributaries. Besides these flowing streams, the interior is visited by the abandoned beds of old rivers, most of which are dry except in the rains.
The general trend of the drainage of the Serajganj subdivision is from north-west to south-east, the rivers entering it from the north-west flow into the Jamuna after a tortuous course. In the Sadar subdivision, however, the general slope of the country is from west to east, and the main rivers fall into Hurasagar, an offshoot of the Jamuna.
The Rivers are Follows in Pabna District:
- Padma River
- Ichhamati River
- Baral River
- Atrai River
- Chiknai River
- Jamuna River
- Kazipur River
- Karatoya River
Archeologist Cunningham conjectured that the name Pabna might be derived from Pundra or Poondrobordhon civilization, whose capital was Mahasthangarh, the oldest city of Bangladesh, in neighbouring Bogra. But this hypothesis has not received general acceptance among scholars.
In 1859-61 the district was one of the major areas involved in the Indigo revolt. Beginning in Yusufshahi period in 1873 the serfs resisted excessive demands of increased rents by feudal lords (zamindar), led by the nouveau riches Banerjees and Dwijendranath Tagore, by forming an Agrarian League. This largely peaceful movement found the support of the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal George Campbell (1824–1892), who antagonized the absentee feudal lords. These protests are generally referred to as Pabna disturbances. In the following year the district was one of the worst hit by famine. The peasant's demands were finally partially met with the Rent Law Act of 1885.
The district comprises nine upazilas:
- Atgharia Upazila
- Bera Upazila
- Bhangura Upazila
- Chatmohar Upazila
- Faridpur Upazila (Formerly Bonwareenogor)
- Ishwardi Upazila
- Pabna Sadar Upazila
- Santhia Upazila
- Sujanagar Upazila
Of the 2.1 million inhabitants, 51.17% are male. 90.12% are Muslims, 9.50% Hindu, 0.22% Christian and others 0.16%. There are 2353 mosques, 420 Hindu temples, and 11 Churches. There is no Buddhist pagoda in Pabna. Thakur Anukulchandra Aasrom (missionary) beside Mental Hospital, Pabna at Hemayetpur has the largest Hindu temple in Pabna.
Locally published newspapers and periodicals:
- newspabna.com, Doinik Ichhamoti, Doinik Uttor Jonota (Ishwardi); weekly: Gan Bikashini, Pabna Barta, Bibriti,weekly banshpatra.daily pabnar alo. Arshi; fortnightly: Jamuna, Charmohar Barta, Faridpur Barta, Junction, Jonodabi (Ishwardi); monthly: Gan Prova, Polli Dorpon, Manoshi, Amar Desh and Pabna, Tawhid (Bhangura), Chetona, Shocheton.
- Main occupations: Agriculture 34%, agricultural farm-hands 22.77%, wage labourer 4.46%, transport 2.18%, weavers 2.85%, commerce 13.27%, service 7.26% and others 13.21%.
- Land control: Among the peasants 29% are landless peasants, 49% small, 18% intermediate and 4% rich.
- Value of land: The market value of the land of the first grade is Tk 15500 per 0.01 acre.
- Crops: Paddy, jute, wheat, sugarcane, oil seeds, onion, garlic, betel leaf (paan), pulses.
- Extinct or nearly extinct crops: Indigo, sesame, linseed, cereals like kaaun and cheena, and orhor pulses.
- Fruits: Mango, jackfruit, banana, lychee (lichu), coconut, guava, pomelo and papaya.
- Fisheries, dairies & poultries: Dairies 1069, fisheries 88, poultry 714, hatcheries 37.
- Industries: Pakshey paper mill, sugar mill, cotton mill, jute press, edible oil mill, Square Pharmaceuticals, biscuit factory, most prominent rice industry is Purbasha Automatic Rice mills Ltd. in Ishwardi and flour mill (Rouf and sons Flour Mill), ice factory, welding, saw mill, cold storage. The SQUARE group established several factories in the district, namely pharmaceuticals, spices, food, toiletries and textile, and converting the agricultural economy of Pabna to an industrial society.
- Cottage industries: Hand loom, bamboo and caneworks, blacksmith, goldsmith, potteries, woodworks and tailoring.
- Main exports: Rice, jute, betel leaf, hosiery goods, cotton, cotton fabrics.
- Active NGOs are: BRAC, CARE, ASA, Grameen Bank, Caritas, Proshika, Shomota, Thengamaara Mohila Shobuj Shongho (TMSS) and Polli Progoti, ASEAB, BOSS.
Average literacy is male 51.8% and female 31.5%. There are 34 colleges, a cadet college, a law college, a government polytechnic institute, a government vocational training institute, a textiles college, a government commerce college, a teachers' training college, a primary teacher's training institute, a nursing training institute, a homeopathic college, 202 high schools, 29 junior high schools, a Madrassa Aliya, 261 qaomi madrassa (seminary), 667 government primary schools, 445 non-government primary schools, 8 community schools, 29 kindergartens, 32 satellite schools, 299 NGO-operated schools, and a music college.
Noted educational institutions are:
- Pabna University of Science and Technology (2008)
- Pabna Edward College (founded 1898), Government Shahid Bulbul College, Pabna Textile Engineering College (2008), Pabna Medical College (2008), Pabna Zilla School (1853)
- Pabna Cadet College (1981)
- Gopal Chondro Institution (GCI) (1894), RM Academy (1899)
- Shahid Fazlul Haque Municipal High School (1967)
- Polytechnic Institute (1891)
- Banglamotion Institute of Engineering & Technology (2012)
- Pabna Town Girls High School (1903)
- Madrassa Aliya (1925), MC Jubilee High School (1936)
- Pabna Cadet Collegiate School (1993)
- Ataikula High School (1938)
- Bhangura Union High School
- Bhangura Jarina Rahim Girls High School
- Haji Jamal Uddin Degree College
- Bhangura Alia Madrassa
- Hadol Madrassa, Debottor (Atgharia)
- Government Primary School (1880)
- Varenga (Bera) Academy (1835)
- Bera B B High School (1899)
- Bera High School (1906)
- Dhobakhola Coronation High School (1906)
- Bonwarinogor (Faridpur)
- CB Pilot High School (1912)
- Shara (Ishwardi) Marwari School (1917)
- Khalilpur (Shujanogor) High School (1901)
- Bhadurpur Government Primary School (1909)
- JotGoury Jalalpur Government Primary School (1943)
- Dulai High School (1967)
- Pabna Collectorate Public School and college (2009)
- Khan Pura High School (1918)
- Malifa Habibor Rahman Multilateral High School (1957)
- Masundia Bhabanipur K.J.B Collage
- Masundia Bhabanipur High School
There is a General Hospital and a Mental Hospital at Pabna. The eleven thanas of the district hold a Upazila health complex each. Each Upazila health complex has qualified doctors who got appointment through Bangladesh Civil Service (BCS) commission. For better treatment people need to go to medical college and other tertiary hospitals in Rajshahi or Dhaka. There is a 250 bed government general hospital here and a 450-bed mental hospital, second oldest in Indian subcontinent, only after Ranchi Mental Hospital, Jharkhand, India. Recently government owned Pabna Medical College and Hospital has been set up. There are around 15 health clinics.
There are roads, waterways, railways and one airport. The traditional paalkee (sedans), tomtom (horse carriages) and gorur gaari (bullock carts) are now going out of the fashion. The Nosimon and Korimon, locally made mechanical hauler using irrigation pumps as main engine, are mainly used for transporting agricultural goods and rural folks. Inexpensive Chinese electric and petrol autobikes (tricycle) are getting popularity as urban transport. Dhaka is about five hours by road. Hardinge Bridge and Lalon Shah Bridge over the Padma linked Pabna with Kushtia District as well as Khulna Division and the southern Bangladesh. Before the Partition of India, it was a major stoppage for trains from Kolkata to Assam and Darjeeling. Pabna is also connected to Dhaka by the age old roadway through the Jamuna River crossing at Nogorbari, opposite to the river crossing of Aricha at Manikgonj District. It is also very well communicated with Dhaka by modern roads through Jamuna Bridge. There is no rail link to Pabna town; nearby rail stations are situated in Chatmohar Upazila and Ishwardi Upazila. Ishwardi Upazila is one of the important railway junctions of the North Bengal as well as in Bangladesh. There are nine rail stations in this district: Ishwardi, Ishwardi Bypass, Pakshi, Muladuli, Chatmohar, Bhangura, Baral Bridge, Sharat Nagar, Dilpashar and Guakhara. Pabna is well connected by road, rail, river or air to the rest of the country.
There is an airport at Ishwardi Upazila. Biman Bangladesh Airlines used to operate twice- weekly services to Ishwardi from Hazrat Shahjalal International Airport, Dhaka. However, no airlines is operating to and from Ishwardi at the moment.
Several Dhaka bound private bus services are available: Pabna Express, Shyamoli Parbahan, Shorkar Travels, Raja Badsha, Ishurdi Express, Shahjadpur Travels, Baadol, Night Star, Kings, Esha, Mohanogor, Capital Service, Sakal Shandha, Uttara, B Nagar, Al Hamra etc. Government owned Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation (BRTC) provides bus services to Rajshahi and Bogra cities. Water transport is important as the Padma and other rivers, and Chalan Beel are situated in Pabna. In Pabna district ride by Nosimon, rickshawvan and Korimon are pleasure worthy.
Places of interest
Pakshey is a popular green area. The railway colony of Pakshey, divisional headquarters of Bangladesh Railway, has many old trees, and is beside the river Padma and the Hardinge Bridge. An export processing zone (EPZ) and the newly built Lalon Shah Bridge are situated here.
Idyllic Poddar Par (the bank of the Padma) at Shilaaidoho Ghaat is 5 km south of town's old Technical Institute, where people can enjoy a river cruise. A river crossing (ghaat) here connects to Shilaaidoho of Kumarkhali Upazila of Kushtia District. Nobel laureate poet Rabindranath Tagore had a Koothibari (villa) at Shilaaidoho, where his birth anniversary is celebrated regularly.
Bangladesh mental Hospital, Pabna is a popular Hospital in Bangladesh beside Pabna main town. There is only one mental hospital in Bangladesh. Mental Patient from anywhere in Bangladesh goes there and get treatment.
There is a marshy area, Chalan Beel, in the north.
Members of ninth Jatiyo Sangshad (2009 - )
- Pabna-1 (Santhia Upazila and part of Bera Upazila) Seat 68: Mohammad Shamsul Haque (Tuku) [from Awami League], State Minister for Home Affairs
- Pabna-2 (Sujanagar Upazila and part of Bera Upazila) Seat 69: Air Vice Marshal (Rtd.) A. K. Khandker [from Awami League], Planning Minister and former Deputy Chief of Staff of Bangladesh Armed Forces during Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971
- Pabna-3 (Chatmohar Upazila, Bhangura Upazila and Faridpur Upazila) Seat 70: Mohammad Mokbul Hossain [from Awami League]
- Pabna-4 (Ishwardi Upazila and Atgharia Upazila) Seat 71: Shamsur Rahman Sharif (Dilu) [from Awami League]
- Pabna-5 (Pabna Sadar Upazila) Seat 72: Khondokar Golam Faruk (Prince) [from Awami League]
- Pramatha Chaudhuri, eminent writer.
- Thakur Anukulchandra, guru, physician and founder of Satsang Ashram.
- Suchitra Sen, actress of Kolkata film industry in the 1950s through 70s.
- Bonde Ali Miah, famous poet
- Air Vice Marshal (Rtd.) A. K. Khandker, first Chief of Staff of Bangladesh Air Force (1971–1975), now Planning,Former Minister
- Bir Muktijuddha Ikbal Hossain, freedom fighter of Bangladesh.
- Bir Muktijuddha Rafikul Islam Bakul, freedom fighter of Bangladesh, died in road accident, November 10, 2000.
- Mirja Azizul Haque, adviser of caretaker gov. 2007 to 2009 .
- Motiur Rahman Nizami, Ameer (chairman) of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh, former Member of Jatiyo Sangshad (2001–2006), former Minister of Agriculture (2001–2003), now under trial for war crimes during the Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971.
- Samson H. Chawdhury, former chairman of Square Group.
- Group Captain (Rtd.) Saiful Azam, former pilot of Bangladesh Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Jordanian Air Force and Iraqi Air Force. He was a war hero of 1965 Indo-Pakistani War and 1967 Arab-Israeli War (Six-Day War).
- General Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri OBE, former Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army.
- Md. Mashkurul Alam (Danny)
- Kalyan Kumar Sen Gupta; Pabna Disturbances and the Politics of Rent 1873-1885; New Delhi 1974
- Md. Shariful Alam (2012). "Pabna District". In Sirajul Islam and Ahmed A. Jamal. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Kalyan Kumar Sen Gupta; Pabna Disturbances and the Politics of Rent 1873-1885; New Delhi 1974
- "AL men appointed administrators". Thedailystar.net. 2011-12-16. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
- "List of Deputy Commissioners". Moestab.gov.bd. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
- "newspabna.com". newspabna.com. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
- [dead link]
- "JS-Legislation". Parliament.gov.bd. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
- "Members of Parliament : All". Lcgbangladesh.org. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
- Ahmed Humayun Kabir Topu, Pabna (2012-01-17). "Poet Bonde Ali's 106th birth anniversary today". Thedailystar.net. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
9. “ Opinion on Care Taker Government and relevant issues (2011), Statement Submitted to Appellate Division of Bangladesh Supreme Court;
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