|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2012)|
|Number built||147 trainsets|
First Great Western
Arriva Trains Wales
Islamic Republic of Iran Railways (1997-2005)
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
Pacer is the operational name of the British Rail Classes 140, 141, 142, 143 and 144 diesel multiple unit railbuses, built between 1984 and 1987. Intended as a short-term solution to a shortage of rolling stock (with a lifespan of no more than 20 years), as of 2013 many Pacer railbuses are still in use.
Under the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 all public transport must be accessible by 2019. Pacers are unable to meet this requirement so may have to be withdrawn by the end of 2019 unless there is a change in legislation.
The 'Pacer' series was a project by British Rail (BR) to create a train, with low running costs, for use on rural and suburban rail services. At the time, BR was under increasing financial pressure from the government including proposals to cut more rail lines. BR set a challenge to several companies to design a cheap, lightweight train similar to railbuses. Since then, 165 Pacer trains (totalling 340 carriages) have been built, with many of the oldest at nearly 25 years old remaining in service in 2009, with some almost 30 years old by 2014.
The Pacer series was the result of an experiment to see whether the possibility of using bus parts to create a diesel multiple unit was viable. The initial prototype, known as LEV-1, was a joint project by the British Rail Research Division and Leyland Motors using a bus body mounted on a modification of an existing freight vehicle underframe (HSFV1). This was followed by the two-car prototype class 140, which was built in 1984 at the British Rail Engineering Derby works.
The prototype was joined by another 20 two-car units which formed the Class 141 fleet. The units were used mainly in Yorkshire, operating on mainly suburban services. They had a capacity of 94 passengers per two-car set, and two Leyland TL11 engines gave a total of 410 bhp (310 kW), resulting in a top speed of 75 miles per hour (120 km/h). The entire class underwent a technical upgrade in 1988 at the Hunslet-Barclay works in Kilmarnock. The units were withdrawn from use in 1997. Many were sold to the Islamic Republic of Iran Railways but have been withdrawn and are left rotting away in disused sidings in Iran, whilst a few remain in preservation. Because it used a standard Leyland National body, the Class 141 was narrower than the later Pacers, and could therefore accommodate only standard bus seating. The later Pacers had widened body panels to allow an increase in seating.
The next and largest Pacer class was the Class 142. This again was built by Leyland and BREL, in 1985. The body was based on a Leyland National bus, built at Lillyhall, Workington in Cumbria. Many fixtures and fittings of the Leyland National could be found on the train. The new class had a greater capacity of 120 passengers per two-car set and the same engines were used. The first sets were used initially on Devon and Cornwall branch lines and on commuter services in the North West. The units from Cornwall were eventually moved to Liverpool and the North-East, and the Class 142 has become a common sight on services across the North of England. The class was upgraded in the early 1990s to include more powerful engines, which gave a total power output of 460 bhp (340 kW) per two-car set. A number of trains were then modified for use on the Merseyside PTE City Line on Merseyrail in the Liverpool region, which included dot-matrix route indicators, improved seating and Merseyrail PTE paintwork. This class moved into the control of First North Western at privatisation and subsequently passed on to Northern Rail and Arriva Trains Wales who have since operated it. Eight units were temporarily withdrawn from service, replaced by a cascading of British Rail Class 158s. First Great Western received 12 units on loan from Northern Rail from December 2007 to November 2011 (5 units were returned to Northern in December 2008) to cover for refurbishment of their fleet and to allow most of their Class 158 fleet to be rebuilt as 3 car sets.
Class 143 & Class 144
Around the same time of the Class 142 development, a Pacer railbus was being developed by Kilmarnock-based Hunslet-Barclay. The train used a Walter Alexander bus body. The train was given the number Class 143 and entered service in 1985. Again with two 205 bhp motors giving a total output of 410 bhp (310 kW) and a top speed of 75 mph (121 km/h), the class originally had a capacity of 122 passengers. The class was used in the North East of England, before being transferred to Wales and was moved over to Wales & West control during privatisation. It then passed on to Wessex Trains, which became part of the Great Western franchise. The interior was completely changed in 2000, when the Valley Lines service was introduced, with full back, coach-type seating installed throughout, along with improved fittings. This reduced seating capacity to 106 seats per set.
Then came a similar Class 144 train, a Walter Alexander body on BREL underframe, which was introduced in 1987. A unit was formed of either a two-car set with 122 seats or a three-car set with a total capacity of 195 passengers and 690 bhp (510 kW), though still limited to 75 mph (121 km/h). The trains were used in the North East, passing to Northern Spirit at privatisation, then Arriva Trains Northern and now Northern Rail.
Although the Pacer is economical, there are limitations to using bus parts for railway use. Instead of the more usual bogies, Pacers use a basic four-wheel two-axle configuration. The lack of articulation can result in a rough ride, especially over points and around tight curves. Other performance problems include poor acceleration and poor reliability for some units. On a section of line between Northwich and Greenbank in Cheshire the speed limit is 20 mph (32 km/h) but could be raised to 50 mph (80 km/h) if Pacer trains were banned from the line. The basic bus bench seating can also be uncomfortable, whilst the suspension has given rise to the nickname "Nodding donkeys" due to the up and down motion on uneven track. The inward-opening doors similar to those on buses can be unreliable and the two-step entrance make loading slower and hard for the elderly and those in wheelchairs.
Doubts were raised about safety after the Winsford crash, which involved an empty First North Western Class 142 colliding with a Virgin Trains Class 87 and coaching stock at Winsford, Cheshire on the West Coast Main Line. The body of the Pacer was severed from its frames, causing severe internal damage, which caused the unit to be written off.
As of 2013, the oldest Pacers are 29 years old. Various train operating companies have investigated ways of trying to replace their Pacers, although little progress has yet been made. Arriva Trains Wales have acquired Class 150 Sprinters from other operators to reduce their dependency on Pacers for Valley Lines services. Northern Rail had planned to replace a number of Pacers with cascaded Sprinters, but due to rising passenger numbers the Pacers will remain in operation alongside the Sprinters. As of 2013 Northern Rail still operates over 100 Pacers.
Although most Pacer railbuses (classes 142, 143 and 144) are still in use on the UK Rail Network, At least 3 (class 141) units have so far been preserved for tourism use on heritage railways.
As the rest of the Pacer fleet may all be withdrawn by the end of 2019, some other units (such as the classes 142, 143 and 144) could someday be preserved for use on heritage lines.
In 2011, a Pacer Preservation Society was set up with the aim of preserving at least one example or two of the British Rail Class 142, 143 and 144 railbuses each
- Alan Whitehouse (21 October 2011). "Long-term safety fears over Yorkshire's Pacer trains". BBC News.
- Rail Programme Director, GMPTE (15 October 2010). "Reforming rail franchising consultation - response". Greater Manchester Integrated Transport Authority (GMITA).
- "Rolling Stock of Iranian Railways".
- "Angel Trains leases 30 Class 158 diesel multiple units to Northern Rail" (PDF). Northern Rail. 13 March 2007.
- "Safety fears over commuter trains". BBC News. 2 July 1999.
- "Train driver averts disaster". BBC News. 23 June 1999.
- "Ask the MD". Arriva Trains Wales. Retrieved 2009-03-24. "the Welsh Assembly Government have provided us with additional Class 150 trains, which are in regular use on the Valleys services to supplement the Pacer fleet, which makes it more likely that you will travel on a Class 150 than previously."