Pachino

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Pachino
Comune
Comune di Pachino
Panorama of Pachino
Panorama of Pachino
Coat of arms of Pachino
Coat of arms
Pachino is located in Italy
Pachino
Pachino
Location of Pachino in Italy
Coordinates: 36°43′N 15°6′E / 36.717°N 15.100°E / 36.717; 15.100Coordinates: 36°43′N 15°6′E / 36.717°N 15.100°E / 36.717; 15.100
Country Italy
Region Sicily
Province Syracuse (SR)
Frazioni Marzamemi
Government
 • Mayor Paolo Bonaiuto
Area
 • Total 50.47 km2 (19.49 sq mi)
Elevation 65 m (213 ft)
Population (31 December 2004)
 • Total 21,508
 • Density 430/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
Demonym Pachinesi
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 96018
Dialing code 0931
Patron saint Madonna Assunta
Saint day August 15
Website www.comune.pachino.sr.it

Pachino (Italian pronunciation: [paˈkino]; Sicilian: Pachinu) is a town and comune in the Province of Syracuse, Sicily (Italy). The name derives from the Roman word bacchus which is the Greek and Roman god of wine, and the word ino, which means wine in the Latin language; originally the town was named Bachino which eventually was changed to Pachino when, in Sicily, Italian became the official spoken and written language.

It was founded in 1760 by the nobles Starraba, princes of Giardinelli and marquises of Rudini, on the hill of the feud of Scibini, where a preexisting tower was built in 1494. Pachino was invaded in 1943 by the British 8th Army as a part of the allied invasion of Sicily.

Geography[edit]

Pachino is situated at the south-east corner of Sicily, 51 kilometres (32 mi) south of Siracusa. The neighboring comunes are Noto (North), Portopalo di Capo Passero (South) and Ispica (East). The adjacent port of Marzamemi is located at the extreme southern tip of Sicily, and has many 18th-century buildings and fishermen's cottages.[1]

Beaches[edit]

The beaches of the area of Pachino follow the coasts for a total of 8 kilometres (5 mi). The best known are those of Lido, and Cavettone Morghella on the Ionian Coast (from Marzamemi southbound), while on the Mediterranean Coast are to Cuffara (also known as Carratois), Amber Coast, near Contrada Tanneries, Scarpitta, Chiappa and Raneddi (grains), Ulysses to the port. The sea is clear and a deep blue on the Ionian coast also in view of the seabed, instead of emerald green on the Mediterranean coast, is rich in fish, which makes the area an important commercial reference, especially for the fish market in Catania. The restoration of fish and the sea are very clean in the area of Pachino makes for a very popular tourist spot, with a flow of tourists rather than permanent and significant, even considering the interest of an area for surfers, with its current suckers, is particularly suited to the sport of windsurfing.

Climate[edit]

Located 65 metres (213 ft) above sea level in south-eastern province of Syracuse, straddling the Mediterranean Sea and the Ionian, has a mild climate from autumn to spring, a clear sky always throughout the year. A survey of the European Union of 2001 has called the city and the sunniest sky more clear and clean of the whole European Union, and a warm climate in the Summer. The snow is very rare, being the most significant events that occurred in January 1905 and February 1956. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Csa" (Mediterranean Climate).[2]

Climate data for Pachino, Italy
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 15
(59)
15
(59)
16
(61)
18
(64)
22
(71)
26
(78)
29
(84)
29
(85)
27
(81)
23
(74)
19
(66)
16
(61)
21.3
(70.3)
Average low °C (°F) 9
(49)
9
(49)
11
(51)
12
(54)
16
(60)
19
(67)
22
(72)
23
(73)
21
(70)
18
(64)
14
(57)
11
(52)
15.4
(59.8)
Avg. precipitation days 12 9 8 6 4 1 1 1 3 7 11 11 74
Source: Weatherbase [3]

History[edit]

Pachino was founded in 1760 by the nobles Starraba, princes of Giardinelli and marquises of Rudini, on the hill of the feud of Scibini, where a preexisting tower was built in 1494. Pachino was occupied in 1943 by the British 8th Army as part of the allied invasion of Sicily.

Prehistory[edit]

The promontory of Pachino was formed during the Cretaceous (more than 70 million years ago). It seems that the Promontorium Pachyni was inhabited from the earliest Prehistoric Times, although these attendances are not many testimonials: about 10,000 years ago the cave was inhabited Corruggi, in which were discovered numerous archaeological finds, are largely preserved at the Regional Archaeological Museum of Paolo Orsi in Syracuse. These scrapers, knives, spears, awls, needles and other objects of everyday use. From the caves of Corruggi and Fico, during the Neolithic Period, (between 8000 and 1500 BC), a man went to live in the caves (one of the best known of this area is the Grotte Calafarina). Later, in the Iron, copper and bronze, until the arrival of the Sicilians, the cliff dwellings were moved to the nearby area called "Cugni of Calafarina". Hence arose the village and the cemetery, a dolmen for the deceased and an underground oven for metalworking, whose remains were brought to light by Paolo Orsi, are still well preserved and quite visible today.

Antiquity[edit]

In 750 BC, the ancient territory of Pachino was inhabited by the Phoenicians, the Punics, and the Greeks. From 200 to 400 AD, to dominate the area were the Romans were, which made it a center of commercial activity and colonization. With their greatly developed agriculture, and particularly the cultivation of grapes and wheat. In the Hellenistic Period were built several temples, one dedicated to Apollo Libystino. Still today remain the ruins of a temple shrine in the rural district Cugni, places in which they were drawn away Elorina rails, still visible on the rock. The district Cugni to the high concentration of ancient remains, appears to be a sort of "archaeological park".

Middle Ages[edit]

After the Romans, the Byzantines came (from 300 to 800), then the Arabs (800 to 1090) and, finally, the Normans. The Arabs gave the name to the village of Marzamemi, in which they built the trap, remained in operation until the 1950s, introduced the cultivation of citrus fruits, reclaimed campaigns, complete the aqueduct of Xibini Tower, built, and the salt wells to irrigate fields Senia (still working), including one at the gates of Marzamemi, u said de puzzu quattru uocchi, used for centuries, even at the industrial level, by different peoples, including pirates. The city's decline began with the Normans, the Aragonese and the Angevins. In this period the fortifications were built of Torre Torre Xibini and Fano against piratical invasions of the Turks.

Modern Era[edit]

From 1583 to 1714, born in Sicily a hundred new feudal lands. In this period results in a substantial change in the geography of agro Netino, with the foundation, in the coastal strip between the traps of Marzamemi and Cape Passero and ports of Portopalo and Marza, Pachino and Portopalo. The story begins when the current Pachino, in 1734, the Starrabba of Piazza Armerina, owners of estates and Scibini Bimmisca and, as such, with the baronetcy in addition to the principles of Giardinelli, decided to reside in the territory to better care their interests and also to acquire the title of Count. To this end, the brothers Gaetano and Vincent Starrabba asked, in 1758, Charles III of Bourbon, and later, in 1760, Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies permission to found a city (licentia populandi), a decree was issued Naples, on July 21, 1760, and was made enforceable on 1 December 1760. Prince Ferdinand I wanted to enact the conditions of the Royal Decree. So he invited the neighbors to populate the new Maltese country and more than thirty families accepted the invitation. The first families were: Agius, Azzoppard, Arafam, Bughagiar, Bartolo, Caldies, Bonelli, Cammisuli, Borgh, Cassar Scalia, Boager, Fenech, Ferruggia, Grech, Mizzi, Meilach, Micalef, Mallia, Ongres, Saliba, a Sultan, and Xueref other.

Monuments[edit]

Landmarks[edit]

Chiesa Madre SS Crocifisso
  • Chiesa Madre SS. Crocifisso: built in 1790 by Marchese Vincenzo Starrabba for the Christian Community, it has a simple structure comprising a single aisle with a chapel on the right of the apse, there are the remains of Gaetano and Vincent Starrabba. Renovated in 2010.
  • Torre Scibini: built in 1439 of Count Antonio de Xurtino to deal with the raids of Saracen pirates.
  • Tonnara di Marzamemi: dates from the time of the domination of the Arabs in Sicily in 1630, was sold by the owner to the Prince of Villadorata.
  • Palazzo e Chiesa della Tonnara: built in 1752.
  • Palazzo Tasca: construction 19th century, which houses an impressive backyard paved with flagstones by limestone.

Archeological sites[edit]

  • Grotta Corruggi (Paleolithic).
  • Ditches to collect rainwater (Paleolithic).
  • Cave Fico (Mesolithic).
  • Grotta Calafarina (Neolithic).
  • Necropolis (oven graves), and oven dolmens (Neolithic).
  • Basements of huts (Neolithic).
  • Greek Temple (the base for columns) (3rd century).
  • Roman Village (3rd or 4th century).

Culture[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Cinema[edit]

The town of Pachino and its surroundings have been repeatedly chosen as the location of movie sets, including:

  • Kaos (1984) by the Taviani brothers.
  • South (1993) by Gabriele Salvatores.
  • The Star Maker (1995) by Giuseppe Tornatore.
  • Overseas (1999) Nello Correale.
  • Raging Heart (2003) Gianluca Sodaro.
  • The Iguana (2004) by Catherine McGilvray.
  • Salvatore - This Is Life (2006) by Gian Paolo Cugno.

Pachino was also set for some episodes of the drama Inspector Montalbano. Since 2000, the town hosts the Festival of Cinema of the Frontier, which takes place in the main square of Marzamemi, with screenings of films and short films from different parts of the world.

Fractions[edit]

Marzamemi is the fishing village of Pachino. Its name derives from the Arabic al-Marsa-hamem, which means "bay of turtledoves," last frontier of the island, the tip of Sicily. In the beginning was an Arab village. The center of Marzamemi, with its architecture (including the salt, the trap and the first "Arab casuzze" date from this first settlement. Marzamemi The current form and took an official capacity in 1752, when the Prince of Villadorata made work at the building, the lodge, the new trap and the Catholic Church.

Economy[edit]

Pachino is a city that bases its economy essentially on agriculture. In 19th century had developed the cultivation of cotton, but since the late 19th century it spread and became established culture of the vine: the Pachino area increases the importance of 'musts and wines for export to the markets of northern Italy and France as wines cutting. Until the late 1960s, the fact Station Pachino set off to many destinations such wagons tank loads of robust local wine and appreciated. In 1970s viticulture Pachino has been undergoing a period of crisis, which led to the abandonment and grubbing of many vineyards, replaced by greenhouse crops of fruit and vegetables that are now the main production. This market generates a very high turnover and employs almost 4000 people just in the neighborhood Pachino. As in other cases, even the fruit and vegetable stands in moments of difficulty, due to market disruptions and infrastructure. We saw a revival of the vineyards, however, dedicated to quality productions such as Nero d'Avola and wines other DOC. Famous is also the local production of mullet by Tuna in red, which is produced by artisans, according to old Arab traditions, Marzamemi. Is also developed conservation, craft, fruit and vegetables and locally caught fish, keeper of ancient culinary traditions, and now much sought after.Basically most of the economy is still tied to the production of fruit and vegetables, which stand in the cherry tomatoes of Pachino (IGP) and "ribbed", but the farmers' hopes are directed to the recovery of viticulture and, above all, the production of quality wines. The town is part of the City of Wine.

References[edit]

External links[edit]