Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve

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The Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve is a non use conservation area in the Satpura Range of Madhya Pradesh state, India. It was created on March 3, 1999 by the Indian government and covers parts of Hoshangabad, Betul, and Chhindwara districts. In 2009 it was designated a biosphere reserve by UNESCO.

The biosphere reserve's total area is 4926.28 km². It includes three wildlife conservation units: the Bori Sanctuary (518.00 km²), Satpura National Park (524.37 km²), and Pachmarhi Sanctuary (461.37 km²). Satpura National Park is designated as the core zone and the remaining area of 4401.91 km², including the Bori and Pachmarhi sanctuaries, serves as the buffer zone.

The reserve is mostly covered in forest. It is an important transition zone between the forests of western and eastern India; the forests are dominated by teak (Tectona grandis) but include the westernmost groves of sal (Shorea robusta), which is the dominant tree of eastern India's forests. Large mammal species include tiger, leopard, wild boar, muntjac deer, gaur (Bos gaurus), chital deer (Axis axis), sambar (Cervus unicolor), and rhesus macaques. Bison, Indian giant squirrel and flying squirrel are endemic fauna of this reserve.



This reserve is well known for its rich forests. A part of the reserve vegetation has been studied by Prof. C.P. Kala, especially with respect to the indigenous uses of the plants. The reserve has several sacred groves, which are have a diverse range of flora and comprise many useful species, including wild edible fruits and medicinal plants.[1] Teak and sal are the most prevalent trees. Other endemic vegetation includes wild mango, silver fern, jamun and arjun.[2]


The endemic fauna includes chinkara, nilgai, barking deer, cheetal, leopards, wild dogs and wolves.[3]


Fourteen ethno-botanical species occur in PBR have been studied, which are traded from the selected villages of the buffer zone area of PBR. Different plant parts of these important species are collected by the local people for their own consumption and trade. A total 5 ethno-botanical species such as Acacia nilotica, Anogeissus latifolia, Sterculia urens, Terminalia tomentosa and Terminalia arjuna are sought for the collection of gums. In Acacia nilotica and Terminalia tomentosa, the gums ooze out by itself from their branches without making any cut on the tree, which is collected by the talented people. Anogeissus latifolia, Sterculia urens and Terminalia arjuna are treated conventionally for collection of gyms by making cuts into the stem. The trade in gum generally has brought good returns to the local people.[4]


  1. ^ "Kala, Chandra Prakash 2011. Journal of Environmental Protection". 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2012-06-29. 
  2. ^ National Council of Educational Research and Training. "Science: Textbook for Class VIII". Publication Department, 2010, p.80.
  3. ^ National Council of Educational Research and Training. "Science: Textbook for Class VIII". Publication Department, 2010, p.80.
  4. ^ Kala, Chandra Prakash 2013. Harvesting and Supply Chain Analysis of Ethnobotanical Species in the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve of India. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 1 (2): 20-27

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