Pacificus of Verona

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Pacificus of Verona (Italian: Pacifico di Verona) (c. 776 – 23 November 844 AD) was a 9th-century Carolingian Italian religious leader, notable for his tenure as the archdeacon of Verona from 803 until his death in 844, as well as the historiographical debate over the validity of the many achievements ascribed to him.

During his residency in Verona, he is alleged to have accomplished a number of feats, including composing or copying a large volume of texts, founding or helping to found several institutions in and around Verona, as well as several inventions that have been attributed to him. His works have been referenced and idealized by many inhabitants of Verona throughout history, and his charters were frequently used as evidence in debates surrounding the authority of the bishops and archdeacons of the city. He was reportedly well educated on a variety of subjects and has been held up by some as an example of a Carolingian Uomo Universale. There is a street named after him in Verona.

Sources[edit]

Not much can be determined about Pacificus from contemporary documents, as few survive from his time. His existence is proved by at least one private document bearing his autograph signature from 809,[1] as well as possibly a second similar document from 814.[2] These documents relate to the properties held by the schola sacerdotum (a school for priests) he is credited with founding in Verona. There are several other charters or documents claimed to have been written or signed by Pacificus, but their authenticity is currently a matter of debate.[3] In addition there are several marginalia believed to have been written by Pacificus on manuscripts from Church's Veronese archives, as well as numerous manuscripts attributed to him.[4]

What other information available on his life comes from later sources, and there is some debate as to the reliability of the information they give us.[5] These sources include two epitaphs in the Verona Cathedral which had long been thought contemporaneous to Pacificus, but which some now argue date from the cathedral's construction in the twelfth century, some 270 years after Pacificus' death.[6][7][8] Other sources providing details from Pacificus' life include the fourteenth-century work Historiae Imperialis (Imperial History) by Giovanni de Matociis (commonly known as Giovanni Mansionario), and the 16th-century work Antiquitates Veronenses by the Augustinian monk Onuphrius Panvinius.

Life[edit]

Early Life and Career[edit]

Little is known about Pacificus' early life. He was supposedly descended from noble stock, and was educated at the Abbey of Reichenau,[9] known for it clerical school which produced clerks for many Imperial and ducal chanceries during the Carolingian period. When he returned to Verona he took charge of the Veronese cathedral chapter's school and scriptorium.

One of the few known events from his early life, when Pacificus was a deacon in Verona. The earliest account of this event comes from Panvinius' Antiquates Veronenses. In 798 Charlemagne decided to rebuild the city walls to protect the city against the threat of the Avar Khaganate. The cost of rebuilding the walls led to disputes between the clerical and civic authorities of the city over the burden of payment. The citizens demanded that the clergy pay one third of the cost, while the clergy insisted that they only need pay one quarter, as was customary. Without proof to support either side, it was decided to subject a representative of both sides to an ordeal by cross, and Pacificus was chosen to represent the clergy. Both parties stood against a cross holding their arms out while the Passion according to Matthew was read aloud. Pacificus held his arms upright through the entire reading while his opponent lowered his, leading the judge to rule that God favored Pacificus' side. Pacificus' victory was considered proof of an established custom afterwards, such as when Lothair planned to restore the city walls, and the clergy of Verona only had to pay one quarter of the costs of restorations of the walls.[10][11][12]

Archdeacon of Verona[edit]

Pacificus was promoted to the position of archdeacon of Verona most likely in 803, thought issues have been raised with this date. After this, there are two mutually exclusive accounts of his life, around which there is some debate. The long accepted version paints Pacificus as a pious, model clergyman, who was a staunch defender of his bishop Ratoldus, even going so far as to administer the diocese during Ratoldus' absence from 834-840, until his death in 844.[13]

As archdeacon, Pacificus was known for his active role in administering and establishing institutions in the city. He was reportedly the founder of the city's schola sacerdotum at the beginning of the ninth century, which he later made directly subject to the Patriarch of Aquileia. He is described as participating in writing a document from June 813 with Bishop Ratoldus which grants the schola an independent income, and later arguing that the schola was independent from the authority of the bishop. He also is credited with donating the land upon which the schola's church was built, which was used as an argument that it remained outside the authority of the bishop.[14][15][16] Pacificus was also supposedly involved with the building or renovating of a number of other churches throughout the area, including the Basilica of St Zeno.[17] He also was responsible in his will for donating his house for the establishment of a xenodochium, an institute which took care of the poor and sick, and the distributions of alms. This generosity was used by later archdeacons as a model for behavior and duties.[18][19][20]

Pacificus is credited in his epitaph with having written 218 books on a variety of subjects, including liturgical texts, poetry, and glossa on various texts.[21] He also kept up a wide correspondence with other clerical figures of the time, including exchanging various texts.[22] He was supposedly fluent in Hebrew and Greek as well as Latin, and was very well read.[23] In the church's Veronese archives there are marginalia and notes attributed to Pacificus on texts such as the Sapiential Books, Psalms, and the Rule of St Benedict. He also was responsible for copying and restoring a number of other texts in the chapter's possession, and notes and corrections believed to be in Pacificus' hand are found on copies of texts by St Augustine, Pope Gregory the Great, Sulpicius Severus and St Jerome.[24] Pacificus was also credited with the composition of the second of his two epitaphs for some time,[25] until it was noted that the text was in fact an adaptation of the epitaph of Alcuin of York.[26][27][28]

Pacificus the Inventor[edit]

In addition to his religious compositions, Pacificus is also credited with the writing of several pieces on secular knowledge, including a book on astronomy. He is also credited with the invention of several devices, including a means to throw flames from ships,[29][30][31] but his most famous invention is his clock. On his epitaph, he is credited with the creation of a "nocturnal clock" (horlogium nocturmum).[32] This was long believed to be the first mechanical clock, or Water clock, a fact repeated in numerous sources even up to the present day.[33][34][35] In medieval texts and illustrations however, it is shown that his "clock" was in fact an observation tube with crosshairs, accompanied by an argumentum, a text containing instructions on how to interpret the observations, and it was intended to be used not just so that monks could determine the hour of night, but also for calendrical purposes.[36][37]

Doubts and Criticisms[edit]

The life and accomplishments of Pacificus of Verona has recently come under fire, most prominently by Italian medievalist Cristina La Rocca. La Rocca makes an argument that much of what is attributed to Pacificus is in fact a fabrication constructed by later medieval writers to support their own arguments.[38][39] La Rocca argues that Pacificus, while still real and holding the position of archdeacon of Verona for some time, was not the illustrious, well-educated and charitable author, inventor and architect he is purported to be. La Rocca notes that Pacificus, along with the rest of the cathedral chapter, likely sided with King Bernard of Italy during his rebellion against his uncle, Emperor Louis the Pious, of whom the Veronese Bishop Ratoldus was a staunch supporter. According to La Rocca, this rivalry between Pacificus the Archdeacon and Ratoldus the Bishop likely ended with Pacificus' banishment following the failure of Bernard' rebellion, a fact supported by the fact that a monk named Pacificus (a relatively rare name) appears in the records of the Abbey of Nonantola in 826. If Pacificus was banished, it is likely that he remained in Nonantola until his death.[40]

La Rocca's arguments hinge upon the fact that there are few documents about Pacificus that can be proven to have been written from his lifetime. She admits the two documents relating to the establishment of the schola as legitimate, and little else. The epitaphs in the Verona cathedral, which had long been thought contemporaneous to Pacificus, she argues in fact date from the construction of the cathedral in the twelfth century. She argues that it was during the tenure of Theobald as archdeacon of Verona (1120-1135), who was the first bishop to be appointed from the ranks of the cathedral chapter (1135-1157), that Pacificus' name first appeared in reference to many documents related to the cathedral chapter's history and the founding of the schola and xenodochium. She argues that these documents were created to strengthen the chapter's claims to a number of churches and other properties in Verona, by constructing the story around Pacificus to illustrate the chapter's Carolingian roots and traditions in an attempt to support its claims of autonomy from the bishop of Verona and protect the chapter from the reforms within the church at the time. One of the items constructed during this period, according to La Rocca, is the epitaphs, or at least the first one, which were mounted in the Verona Cathedral, where they were publicly visible, to support their claims surrounding Pacificus and have him serve as a model of the duties of an archdeacon.[41] She argues that it is based on this epitaph that much of the later work written about Pacificus is based upon, with later additions to his story being similarly constructed to serve the purposes of the present by moving the argument into the past, such as Panvinius' account of the trial surrounding the payment for the reconstruction of the city's walls being fabricated to underscore an argument the clergy of Verona were having at the time with the Venetian Republic's tax assessment of the church.[42]

La Rocca was not the first to raise issues regarding the epitaphs, however, as there was much debate in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries over their provenance. Issues were raised regarding the date of their construction, their original location within the cathedral as well as that of Pacificus' tomb, and surrounding the dates mentioned for when Pacificus served as archdeacon. It was noted that the two epitaphs contained conflicting dates as to his death, and that the years listed for Pacificus archdeaconship conflicted with established facts regarding the dates during which Lothair was King of Italy, the fact that the first epitaph specifically names the day (Sunday) and month in which he died despite the fact that the day he supposedly died did not fall on a Sunday in the year mentioned, as well as the existence of separate documents listing different archdeacons in Verona during the years he was supposedly in office, Tisus in 806 and Audo in 845.[43] The documents used to justify the chapter's exemptions were also challenged prior to La Rocca, and were eventually declared to be forgeries by an investigation instigated by Benedict XIV in 1756.[44]

While La Rocca has raised a number of questions about the veracity of the claims surrounding Pacificus of Verona, her arguments are not entirely accepted among medieval scholars. Many scholars accept the conclusions she has reached, such as Nicholas Everett, who in his 2003 book Literacy in Lombard Italy describes "... the more famous examples of marginalia attributed to Bishop Pacificus [sic] and his schola sacerdotum, both of which appear to belong more to the realm of myth than history."[45] However there are also those who do not accept her version of Pacificus' history, such as the late Donald A. Bullough, who in his 2004 book Alcuin, Achievement and Reputation, stated "The elaborate attempt by C. La Rocca ... to impugn the authenticity of the epitaphs and their evidence for Pacificus' life and career has not persuaded me or others."[46]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Pacificus, Fondo Veneto, I, no. 6529. 13 May 809. Verona. Archivio Segreto Vaticano, cited in in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  2. ^ Pacificus, III-4-3r. 20 June 814. Verona. Archivio Capitolare Veronese, cited in in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  3. ^ Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  4. ^ "Codices Latini Antiquiores: a paleographical guide to latin manuscripts prior to the ninth century," Italy: Perugia-Verona, Vol. 4, ed. Elias Avery Lowe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1947), 472-516.
  5. ^ Cristina La Rocca, Pacifico di Verona. Il Passato Carolingio Nella Costruzione Della Memoria Urbana, (Nella Sede Dell'Istituto, 1995), cited in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  6. ^ A. Bartoli, "Il complesso romanico," La cattedrale di Verona nelle vicende edilizie dal secolo VI al secolo XVI, ed. P. P. Brugnoli (Verona: 1987), 101-65, cited in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  7. ^ Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 252-254.
  8. ^ Cristina La Rocca, Pacifico di Verona. Il Passato Carolingio Nella Costruzione Della Memoria Urbana, (Nella Sede Dell'Istituto, 1995), cited in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  9. ^ Maureen C Miller, The Formation of a Medieval Church: Ecclesiastical Change in Verona, 950-1150, (New York: Cornell University Press, 1993), 124.
  10. ^ Onuphrius Panvinius, Antiquitates Veronenses, (Patavii: 1648), cited in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)
  11. ^ Maureen C Miller, The Formation of a Medieval Church: Ecclesiastical Change in Verona, 950-1150, (New York: Cornell University Press, 1993), 17.
  12. ^ Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 262-264.
  13. ^ Maureen C Miller, The Formation of a Medieval Church: Ecclesiastical Change in Verona, 950-1150, (New York: Cornell University Press, 1993), 124.
  14. ^ Pacificus, II-I-Ir. 24 June 813. Verona. Archivio Capitolare Veronese, cited in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)
  15. ^ Maffei, Scipione, Istoria telologica delle dottrine e delle opinioni corse nei primi cinque secoli della chiesa in proposito della divina grazia del libero arbito e della predestinazione, (Trent, 1742), cited in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  16. ^ Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 251-252.
  17. ^ Epitaph of Pacificus of Verona, translated to English in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 254-255.
  18. ^ Original document is lost, a copy exists as: G. Dionisi, De duobus episcopis Aldone et Notingo. (Verona, 1758), 75-79, cited in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  19. ^ Maureen C Miller, The Formation of a Medieval Church: Ecclesiastical Change in Verona, 950-1150, (New York: Cornell University Press, 1993), 87-88.
  20. ^ Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 252.
  21. ^ Epitaph of Pacificus of Verona, translated to English in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 254-255.
  22. ^ Maureen C Miller, The Formation of a Medieval Church: Ecclesiastical Change in Verona, 950-1150, (New York: Cornell University Press, 1993), 124.
  23. ^ "The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church," Tournon-Zwirner, Vol. 15, Charles George Herbermann, ed. New York: Robert Appelton Company/The Encyclopedia Press, 1913. s.v. "Diocese of Verona." http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Diocese_of_Verona (accessed October 21, 2013).
  24. ^ "Codices Latini Antiquiores: a paleographical guide to latin manuscripts prior to the ninth century," Italy: Perugia-Verona, Vol. 4, ed. Elias Avery Lowe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1947), 472-516.
  25. ^ Maffei Scipione, "Praefatio", Cassiodori senatoris complexione, (Florence, 1721), cited in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  26. ^ Donald A Bullough, Alcuin, Achievement and Reputation: Being part of the Ford lectures delivered in Oxford in Hilary Term 1980, (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2004), 308-309, n180.
  27. ^ Cristina La Rocca, Pacifico di Verona. Il Passato Carolingio Nella Costruzione Della Memoria Urbana, (Nella Sede Dell'Istituto, 1995), cited in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  28. ^ Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 254, 266, 273.
  29. ^ G. B. C. Giuliari, La capitolare bibliotec di Verona, (Verona. 1993) cited in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  30. ^ A. Campana, "Veronensia", Miscellenea Giovanni Mercati II, Studi e testi 122 (Vatican, 1946), cited in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  31. ^ R. Brenzoni, "Intorno alle origini della pittura veronese", Archivo veneto tridento 8 (1925), cited in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  32. ^ Epitaph of Pacificus of Verona, translated to English in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 254-255.
  33. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, or A dictionary of arts, sciences, and miscellaneous literature" Vol. 5, Andrew Bell and Colin Macfarquhar, ed. (Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc, 1797). s.v. "Clock."
  34. ^ Robert Hunt, Hunt's Hand-Book to the Official Catalogues of the Great Exhibition: An Explanatory Guide to the Natural Productions and Manufactures of the Great Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations, 1851, (Cambridge University Press, 2011), p 315.
  35. ^ Henry G. Abbot, Abbot's American Watchmaker: An Encyclopedia for the Horologist, Jeweler, Gold and Silversmith, (Skyhorse Publishing, 2012).
  36. ^ St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 18: Composite manuscript, astronomical clock of Pacificus of Verona http://www.e-codices.unifr.ch/en/list/one/csg/0018 (accessed October 21, 2013)
  37. ^ Gerhard Dohrn-van Rossum, History of the Hour: Clocks and Modern Temporal Orders, (University of Chicago Press, 1996), p 54.
  38. ^ Cristina La Rocca, Pacifico di Verona. Il Passato Carolingio Nella Costruzione Della Memoria Urbana, (Nella Sede Dell'Istituto, 1995), cited in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  39. ^ Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  40. ^ Mayke De Jong, "Book Reviews. Pacifico di Verona. Il passato Carolingio nella costruzione della memoria urbana, con un nota di Stefano Zamponi. By Cristina La Rocca. Rome: Istituto storico Italiano per il Medio Evo, nuovi studi storici 31. 1995. ix 266 pp. 26 plates. ISBN 0391-8475.", Early Medieval Europe, 6, no. 2 (1997): 242-244, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1468-0254.00014/abstract (accessed October 21, 2013).
  41. ^ Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 251-257.
  42. ^ Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 262-266.
  43. ^ Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 266-272.
  44. ^ O. Viviani, "La fine delle controversie per l'ensenzione giurisdizionale del capitolo veronese", Atti e memorie dell'Accademia di agricoltura, scienze e lettere di Verona 6a s, 5 (Verona, 1995), cited in Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  45. ^ Nicholas Everett, Literacy in Lombard Italy, c. 568-774, (Cambridge: Cambridge Press, 2003), 287.
  46. ^ Donald A Bullough, Alcuin, Achievement and Reputation: Being part of the Ford lectures delivered in Oxford in Hilary Term 1980, (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2004), 308-309, n180.

References[edit]

  • Cristina La Rocca, Pacifico di Verona. Il Passato Carolingio Nella Costruzione Della Memoria Urbana, (Nella Sede Dell'Istituto, 1995).
  • Cristina La Rocca, "A man for all seasons: Pacificus of Verona and the creation of a local Carolingian past," chap. 11 in The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  • Benedetta Valtorta, Clavis Scriptorum Latinorum Medii Aevi Auctores Italiae (Florence, 2006) 177-181.