The term was sparingly used until the early 1990s, when Lega Nord, a federalist and, at times, separatist political party in Italy, proposed "Padania" as a possible denomination for an independent state in Northern Italy. Since then, it has carried strong political connotations.
The adjective padano, derived from Padus, the Latin name of the Po river, was first used in the 19th century. In its true geographical sense, Padania refers to the valley of the Po river. In fact, the French client republics in the Po Valley during the Napoleonic era included the Cispadane Republic and the Transpadane Republic, according to the custom (emerged with the French Revolution) of naming territories on the basis of watercourses. The ancient Regio XI (the region of the Roman Empire on the current territory of the Aosta Valley, Piedmont and Lombardy) has been thus referred to as Regio XI Transpadana in academic literature only in recent centuries.
The term Padania has been used mainly as a socio-economic denomination as the terms Pianura Padana or Val Padana are the standard denominations in geography textbooks and atlases. The first use of the concept in socio-economic terms dates from 1975, when Guido Fanti, the Communist President of Emilia-Romagna, proposed a union composed of Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, Lombardy, Piedmont and Liguria. The term was seldom used in these terms until the Giovanni Agnelli Foundation re-launched it in 1992 through the volume La Padania, una regione italiana in Europa (English: Padania, an Italian region in Europe), written by various academics.
Even if Padania is often used as a synonym for Northern Italy, in a strict geographic sense it does not include Aosta Valley, Trentino, South Tyrol, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, a large portion of Veneto, Romagna, and, of course, Tuscany, Marche and Umbria, none of which are part of Northern Italy.
Since the 1960s, journalist Gianni Brera had used the term Padania to indicate the area that at the time of Cato the Elder corresponded to Cisalpine Gaul. In the same years and later, the term Padania was considered a geographic synonym of Po Valley and as such was included in the Enciclopedia Universo in 1965 and in the Devoto–Oli dictionary of the Italian language in 1971. A further use of the term Padania was limited to some linguistic research, in relation to Gallo-Italic languages, and sometimes even extended to all regional languages distinguishing Northern from Central Italy along the La Spezia–Rimini Line.
Lega Nord, a political party created in 1991 by the union of several northern regional parties (including Lega Lombarda and Liga Veneta), later used the term for a geographical range to Fanti's and Brera's,[clarification needed] but with stronger political and socio-economic connotations.
In political science
In 1990 Gianfranco Miglio, a political scientist later elected as a senator for Lega Nord in 1992 and 1994, wrote a book in which he described a draft constitutional reform. According to Miglio, Padania (consisting of five regions: Veneto, Lombardy, Piedmont, Liguria and Emilia-Romagna) would have been one of the three hypothetical macroregions of a future Italy, along with Etruria (Central Italy) and Mediterranea (Southern Italy), while the autonomous regions (Aosta Valley, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sicily and Sardinia) would be left with their current autonomy.
In 1993 Robert D. Putnam, a political scientist at Harvard University, wrote a book titled Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy, in which Italy's "civic North"[clarification needed] is defined according to the inhabitants' civic traditions and attitudes, related to the historical emergence of the free medieval communes since the 10th century. Stefano B. Galli, a Padanist political scientist close to the League and columnist for Il Giornale and La Padania, has called Putnam's theory a source for defining Padania. Lega Nord's definition of Padania's boundaries is similar to Robert D. Putnam's "civic North", which also includes the central Italian regions of Tuscany, Le Marche and Umbria. According to the author, these regions share similar patterns of civil society, citizenship, and government with the North.
Gilberto Oneto, a student of Miglio, has researched northern traditions and culture to find evidence of the existence of Padania.[clarification needed] Historian and linguist Sergio Salvi has also defended the concept of Padania. The existence of a "Padanian nation" has been criticized by organisations and individuals in Italy, including the Italian Geographical Society and historian Paolo Bernardini, who is himself a supporter of Venetian nationalism instead of an independent North. Angelo Panebianco, a political scientist, has explained that, even though a "Padanian nation" does not exist yet, it might well emerge as all nations are invented.[clarification needed]
The first politician to consistently use the term Padania was Guido Fanti, a leading member of the Italian Communist Party who was President of Emilia-Romagna from 1970 to 1976 (see above). In an interview with La Stampa in 1975, Fanti proposed the creation of Padania in order to go over centralism.[clarification needed]
Since 1991, Lega Nord has promoted either secession or larger autonomy for Padania, and has created a flag and a national anthem to this effect. In 1996, the "Federal Republic of Padania" was proclaimed. Subsequently, in 1997, Lega Nord created an unofficial Padanian parliament in Mantua and organised elections for it. Lega Nord also chose a national anthem: the Va, pensiero chorus from Giuseppe Verdi's Nabucco, in which the exiled Hebrew slaves lament their lost homeland.
The term Padania has been also used in politics by other nationalist/separatist parties and groups, including Lega Padana, Lega Padana Lombardia, the Padanian Union, the Alpine Padanian Union, Veneto Padanian Federal Republic and the Padanian Independentist Movement.
Lega Nord's Padania
According to Lega Nord's Declaration of Independence and Sovereignty of Padania, Padania is composed of 14 "nations"[clarification needed] (Lombardy, Veneto, Piedmont, Tuscany, Emilia, Liguria, Marche, Romagna, Umbria, Friuli, Trentino, South Tyrol, Venezia Giulia, Aosta Valley), slightly differing from the corresponding 11 Italian regions and from Gianfranco Miglio's project. The 11 regions forming Padania, according to the party, are listed below:
Flag of Padania
The "Sun of the Alps" is the unofficial flag of Padania and the symbol of the Padanian nationalism. The flag has a green stylized sun on a white background. It resembles ancient ornaments which are found in the art and culture of the area, like one example of Etruscan art from the 7th century BC found at Civitella Paganico. The flag was created in the 1990s and was adopted by Lega Nord upon their declaration of Padanian independence.
While support for a federal system, as opposed to a centrally administered state, receives widespread consensus within Padania, support for independence is less favoured. One poll in 1996 estimated that 52.4% of interviewees from Northern Italy considered secession advantageous (vantaggiosa) and 23.2% both advantageous and desirable (auspicabile). Another poll in 2000 estimated that about 20% of "Padanians" (18.3% in North-West Italy and 27.4% in North-East Italy) supported secession in case Italy was not reformed into a federal state.
More recent polls show different results. According to a poll conducted in February 2010 by GPG, 45% of Northerners support the independence of Padania. A poll conducted by SWG in June 2010 puts that figure at 61% of Northerners (with 80% of them supporting at least federal reform), while noting that 55% of Italians consider Padania as only a political invention, against 42% believing in its real existence (45% of the sample being composed of Northerners, 19% of Central Italians and 36% of Southerners). As for federal reform, according to the poll, 58% of Italians support it. A more recent poll by SWG puts the support for fiscal federalism and secession respectively at 68% and 37% in Piedmont and Liguria, 77% and 46% in Lombardy, 81% and 55% in Triveneto (comprising Veneto), 63% and 31% in Emilia-Romagna, 51% and 19% in Central Italy (not including Lazio).
In popular culture
Padania is featured the anime/manga Gunslinger Girl, which features a pro-Padania terrorist group named the Five Republics Faction and the Italian counterintelligence and counter-terrorist agency called the Social Welfare Agency which tries to stop them.
Padania is mentioned in the William Gibson novel Virtual Light, in which the world political map is implied to be heavily fractured.
- Squires, Nick (2011-08-23). "Silvio Berlusconi ally says Italy 'condemned to death'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2011-11-16.
- Santini, Francesco (1975-11-06). "Fanti spiega la sua proposta per una grande "lega del Po"". Turin: La Stampa.
- "Addio a Guido Fanti, inventore della "Lega del Po"". Milan: L'Indipendenza. 2012-02-12.
- Bracalini, Paolo (25 June 2010). "La Padania? L'ha inventata la Fondazione Agnelli". Milan: il Giornale.
- Brera, Gianni (1993). Storie dei Lombardi. Milan: Baldini & Castoldi. p. 421. ISBN 88-85989-27-6.
- Brera, Gianni. "Invectiva ad Patrem Padum". Guerin Sportivo (Milan).
- "Italia". Enciclopedia Universo – vol. VII. Novara: De Agostini. 1965. pp. 196–197.
- Hull, Geoffrey (1982). The linguistic unity of Northern Italy and Rhaetia. Sydney: McArthur. OCLC 215986434.
- Miglio, Gianfranco (1990). Una Costituzione per i prossimi trent'anni. Intervista sulla terza Repubblica. Rome-Bari: Laterza. ISBN 88-420-3685-4.
- Guiso, Luigi; Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi (2007). "Long Term Persistence". Chicago GSB Research Paper (National Bureau of Economic Research).
- Galli, Stefano B. (2011-03-28). "Il commento Fini si rassegni, la Padania esiste davvero". Milan: il Giornale.
- Riotta, Gianni (1993-02-12). "L'Italia fatta a pezzi". Milan: Corriere della Sera.
- Oneto, Gilberto (1994). Bandiere di libertà: Simboli e vessilli dei Popoli dell'Italia settentrionale. Florence: Alinea.
- Oneto, Gilberto (1997). L'invenzione della Padania. Ceresola: Foedus.
- Oneto, Gilberto (2010). Il sole delle Alpi. Mito, storia e realtà di un simbolo antico. Turin: Il Cerchio.
- Oneto, Gilberto (2012). Polentoni o padani? Apologia di un popolo di egoisti xenofobi ignoranti ed evasori. Turin: Il Cerchio.
- La Libera Compagnia Padana
- Viva La Grande Nazione Catalana E Anche Quella Padana | L'Indipendenza
- Rapporto annuale 2010
- [dead link]
- La questione non e’ padana - Corriere della Sera
- Oneto, Gilberto (1997). L'invenzione della Padania. Berbenno: Foedus Editore.
- Francesco Jori, Dalla Łiga alla Lega. Storia, movimenti, protagonisti, Marsilio, Venice 2009, p. 103
- Jori, Francesco (2009). Dalla Łiga alla Lega. Storia, movimenti, protagonisti. Venice: Marsilio.
- Lega Nord (15 September 1996). "Dichiarazione di indipendenza e sovranità della Padania".[dead link]
- "Archeologia: ...in Toscana" (in Italian).
- Araldica e Bandiere della Federazione Padana, Angelo Veronesi.
- Movimento Giovani Padani (ed.). "Dichiarazione di indipendenza e sovranità della Padania".
- Diamanti, Ilvo (1 January 1996). "Il Nord senza Italia?". Limes (L'Espresso).[not in citation given]
- L'Indipendente, 23 August 2000.[not in citation given]
- GPG (2009-02-12). "I sondaggi di GPG: Simulazione Referendum - Nord Italia". Il-liberale.blogspot.
- SWG (2010-06-25). "Federalismo e secessione". Affaritaliani.
- SWG (2010-06-28). "Gli italiani non credono nella Padania. Ma al Nord prevale il sì alla secessione". Affaritaliani.
- GPG (2011-05-25). "Sondaggi GPG: Quesiti/2 - Maggio 2011". ScenariPolitici.com.
- Diamanti, Ilvo (1996). Il male del Nord. Lega, localismo, secessione. Rome: Donzelli Editore. ISBN 88-7989-268-1.
- Gomez-Reino Cachafeiro, Margarita (2002). Ethnicity and Nationalism in Italian Politics. Inventing the Padania: Lega Nord and the Northern Question. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-1655-X.
- Huysseune, Michel (2006). Modernity and secession. The social sciences and the political discourse of the Lega Nord in Italy. Oxford: Berg Publishers. ISBN 1-84545-061-2.
- Mainardi, Roberto (1998). L'Italia delle regioni. Il Nord e la Padania. Milan: Bruno Mondadori. ISBN 88-424-9442-9.