Padishah

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"Padshah" redirects here. For other uses, see Padishah (disambiguation).

Padeshah, Padshah or Padishah (Persian: پادشاه‎) is a superlative royal title, composed of the Persian pād "master" and the widespread shāh "king", which was adopted by several monarchs claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to the ancient Persian notion of "The Great" or "Great King", and later adopted by post-Achaemenid and Christian Emperors.

Historical usage[edit]

The rulers on the following thrones, the first two effectively commanding major West Asian empires, were styled Padishah:

Miangul Golshahzada Abdul Wadud (predecessor styled Amir-i shariat, successors [Khān and] Wali) of the tiny (one valley) Pakistani North West Frontier state of Swat called himself badshah from November 1918 to March 1926.[1]

The paramount prestige of this title, in Islam and even beyond, is clearly apparent from the Ottoman Empire's dealings with the (predominantly Christian) European powers. As the Europeans and the Russians gradually drove the Turks from the Balkans, Central Asia, and the Caucasus, they insisted—even at the cost of delaying the end of hostilities—on the usage of the title "Padishah" for themselves in the Turkish versions of their treaties with the High Porte, as acknowledgement that their Christian emperors were in all diplomatic and corollary capacities the equal of the Turkish ruler, who by his religious paramount office in Islam (Caliph) had a theoretical claim of universal sovereignty (at least among Sunnites).

The compound Pādshah-i-Ghazi ("Victorious Emperor") is only recorded for two individual rulers:

  • H.M. Ahmad Shah Bahadur, Padshah-i-Ghazi, Dur-i-Durran ('pearl of pearls'), Padshah of Khorasan (today Afghanistan) 1747–1772
  • H.H. Rustam-i-Dauran, Aristu-i-Zaman, Asaf Jah IV, Muzaffar ul-Mamaluk, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Farkhunda 'Ali Khan Bahadur [Gufran Manzil], Sipah Salar, Fath Jang, Ayn waffadar Fidvi-i-Senliena, Iqtidar-i-Kishwarsitan Muhammad Akbar Shah Padshah-i-Ghazi, Nizam of Hyderabad 1829–1857

Note that as many titles, the word was also often used as a name, either by nobles with other (in this case always lower) styles, or even by commoners.

Modern usage[edit]

There is a large family of Turkish origin using the surname Badi in modern-day Libya. They were originally called "Padishah" due to their Military rank in the Ottoman Army, but the part "shah" was dropped after the Ottoman landing in the North East Libyan town of Misrata, and the pronunciation of "Padi" became "Badi" due to Arabic pronunciation.

In 2008, a professional cricket team, the Lahore Badshahs, was founded.

In India, Padishah is an often a Muslim surname, from the above mentioned trend of adopting titles as names by both royalty and commoners.

Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of Turkey has been referred to as "Padişah" by critics, who have compared his authoritarianism, religious conservatism, and his party's policy of Neo-Ottomanism to the absolutist rule of the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, referred to in Ottoman Turkish and modern Turkish by the title Padişah.[2]

In fiction[edit]

In Frank Herbert's 1965 novel Dune, the titular head of human space is styled "Padishah Emperor of the Known Universe".

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.rulers.org/rula1.html
  2. ^ "'Eylemlerin amacı Erdoğan'ın padişah olmasını engellemek'" (in Turkish). BBC Türkçe. 13 June 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2014. 

References[edit]