Trousers

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This article is about the clothing item. For the implementation of the TCG Software Stack, see Trusted Computing Group.
"Pants" redirects here. For styles of undergarments sometimes called "Underwear", see Underpants and Undergarment. For the object in topology, see Pair of pants (mathematics).
For the British film, see Trousers (1920 film). For the Indian film, see Jeans (film).
A man wearing trousers

Trousers (pants in North America and Australia) are an item of clothing worn from the waist to the ankles, covering both legs separately (rather than with cloth extending across both legs as in robes, skirts, and dresses). In the UK the word "pants" generally means underwear and not trousers.[1] Shorts are similar to trousers, but with legs that come down only to around the area of the knee, higher or lower depending on the style of the garment. To distinguish them from shorts, trousers may be called "long trousers" in certain contexts such as school uniform, where tailored shorts may be called "short trousers", especially in the UK.

In most of the Western world, trousers have been worn since ancient times and throughout the Medieval period, becoming the most common form of lower-body clothing for males in the modern world, although shorts are also widely worn, and kilts and other garments may be worn in various regions and cultures. Since the mid-20th century, trousers have increasingly been worn by females as well. Jeans, made of denim, are a form of trousers for casual wear, now widely worn all over the world by both sexes. Shorts are often preferred in hot weather or for some sports, and also often by children and teenagers. Trousers are worn at the hips or waist, and may be held up by their own fastenings, a belt, or suspenders (braces). Leggings are form-fitting trousers, of a clingy material, often knitted cotton and spandex (elastane).

Terminology[edit]

In the United Kingdom and Ireland the words "trousers", or "slacks", were historically used for women's trousers. [2] In Scotland, trousers are occasionally known as trews, which is the historic root of the word 'trousers'. Trousers are also known as breeks in Scots, a word related to breeches. The item of clothing worn under trousers is underpants. The standard form 'trousers' is also used, but it is sometimes pronounced in a manner approximately represented by "tru:zɨrz", which is possibly a throwback to the Gaelic word truis which the English word originates from. In North America and Australia pants is the general category term, whereas trousers (sometimes slacks in Australia and the United States) often refer more specifically to tailored garments with a waistband, belt-loops, and a fly-front. So informal elastic-waist knitted garments would be called pants, but not trousers (or slacks).

North Americans call undergarments underwear, underpants, undies, jockey shorts, shorts, long johns or panties (the last are women's garments specifically) to distinguish them from other pants that are worn on the outside. The term drawers normally refers to undergarments, but in some dialects, may be found as a synonym for "breeches", that is, trousers. In these dialects, the term underdrawers is used for undergarments. Many North Americans refer to their undergarments by their type, such as boxers or briefs.

In Australia, men's underwear also has various informal terms including under-dacks, undies, dacks or jocks. In New Zealand men's underwear is known as "undies", or "y-fronts".

Various people in the fashion industry use the words trouser or pant instead of trousers or pants. This is nonstandard usage. The words "trousers" and "pants" are pluralia tantum, nouns that generally only appear in plural form—much like the words "scissors" and "tongs". However, the singular form is used in some compound words, such as trouser-leg, trouser-press and trouser-bottoms.[3]

History[edit]

Prehistory[edit]

There is some evidence, from figurative art, of trousers being worn in the Upper Paleolithic, as seen on the figurines found at the Siberian sites of Mal'ta and Buret'.[4] The oldest known trousers are found at the Yanghai cemetery in Turpan, Xinjiang, China, dated to the period between the 13th and the 10th century BC. Made of wool, the trousers had straight legs and wide crotches, and were likely made for horseback riding.[5]

Antiquity[edit]

Scythian archer. Interior from an Ancient Greek Attic red-figure plate, ca. 520–500 BC, from Vulci. British Museum, London.
Germanic trousers of the 4th century found in the Thorsberg moor, Germany

Trousers first enter recorded history in the 6th century BC, with the appearance of horse-riding Iranian peoples in Greek ethnography. At this time, not only the Persians, but also allied Eastern and Central Asian peoples such as the Bactrians, Armenians, Tigraxauda Scythians and Xiongnu Hunnu, are known to have worn them.[6][7] Trousers are believed to have been worn by both sexes among these early users.[8] The oldest preserved pair of trousers are thought to be from the 10th to 13th centuries BC and were found in the Yanghai graveyard in China’s Tarim Basin. It is believed the garments were invented to make horse riding easier.[9]

The ancient Greeks used the term "ἀναξυρίδες" (anaxyrides) for the trousers worn by Eastern nations[10] and "σαράβαρα" (sarabara) for the loose trousers worn by the Scythians.[11] However, they did not wear trousers since they thought them ridiculous,[12][13] using the word "θύλακοι" (thulakoi), pl. of "θύλακος" (thulakos), "sack", as a slang term for the loose trousers of Persians and other orientals.[14]

Republican Rome viewed the draped clothing of Greek and Minoan (Cretan) culture as an emblem of civilization and disdained trousers as the mark of barbarians.[15] As the Empire expanded beyond the Mediterranean basin, however, the greater warmth provided by trousers led to their adoption.[16] Two types of trousers eventually saw widespread use in Rome: the Feminalia, which fit snugly and usually fell to knee or mid-calf length,[17] and the Braccae, a loose-fitting trouser that was closed at the ankles.[18] Both garments were adopted originally from the Celts of Europe, although later familiarity with the Persian Near East and the Teutons increased acceptance. Feminalia and Braccae both began use as military garments, spreading to civilian dress later, and were eventually made in a variety of materials including leather, wool, cotton and silk.[19]

Medieval Europe[edit]

Trousers of various design were worn throughout the Middle Ages in Europe, especially by males. Loose-fitting trousers were worn in Byzantium under long tunics,[20] and were worn by many tribes, such as the Germanic tribes that migrated to Western Roman Empire in the Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages, as evidenced by both artistic sources and such relics as the 4th-century costumes recovered from the Thorsberg bog (see illustration).[21] Trousers in this period, generally called brais, varied in length and were often closed at the cuff or even had attached foot coverings, although open-legged pants were also seen.[22]

By the 8th century there is evidence of the wearing in Europe of two layers of trousers, especially among upper-class males.[23] The under layer is today referred to by costume historians as "drawers", although that usage did not emerge until the late 16th century. Over the drawers were worn trousers of wool or linen, which in the 10th century began to be referred to as breeches in many places. Tightness of fit and length of leg varied by period, class, and geography. (Open legged trousers can be seen on the Norman soldiers of the Bayeux Tapestry.)[24]

Although Charlemagne (742–814) is recorded to have habitually worn trousers, donning the Byzantine tunic only for ceremonial occasions,[25][26] the influence of the Roman past and the example of Byzantium led to the increasing use of long tunics by men, hiding most of the trousers from view and eventually rendering them an undergarment for many. As undergarments, these trousers became briefer or longer as the length of the various medieval outer garments changed, and were met by, and usually attached to, another garment variously called hose or stockings.

In the 14th century it became common among the men of the noble and knightly classes to connect the hose directly to their pourpoints[27] (the padded under jacket worn with armored breastplates that would later evolve into the doublet) rather than to their drawers. In the 15th century, rising hemlines led to ever briefer drawers[28] until they were dispensed with altogether by the most fashionable elites who joined their skin-tight hose back into trousers.[29] These trousers, which we would today call tights but which were still called hose or sometimes joined hose at the time, emerged late in the 15th century and were conspicuous by their open crotch which was covered by an independently fastening front panel, the codpiece. The exposure of the hose to the waist was consistent with 15th century trends, which also brought the pourpoint/doublet and the shirt, previously undergarments, into view,[30] but the most revealing of these fashions were only ever adopted at court and not by the general population.

Men's clothes in Hungary in the 15th century consisted of a shirt and trousers as underwear, and a dolman worn over them, as well as a short fur-lined or sheepskin coat. Hungarians generally wore simple trousers, only their colour being unusual; the dolman covered the greater part of the trousers.[31]

Europe before the 1900s[edit]

Around the turn of the 16th century it became conventional to separate hose into two pieces, one from the waist to the crotch which fastened around the top of the legs, called trunk hose, and the other running beneath it to the foot. The trunk hose soon reached down the thigh to fasten below the knee and were now usually called "breeches" to distinguish them from the lower-leg coverings still called hose or, sometimes stockings. By the end of the 16th century, the codpiece had also been incorporated into breeches which featured a fly or fall front opening.

As a modernisation measure, Tsar Peter the Great issued a decree in 1701 commanding every Russian, other than clergy and peasant farmers, to wear trousers.[32]

During the French Revolution, the male citizens of France adopted a working-class costume including ankle-length trousers, or pantaloons (from a Commedia dell'Arte character named Pantalone)[33] in place of the aristocratic knee-breeches. The new garment of the revolutionaries differed from that of the ancien regime upper classes in three ways: it was loose where the style for breeches had most recently been form-fitting, it was ankle length where breeches had generally been knee-length for more than two centuries, and they were open at the bottom while breeches were fastened. This style was introduced to England in the early 19th century, possibly[original research?] by Beau Brummell, and by mid-century had supplanted breeches as fashionable street wear.[34] At this point, even knee-length pants adopted the open bottoms of trousers (see shorts) and were worn by young boys, for sports, and in tropical climates. Breeches proper survived into the 20th century as court dress, and also in baggy mid-calf (or three-quarter length) versions known as plus-fours or knickers worn for active sports and by young schoolboys. Types of breeches are still worn today by baseball and American football players.

Sailors may have played a role in the worldwide dissemination of trousers as a fashion. In the 17th and 18th centuries, sailors wore baggy trousers known as galligaskins. Sailors also pioneered the wearing of jeans, trousers made of denim.[citation needed] These became more popular in the late 19th century in the American West because of their ruggedness and durability.

Starting around the mid-19th century, Wigan pit brow girls scandalized Victorian society by wearing trousers for their work at the local coal mines. They wore skirts over their trousers and rolled them up to their waists to keep them out of the way. Although pit brow lasses worked above ground at the pit-head, their task of sorting and shovelling coal involved hard manual labour, so wearing the usual long skirts of the time would have greatly hindered their movements.

Medieval Korea[edit]

The Korean word for trousers, baji (originally pajibaji) first appears in recorded history around the turn of the 15th century, but pants may have been in use by Korean society for some time. From at least this time pants were worn by both sexes in Korea. Men wore trousers either as outer garments or beneath skirts, while it was unusual for adult women to wear their pants (termed sokgot) without a covering skirt. As in Europe, a wide variety of styles came to define regions, time periods and age and gender groups, from the unlined gouei to the padded sombaji.[35]

Women's trousers after 1900[edit]

Amazon wearing trousers and carrying a shield with an attached patterned cloth and a quiver. Ancient Greek Attic white-ground alabastron, ca. 470 BC, British Museum, London

Although women had been wearing trousers for outdoor work thousands of years earlier in the Western world, by the time of Christianization it had become taboo for women to wear trousers. It was Eastern culture that inspired French designer Paul Poiret (1879–1944) to be one of the first to design pants for women. In 1913 Poiret created loose-fitting, wide-leg trousers for women called harem pants, which were based on the costumes of the popular opera Sheherazade. Written by Nikola Rimsky-Korsakov in 1888, Sheherazade was based on a collection of legends from the Middle East called 1001 Arabian Nights.[36]

In the early 20th century women air pilots and other working women often wore trousers. Frequent photographs from the 1930s of actresses Marlene Dietrich and Katharine Hepburn in trousers helped make trousers acceptable for women. During World War II, women working in factories and doing other forms of "men's work" on war service wore trousers when the work demanded it. In the post-war era, trousers became acceptable casual wear for gardening, the beach, and other leisurely pursuits. Further, in Britain during World War II, because of the rationing of clothing, many women took to wearing their husbands' civilian clothes, including their trousers, to work while their husbands were away from home serving in the armed forces. This was partly because they were seen as practical workwear and partly to allow women to keep their clothing allowance for other uses. As this practice of wearing trousers became more widespread and as the men's clothing wore out, replacements were needed. By the summer of 1944, it was reported that sales of women's trousers were five times more than they had been in the previous year.[37]

In 1919, Luisa Capetillo challenged mainstream society by becoming the first woman in Puerto Rico to wear trousers in public. Capetillo was sent to jail for what was then considered to be a crime, but, the judge later dropped the charges against her.

In the 1960s, André Courrèges introduced long trousers for women as a fashion item, leading to the era of the pantsuit and designer jeans and the gradual erosion of social prohibitions against girls and women wearing trousers in schools, the workplace and in fine restaurants.

In 1969 Rep. Charlotte Reid (R-Ill.) became the first woman to wear trousers in the US Congress.[38]

In 1989 California state senator Rebecca Morgan became the first woman to wear trousers in a US state senate.[39]

Hillary Clinton was the first woman to wear trousers in an official U.S. First Lady portrait. [40]

Women were not allowed to wear trousers on the U.S. Senate floor until 1993. [41] [42] In 1993, Senators Barbara Mikulski and Carol Moseley Braun wore trousers onto the floor in defiance of the rule, and female support staff followed soon after, with the rule being amended later that year by Senate Sergeant-at-Arms Martha Pope to allow women to wear trousers on the floor so long as they also wore a jacket. [43] [44]

In Malawi women were not legally allowed to wear trousers under President Kamuzu Banda's rule until 1994.[45] This law was introduced in 1965.[46]

In 2009 journalist Lubna Hussein was fined the equivalent of $200 when a court found her guilty of violating Sudan's decency laws by wearing trousers.[47]

In 2012 the Royal Canadian Mounted Police began to allow women to wear trousers and boots with all their formal uniforms. [48]

In 2012 and 2013, some Mormon women participated in "Wear Pants to Church Day," in which they wore trousers to church instead of the customary dresses to encourage gender equality within The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.[49] [50] Over one thousand women participated in this in 2012. [51]

In 2013, Turkey's parliament ended a ban on women lawmakers wearing trousers in its assembly.[52]

Also in 2013, an old bylaw requiring women in Paris, France to ask permission from city authorities before "dressing as men", including wearing trousers (with exceptions for those "holding a bicycle handlebar or the reins of a horse") was declared officially revoked by France's Women's Rights Minister, Najat Vallaud-Belkacem. [53] The bylaw was originally intended to prevent women from wearing the pantalons fashionable with Parisian rebels in the French Revolution.[53]

Parts of trousers[edit]

Parts of trousers

Pleats[edit]

Pleats just below the waistband on the front typify many styles of formal and casual trousers, including suit trousers and khakis. There may be one, two, three, or no pleats, which may face either direction. When the pleats open towards the pockets they are called reverse pleats (typical of most trousers today) and when they open toward the fly they are known as forward pleats.

Cuffs[edit]

Trouser-makers can finish the legs by hemming the bottom to prevent fraying.[citation needed] Trousers with turn-ups (cuffs in American English), after hemming, are rolled outward and sometimes pressed or stitched into place. The main reason for the turn-ups is to add weight to the bottom of the leg, to help the drape of the trousers.[original research?]

Fly[edit]

Main article: Fly (clothing)

A fly is a covering over an opening join concealing the mechanism, such as a zipper, velcro or buttons, used to join the opening. In trousers, this is most commonly an opening covering the groin, which makes the pants easier to put on or take off. The opening also allows men to urinate without lowering their pants.

Trousers have varied historically in whether or not they have a fly. Originally, hose did not cover the area between the legs. This was instead covered by a doublet or by a codpiece. When breeches were worn, during the Regency period for example, they were fall-fronted (or broad fall). Later, after trousers (pantaloons) were invented, the fly-front (split fall) emerged.[54] The panelled front returned as a sporting option, such as in riding breeches, but is now hardly ever used, a fly being by far the most common fastening. Most flies now use a zipper, though button-fly pants such as Levi's 501 jeans continue to be available.

Trouser support[edit]

At present, most trousers are held up through the assistance of a belt which is passed through the belt loops on the waistband of the trousers. However, this was traditionally a style acceptable only for casual trousers and work trousers; suit trousers and formal trousers were suspended by the use of braces (suspenders in American English) attached to buttons located on the interior or exterior of the waistband. Today, this remains the preferred method of trouser support amongst adherents of classical British tailoring. Many men claim this method is more effective and more comfortable because it requires no cinching of the waist or periodic adjustment.

Society[edit]

In modern Western society, males customarily wear trousers and not skirts or dresses. There are exceptions, however, such as the ceremonial Scottish kilt and Greek fustanella, as well as robes or robe-like clothing like the cassocks of clergy and the academic robes, both rarely worn today in daily use. (See also Men's skirts.)

Convertible Ventilated Trousers shown with one leg cover removed

Based on Deuteronomy 22:5 in the Bible ("The woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man"), some groups, including the Amish, Hutterites, some Mennonites, some Baptists, a few Church of Christ groups, and most Orthodox Jews, believe that women should not wear trousers, but only skirts and dresses. These groups do permit women to wear underpants as long as they are hidden. By contrast, many Muslim sects approve of pants as they are considered more modest than any skirt that is shorter than ankle length.

Among certain groups, low-rise, baggy trousers exposing underwear became fashionable; for example, among skaters and in 1990s hip hop fashion. This fashion is called sagging or, alternatively, "busting slack."[55]

Cut-offs are homemade shorts made by cutting the legs off trousers, usually after holes have been worn in fabric around the knees. This extends the useful life of the trousers. The remaining leg fabric may be hemmed or left to fray after being cut.

Laws[edit]

France[edit]

In 2013, a bylaw requiring women in Paris, France to ask permission from city authorities before "dressing as men", including wearing trousers (with exceptions for those "holding a bicycle handlebar or the reins of a horse") was declared officially revoked by France's Women's Rights Minister, Najat Vallaud-Belkacem. [53] The bylaw was originally intended to prevent women from wearing the pantalons fashionable with Parisian rebels in the French Revolution.[53]

Malawi[edit]

In Malawi women were not legally allowed to wear trousers under President Kamuzu Banda's rule until 1994.[45] This law was introduced in 1965.[46]

Puerto Rico[edit]

In 1919, Luisa Capetillo challenged mainstream society by becoming the first woman in Puerto Rico to wear trousers in public. Capetillo was sent to jail for what was then considered to be a crime, but, the judge later dropped the charges against her.

Turkey[edit]

In 2013, Turkey's parliament ended a ban on women lawmakers wearing trousers in its assembly.[52]

Sudan[edit]

In Sudan, Article 152 of the Memorandum to the 1991 Penal Code prohibits the wearing of "obscene outfits" in public. This law has been used to arrest and prosecute women wearing trousers. Thirteen women including journalist Lubna al-Hussein were arrested in Khartoum in July 2009 for wearing trousers; ten of the women pleaded guilty and were flogged with ten lashes and fined 250 Sudanese pounds apiece. Lubna al-Hussein considers herself a good Muslim and asserts "Islam does not say whether a woman can wear trousers or not. I'm not afraid of being flogged. It doesn't hurt. But it is insulting." She was eventually found guilty and fined the equivalent of $200 rather than being flogged. [56]

USA[edit]

In May 2004, in Louisiana, Democrat and state legislator Derrick Shepherd proposed a bill that would make it a crime to appear in public wearing trousers below the waist and thereby exposing one's skin or "intimate clothing".[57] The Louisiana bill did not pass.

In February 2005, Virginia legislators tried to pass a similar law that would have made punishable by a $50 fine "any person who, while in a public place, intentionally wears and displays his below-waist undergarments, intended to cover a person's intimate parts, in a lewd or indecent manner". (It is not clear whether, with the same coverage by the trousers, exposing underwear was considered worse than exposing bare skin, or whether the latter was already covered by another law.) The law passed in the Virginia House of Delegates. However, various criticisms to it arose. For example, newspaper columnists and radio talk show hosts consistently said that since most people that would be penalized under the law would be young African-American men, the law would thus be a form of racial discrimination. Virginia's state senators voted against passing the law.[58][59]

In California, Government Code Section 12947.5 (part of the California Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA)) expressly protects the right to wear pants (American English for trousers).[60] Thus, the standard California FEHA discrimination complaint form includes an option for "denied the right to wear pants." [61]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hanks, Patrick, ed. (1979). Collins English Dictionary. London: Collins. p. 1061. ISBN 0-00-433078-1. "pants pl. n. 1. Brit. an undergarment reaching from the waist to the thighs or knees. 2. the usual U.S. name for trousers." 
  2. ^ http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/kecks
  3. ^ 'Pair of Pants' World Wide Word.
  4. ^ Nelson, Sarah M. (2004). Gender in archaeology: analyzing power and prestige. Gender and Archaeology 9. Rowman Altamira. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-7591-0496-9. 
  5. ^ Beck, Ulrike; Wagner, Mayke; Li, Xiao; Durkin-Meisterernst, Desmond; Tarasov, Pavel E. (22 May 2014). "The invention of trousers and its likely affiliation with horseback riding and mobility: A case study of late 2nd millennium BC finds from Turfan in eastern Central Asia". Quaternary International. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2014.04.056. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  6. ^ Payne, Blanche. History of Costume. Harper & Row , 1965. pp. 49–51
  7. ^ book name: The Persian Army 560–330 BC, Author: Nicholas Sekunda, Illustrator: Simon Chew – http://www.ospreypublishing.com/store/book.aspx?bookcode=p2501
  8. ^ Lever, James. Costume and Fashion: A Concise History. Thames and Hudson, 1995, 2010. p. 15.
  9. ^ Bower, Bruce (30 May, 2014) First pants worn by horse riders 3,000 years ago Science News
  10. ^ ἀναξυρίδες, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  11. ^ σαράβαρα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  12. ^ Euripides, Cyclops, 182
  13. ^ Aristophanes, Wasps, 1087
  14. ^ θύλακος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  15. ^ Lever, James. Costume and Fashion: A Concise History. Thames and Hudson, 1995, 2010. p. 50.
  16. ^ Payne, Blanche. History of Costume. Harper & Row , 1965. pp. 97
  17. ^ "Feminalia.", The Fashion Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  18. ^ "Braccae.", The Fashion Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  19. ^ Lever, James. Costume and Fashion: A Concise History. Thames and Hudson, 1995, 2010. p. 40.
  20. ^ Payne, Blanche. History of Costume. Harper & Row , 1965. p. 124
  21. ^ Payne, Blanche. History of Costume. Harper & Row , 1965. Pp. 136–138
  22. ^ Lever, James. Costume and Fashion: A Concise History. Thames and Hudson, 1995, 2010. p. 51.
  23. ^ Payne, Blanche. History of Costume. Harper & Row , 1965. p. 142
  24. ^ Payne, Blanche. History of Costume. Harper & Row , 1965. pp. 142, 154
  25. ^ Einhard. The Life of Charlemagne. University of Michigan Press, 1960.
  26. ^ Lever, James. Costume and Fashion: A Concise History. Thames and Hudson, 1995, 2010. pp. 50–51.
  27. ^ Payne, Blanche. History of Costume. Harper & Row, 1965. p. 180
  28. ^ Lever, James. Costume and Fashion: A Concise History. Thames and Hudson, 1995, 2010. p. 58.
  29. ^ Payne, Blanche. History of Costume. Harper & Row, 1965. p. 207
  30. ^ Payne, Blanche. History of Costume. Harper & Row, 1965. p. 200
  31. ^ http://mek.oszk.hu/01900/01919/html/index20.html
  32. ^ "Edicts and Decrees". Cengage Learning. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  33. ^ Italian Culture in the Drama of Shakespeare and His Contemporaries, ed. Michele Marrapodi 2007
  34. ^ Gill, Eric (1937). Trousers & The Most Precious Ornament. London: Faber and Faber. OCLC 5034115. 
  35. ^ Lee, Kyung Ja, and Hong Na Young and Chang Sook Hwan, translated by Shin Jooyoung. Traditional Korean Costume. Global Orient, 2003. p. 231.
  36. ^ http://www.fashionencyclopedia.com/fashion_costume_culture/Modern-World-1930-1945/Trousers-for-Women.html#ixzz2QpJAvVcR
  37. ^ Smith, L.W.N. Clothes Rationing in World War 2.
  38. ^ "Update: First woman to wear pants on House floor, Rep. Charlotte Reid". The Washington Post. 2011-12-21. 
  39. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=2245&dat=19890207&id=m5ozAAAAIBAJ&sjid=lTIHAAAAIBAJ&pg=7060,4772564
  40. ^ http://rare.us/story/flashback-top-7-hillary-rodham-clinton-pant-suits/
  41. ^ http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2004-01-21/features/0401210033_1_carol-moseley-braun-wore-jacket
  42. ^ http://www.rollcall.com/features/50th-Anniversary_2005/fifty_anniversary/-9592-1.html
  43. ^ http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2004-01-21/features/0401210033_1_carol-moseley-braun-wore-jacket
  44. ^ http://www.rollcall.com/features/50th-Anniversary_2005/fifty_anniversary/-9592-1.html
  45. ^ a b Sarah DeCapua, Malawi in Pictures, 2009, pg 7.
  46. ^ a b http://152.111.1.88/argief/berigte/beeld/1993/12/1/9/7.html
  47. ^ Gettleman, Jeffrey; Arafat, Waleed (8 September 2009). "Sudan Court Fines Woman for Wearing Trousers". The New York Times. 
  48. ^ http://www.vancouversun.com/life/fashion-beauty/Female+Mounties+earn+right+wear+pants+boots+with+formal+uniforms/7102550/story.html?__lsa=067d-6627
  49. ^ http://www.christianpost.com/news/mormon-women-observe-wear-pants-to-church-sunday-to-promote-gender-equality-110882/
  50. ^ http://www.boiseweekly.com/CityDesk/archives/2013/12/14/lds-women-suit-up-for-second-wear-pants-to-church-day
  51. ^ http://www.boiseweekly.com/CityDesk/archives/2013/12/14/lds-women-suit-up-for-second-wear-pants-to-church-day
  52. ^ a b http://news.yahoo.com/turkey-lifts-ban-trousers-women-mps-parliament-101916575.html
  53. ^ a b c d "It Is Now Legal for Women to Wear Pants in Paris". Time. 4 February 2013. 
  54. ^ Croonborg, Frederick: The Blue Book of Men's Tailoring. Croonborg Sartorial Co. New York and Chicago, 1907. p. 123
  55. ^ Pants off to the kids busting slack at school, Athens Banner Herald
  56. ^ Gettleman, Jeffrey; Arafat, Waleed (8 September 2009). "Sudan Court Fines Woman for Wearing Trousers". The New York Times. 
  57. ^ "House Bill number 1626" (PDF). Legislature of Louisiana. Retrieved 30 September 2009. "It shall be unlawful for any person to appear in public wearing his pants below his waist and thereby exposing his skin or intimate clothing." 
  58. ^ Bill Tracking – 2005 session > Legislation
  59. ^ LOCI-HEREIN:A Blog About Today And Tommorow [sic], With Insights From Yesterday.: 50 bucks to Freeball
  60. ^ California Government Code Section 12947.5.
  61. ^ Instructions to Obtain Right to Sue Notice by Mail, California Department of Fair Housing and Employment, February 2013.

External links[edit]