Pakistani American

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Pakistani American
پاکستانی نزاد امریکی
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Total population

Pakistani alone: : 363,699[1]

0.1% of the U.S population (2010)
Regions with significant populations
New York City Metropolitan Area,[2] Washington Metropolitan Area,[2] Chicago metropolitan area,bSan Francisco, San Jose (Especially Santa Clara, Houston, Dallas, and a minority in St. Louis[2] and other major American metropolitan areas
Languages
Religion
Predominantly Sunni Islam and Shia Islam
Related ethnic groups
Pakistani Canadian, Muslim American, Americans in Pakistan

Pakistani Americans are Americans of Pakistani heritage.

History in the United States[edit]

Muslim immigrants from areas that are now part of Pakistan have been migrating to America and first entered the United States as early as the eighteenth century, working in agriculture, logging, and mining in the western states of California, Oregon, and Washington.[3] The passage of the Luce-Celler Act of 1946 allowed these immigrants to acquire U.S. citizenship through naturalization. Between 1947 and 1965, only 2,500 Pakistani immigrants entered the United States; most of them were students who chose to settle in the United States after graduating from American universities, according to reports from the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. This marked the beginning of a distinct 'Pakistani' community in America. However after President Lyndon Johnson signed the INS Act of 1965 into law, eliminating per-country immigration quotas and introducing immigration on the basis of professional experience and education, the number of Pakistanis immigrating to the United States increased dramatically.[4] By 1990, the U.S. Census bureau indicated that there were about 100,000 Pakistani Americans in the United States and by 2005 their population had grown to 210,000.[5]

Ethnic classification[edit]

Pakistani Americans are currently classified as Asian Americans by the United States Census Bureau. Ethnically, they fit the definition of South Asian American.

During the US segregation of the 1960s, Pakistanis (along with other Asians) were deemed as 'colored people'. Areas or facilities at the time that were labelled 'White only' or 'Black only' discounted Pakistanis, and they were considered "other" along with other Asians

Demographics[edit]

The New York City Metropolitan Area is home to by far the largest Pakistani population in the United States.[2]
Paterson, New Jersey, known as the "Silk City"[6] within the New York City Metropolitan Area, is becoming an increasingly popular destination for Pakistani as well as other Muslim immigrants.

The U.S. Census Bureau in 2010 estimated that there were 363,699 U.S. residents of Pakistani descent living in the United States.[7] The Census Bureau, however, excluded those living in institutions, college dormitories, and other group quarters. Some studies estimate the size of the Pakistani community to be much higher and in 2005 research by the Pakistani embassy in the US found that the population numbered more than 700,000 people.[8][9] The gap in numbers maybe a result of the U.S. census to count only Pakistani immigrants and exclude those born in the United States between Pakistani parents and those that are second/third generation Americans of Pakistani descent, another reason is that some surveys group Pakistanis with other Asians thereby distorting the true number.[3][10] Pakistan is the 12th highest ranked source country for immigration into the United States.[11]

The top 10 states of residence for the foreign-born of Pakistani origin, 2006 and top 10 metro areas of residence for the foreign-born of Pakistani origin, 2006. Out of a total population of 271,428:[12]

Pakistanis in the US by State
States and metro areas of residence
State % of US Pakistanis Metropolitan area % of US Pakistanis
 New York

 New Jersey

22.1 New York City-New Jersey-Southern Connecticut 25.1
 California 13.1 Los Angeles, ca 7.5
 Illinois 12.4 Chicago-Gary-Lake, IL-IN 7.4
 Virginia

 Maryland

7.6 Washington, DC-MD-VA 6.3
 Texas 7.2 Houston,tx metropolitan area 3.8
 Texas 5.5 Dallas-Fort Worth, TX 3.6
 California 4.6 San Francisco-Oakland-Vallejo, CA 3.2
 Pennsylvania 4.5 Philadelphia metropolitan area 2.8
 Michigan 2.9 Detroit, MI 2.1
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia 2.8 Atlanta, GA 1.9
Other states 18.8 Other metropolitan areas 37.3
Total 100 Total 100

50% of Pakistani Americans have origins in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. About 30% are Muhajirs and the rest are made up of other ethnic Groups from Pakistan, including Pashtuns, Balochis, Sindhis and Kashmiris.[13] The most systematic study of the demography of Pakistanis in America is found in Prof. Adil Najam's book 'Portrait of a Giving Community', which estimates a total of around 500,000.[14]

Pakistanis in the United States hold the largest concentrations in the states of New York and New Jersey, each with around 100,000 Pakistani-Americans.[15]

New York City Metropolitan Area[edit]

The Greater New York City Combined Statistical Area, consisting of New York City, Long Island, and adjacent areas within New York State, as well as nearby areas within the states of New Jersey (extending to Trenton), Connecticut (extending to Bridgeport), and including Pike County, Pennsylvania, comprises by far the largest Pakistani American population of any metropolitan area in the United States, receiving the highest legal permanent resident Pakistani immigrant population.[2] Within the greater metropolitan area, New York City itself hosts the largest concentration of Pakistani Americans of any U.S. city proper, with a population of approximately 194,000 as of the United States 2010 Census, primarily in the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn.[16] These numbers made Pakistani Americans the fifth largest Asian American group in New York City. As of 2006, this number had increased to 200,000 people of Pakistani descent said to be living in New York City. This figure additionally rises to a number between 220,000 when illegal immigrants are also included.[17] Pakistan International Airlines serves John F. Kennedy International Airport in Queens.

California[edit]

Silicon Valley counts highly educated and skilled workers from Pakistan most of whom work in the information technology sector. From 1990 - 2000 the Pakistani population in the San Francisco Bay Area increased to 6,119 which is an increase of 76%.[18]

Chicago[edit]

Devon Avenue has a street named after the founder of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah.[4][19]

Pakistani-born population spread in the United States, 2000

Texas[edit]

There is a large Pakistani population in Texas with estimates numbered around 50,000. They are concentrated around three main cities of Austin, Dallas and Houston (in the three County areas of Harris, Montgomery and Fort Bend). They are also located in Plano, Richardson, Carrollton, Arlington, Irving, Hurst, Euless, and Bedford.[20]

The community is made up of professionals involved in medicine, IT, engineering, large businesses involved in textiles, manufacturing, real estate, management and also smaller ones such as travel agencies, motels, restaurants, convenience stores and gas stations.[21]

Other cities[edit]

Newly arrived Pakistani immigrants mostly settle in cities like New York City, Paterson, New Jersey, Los Angeles, Houston, Boston, San Diego, San Francisco, Chicago,Denver and Detroit;[22] like other South Asians, Pakistanis settle in major urban areas. The Pakistani American community are also prevalent in Arizona, Arkansas, Cleveland, Colorado, Connecticut, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nevada, New England, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Seattle, Virginia, Washington, D.C., Wisconsin and Utah.[14][21][23][24]

Towns and cities in America with the highest percentage of Pakistani ancestry include Madison Park, New Jersey (5.7%),[25] Herricks, New York (4.1% ),[25] Boonton, New Jersey (4%),[26] Lincolnia, Virginia (3%),[27] Stafford, Texas (2%)[28] and Avenel, New Jersey (2%).[29]

For a more comprehensive list, see Epodunk - Pakistani Ancestry by place and Cities with the most residents born in Pakistan

Religion[edit]

Most Pakistani Americans are Muslims. Religion figures prominently in the life of Pakistani American families, and the Quran and the teachings of Muhammad serve as the guidelines that Pakistani Muslims are supposed to follow throughout their lives.[13]

The majority of Pakistanis belong to the Sunni sect of Islam, although there is a significant representation of the Shi'ite sect. In smaller towns in America where there may not be mosques within easy access, Pakistani Americans make trips to attend the nearest one on major religious holidays and occasions.[13] Pakistani Americans worship at mosques alongside other Muslims who might trace their ancestry to all parts of the Islamic world; there are generally no separate Pakistani American mosques.

Pakistani Americans also participate in and contribute to the larger Islamic community, which includes Arab Americans, Iranian American, Turkish American, African Americans, Indonesian Americans, Malaysian Americans, South Asian Americans, and many more ethnic backgrounds in America.[13] They are part of the larger community's efforts to educate the country about the ideals of Islam and the teachings of Mohammed. Pakistani Americans have played important roles in the association the Muslim Students of America (MSA), which caters to the needs of Islamic students across the United States.[13]

Although most Pakistani Americans are Muslims, there are also Hindus, Christians, and Zoroastrians within the community. Pakistani Christians, like Asian Christians, worship at churches all over the country and share in the religious life of the dominant Christian culture in America. Pakistani Hindus mainly share in the religious life of numerous Hindus (including large number of American converts) from various nationalities. Pakistani Hindus are mostly from Karachi. In recent times, Pakistani Zoroastrians (called Parsis) have come to the United States mainly from the cities of Lahore and Karachi.[citation needed] Apart from fellow Pakistanis, they also congregate with fellow Zoroastrian co-religionists from Iran.

Culture[edit]

Like the terms "Asian American" or "South Asian American", the term "Pakistani American" is also an umbrella label applying to a variety of views, values, lifestyles, and appearances. Although Pakistani Americans retain a strong ethnic identity, they are known to assimilate into American culture while at the same time keeping the culture of their ancestors. Pakistani Americans are known to assimilate more easily than many other immigrant groups because they have fewer language barriers (English is the official language of Pakistan and widely spoken in the country among professional classes), more educational credentials (immigrants are disproportionately well educated among Pakistanis), and come from a similarly diverse, relatively tolerant, and multi-ethnic society. Pakistani Americans are well represented in the fields of medicine, engineering, finance and information technology. Pakistani Americans have brought Pakistani cuisine to the United States, and Pakistani cuisine has been established as one of the most popular cuisines in the country with hundreds of Pakistani restaurants in each major city and several similar eateries in smaller cities and towns. There are many Pakistani markets and stores in the United States. Some of the largest Pakistani markets are in New York City, Central New Jersey, Washington, D.C., Chicago, and Houston

Music[edit]

Languages[edit]

Pakistani Americans often retain their native languages, such as Punjabi and Urdu.[12] As English is an officially recognized language in Pakistan and is taught in schools throughout the country many immigrants coming to the United States generally have a good grasp of the English language.[30]

Many Pakistanis in the United States speak some of Pakistan's various regional languages such as Punjabi, Saraiki, Sindhi, Balochi, Pashto and Kashmiri.

Economics and Education[edit]

See also: Model minority

The Pakistani American community today lives in a comfortable middle-class, upper-middle-class[13][30] and upper-class lifestyles.[31] Many Pakistani Americans follow the residence pattern set by others that when they increase their wealth, they are able to own their own businesses; including restaurants, groceries and convenience stores, clothing and appliance stores, petrol and gas stations, newspaper booths, and travel agencies. It is common to include members of the extended and immediate family in the business. The Pakistani American community is said to be philanthropic, research shows that in the year 2002 the community gave close to US$ 1 Billion in philanthropic activities (including value of volunteered time).[15] An increasing number of Pakistani Americans work in the medical field. The Association of Physicians of Pakistani Descent of North America, APPNA, has been meeting in various locations across the United States for the past 30 years. There are more than 15,000 doctors practicing medicine in America who are of Pakistani descent.[32] Pakistan is the fourth highest source of IMG doctors in the U.S.[33] and they are chiefly concentrated in New York, California, Florida, New Jersey and Illinois.[34] Pakistan is also the fourth highest source of foreign dentists licensed in the United States.[35] US congressmen and congresswomen have lauded the contributions of Pakistani medical professionals to the country's healthcare system.[36] Pakistani Americans tend to follow the residence pattern set by other Americans, in that they move to more affluent suburbs as their prosperity and wealth increases. Members of the community believe in the symbolic importance of owning homes; accordingly, Pakistani Americans tend to save money and make other monetary sacrifices earlier on in order to purchase their own homes as soon as possible.[13] Members of the family and the larger community tend to take care of each other, and to assist in times of economic need. Hence, it would be more common to turn to a community member for economic assistance rather than to a government agency. This leads to relatively low use of welfare and public assistance by Pakistani-Americans .[13] According to the 2000 census the mean household income in the United States in 2002 was $57,852 annually, whereas for Asian households, which includes Pakistanis this was $70,047.[4] A separate study conducted by the American Community Survey in 2005, showed the mean and median incomes for Pakistani male full-time workers were US$59,310 and US$42,718 - respectively compared to the average male American full-time workers' mean and median incomes of US$56,724 and US$41,965 - respectively.[10] There is also incidence of poverty in the Pakistani community and in particular around new immigrants that migrated from less privileged backgrounds. These migrants tend to take low-paying jobs involving manual or unskilled labor and tend to live in large cities where such jobs are readily available and in particular New York, where as of the 2000 census, poverty rates for Pakistanis in relation to the total New York population were higher overall, with 9,417 (28%) of Pakistanis living in poverty, which is greater than the general New York City poverty rate of 21%.[37] Compared with those immigrants that arrived from 1965 who were either professionals or students and considered to be middle- and upper-class, the newer migrants tended to be worse off economically.[38]

Compared to other heritage groups in the United States, Pakistani Americans tend to be better educated with 87.4% being at least high school graduates[39] and 60.9% holding a bachelors degree or higher professional degree.[10][30] Dr. Mehtab Karim, at the Pew Research Center found that 29.5% of Pakistanis completed four years of college, 22.5% completed a Master’s in a professional degree while 1.6% acquired a doctorate degree, this compared with the American national average of 17.6%, 20% and 1.1% respectively.[40]

Shahid Khan is a Pakistani American billionaire businessman who is owner of an auto-parts company and the NFL team Jacksonville Jaguars. As of 2012, he was estimated to have a net worth exceeding $2.5 billion and is featured on the Forbes 400 list of richest Americans, on which he ranks 179.[41] Overall on the Forbes list of billionaires, he is the 491st richest person in the world.[42]

Labour[edit]

This table shows the areas of work that Pakistanis are employed in and compares people that are born in the U.S., those born in Pakistan and those who are American nationals:[43]

Occupational characteristics
 % Managerial - business/financial-related occupations  % Professional related occupations  % Self-employed
FB1 Men 15.1 29.6 17.1
FB1 Women 8.8 32.0 9.6
NB2 Men 10.0 33.3 9.9
NB2 Women 15.6 50.7 7.2
NB3 Men 17.7 18.0 14.0
NB3 Women 11.9 26.7 8.2

Note: FB1 = Pakistani born, NB2 = American born Pakistani and NB3 = All American nationals

The New York Times estimated that there were 109,300 workers born in Pakistan in all occupations in the US in 2007. With the top 10 occupations in ascending order being; sales-related, managers and administrators, drivers and transportation workers, doctors, accountants and other financial specialists, computer software developers, scientists and quantitative analysts, engineers and architects, clerical and administrative staff, and teachers.[44]

Politics[edit]

Sada Cumber, the First U.S. envoy to the Organization of the Islamic Conference, with former President Bush, Feb. 27, 2008, in the Oval Office.
Former President George W. Bush and Laura Bush with Pakistani American U.S. Army Sgt. Wasim Khan at the State of the Union Address, U.S. Capitol building, February 1, 2004. Khan was wounded in action during Operation Iraqi Freedom, June 2003 and was invited as a guest by former President Bush.

Muslim immigrants were actively involved in the struggle for residence and citizenship rights in America. Since the second wave of immigration in 1965, the Pakistani American community has not been politically inclined, but this is now changing, with the community starting to contribute funds to their candidates of choice in both parties, and running for elected office in districts with large Pakistani American populations. In recent times, Pakistani American candidates have run for the state senate in districts of such city boroughs as Brooklyn, New York. Because the community is geographically dispersed, the formation of influential voting blocs has not generally been possible, making it difficult to for the community to make an impact on politics in this particular way. However, there are increasing efforts on the part of community leaders to ensure voter registration and involvement.

Historically, Pakistani Americans have tended to vote Republican due to the shared ideology of conservatism and the perceived notion that Republican Presidents and leaders are more pro-Pakistani than Democrats. This was evident during the 2000 Presidential Election, as Pakistani Americans voted in overwhelming numbers for Republican candidate George W. Bush. However, that trend reversed itself in 2004, after George W. Bush's first term in office. His policies alienated Muslims at home and abroad, and Pakistanis were no exception. When George W. Bush was up for re-election, Pakistani Americans voted for Democratic candidate John Kerry.

In the past, especially during the Cold War and the War on Terror under the Bush administration, there was the perceived notion that Republicans were more pro-Pakistani than Democrats. However, that trend reversed itself from 2011 onwards. Since then, there has been an increasing anti-Pakistani sentiment among Republican congressman which has alienated some Pakistani-Americans. Some Republican presidential candidates have criticised the democrats policy toward Pakistan. During the 2012 Republican Party presidential debates, the Republican candidates ganged up on Pakistan and questioned whether the United States could trust it. Texas governor Rick Perry called Pakistan unworthy of US aid because it had not done enough to help fight al-Qaeda.[45] In the same year a bill was introduced by Dana Rohrabacher in the US House of Representatives proposing a hefty reduction in aid to Pakistan.[46] President Obama has vowed to veto any proposed anti-Pakistan bills.[47] President Obama also courted the Pakistani-American community for votes and money for his 2012 re-election campaign. In March 2012, Obama traveled to Houston, Texas for this purpose and at a dinner organised by Pakistani entrepreneurs, the President managed to raise $3.4 million in just a few hours for his re-election campaign. President Obama also pledged to continue sending aid and selling military equipment to Pakistan. According to polls, most Pakistani-Americans have now switched their votes to the Democratic Party.[48]

In 2013, during the second inauguration of Barack Obama, the re-elected President praised the members of the Pakistani community in America and said, “I am about to go speak to the crowd in Chicago, but I wanted to thank you first. I want you to know that this was not fate and it was not an accident. You made this happen.” Talking to the Daily Times from Houston via telephone, US business leader Muhammad Saeed Sheikh said Obama in his address told that he would spend the rest of his presidency honoring the Pakistani-American support and doing what he can to finish what he started. Obama continued his praise and said, “You organised yourselves block by block. You took ownership of this campaign 5 and 10 dollars at a time. And when it was not easy, you pressed forward.”[49]

Relations with Pakistan[edit]

Pakistani Americans protesting in Rochester, NY against President Musharraf's imposition of emergency rule in November 2007.

Pakistani Americans have always maintained a strong bond with their homeland. Several leading airlines fly from the US to Pakistan, carrying with them thousands of Pakistanis who mostly go home to visit family and relatives. The relationship between the U.S. and Pakistani governments in the past few decades has been very close, and the Pakistani American community has benefited from this American interest in the country of their origin. Pakistani TV channels have found their way into homes of the diaspora worldwide.

Several paid TV channels are available for viewing; Pakistani TV serials, reality TV shows and political talk shows are popular among expatriates. These channels can also be viewed on the internet. Pakistani Americans maintain a deep interest in the society and politics of their country of origin. Funds are raised by the community in the US for various political parties and groups in Pakistan. From all the Pakistani diaspora, Pakistani Americans raised the largest number of funds to help Pakistan due to the 2005 earthquake. Tensions among ethnic groups like the Sindhis, Punjabis, Pashtuns, and Baluchis in Pakistan are not reflected in interaction between these subgroups in the US. Several international airlines serve the growing Pakistani community in the US connecting major US airports to those in Pakistan.

The Pakistani community in the United States also remits the largest share of any Pakistani diaspora community since 2002/03, surpassing those from Saudi Arabia which from 2000/01 were $309.9 million and increased to $1.25 billion by 2007/08 and during the same period remittances from the United States increased from $73.3 million to $1.72 billion.[10]

In 2012 the Election Commission of Pakistan granted Overseas Pakistanis the right to vote in future Pakistani general elections. By allowing the setting up of polling stations in embassies and consulates, this move was welcomed by those Pakistanis living abroad particularly in America who stated "Overseas Pakistanis make enormous contributions to the development of Pakistan".[50][51]

Discrimination[edit]

Incidents of deliberate overt discrimination against Pakistani Americans are few and far between. The most common stereotypes of Pakistanis are those based on general stereotypes of South Asians, but they may also tend to overlap with the stereotypes of West and Central Asians and the stereotypes of Arabs and Muslims because the majority of Pakistani people are Muslims. Any discrimination that exists is primarily in the form of being not so welcoming in social interactions, compared to the treatment received, say, by northern European immigrants who are more readily embraced. Though rare, explicit discrimination is not unknown in the Pakistani American community. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, there have been scattered incidents of Pakistani Americans having been mistaken targets for hate crimes and Pakistani Americans have to go under more security checks in places such as airports due to their Muslim background.[3] Up to 45,000 of the estimated 100,000-strong Pakistani community in New York were deported or left voluntarily following the attacks, according to reports.[52] A notable case of discrimination is that of Hasan, a Princeton University graduate who was deported to Pakistan even when no case was proved against him. His American wife Rose along with two children are fighting for justice in Islamabad.[53]

In American popular culture[edit]

  • Nadia Ali is a Grammy-nominated singer-songwriter, prominent in electronic dance music and the voice of the single "Rapture", which dominated dance charts across the world.
  • Babu Butt was a Pakistani immigrant who was befriended by Jerry Seinfeld in the popular 90s sitcom Seinfeld. He was portrayed somewhat stereotypically as a Pakistani immigrant trying to open his own restaurant.
  • Nadia Yassir, a character on the hit TV show 24, portrayed a fictional Pakistani American.[54]
  • In fall 2007, CW aired a comedy show titled Aliens in America. The show is about a Wisconsin family that hosts a Pakistani exchange student.[55]
  • Faran Tahir is a Pakistani American actor who has appeared in hit American television shows such as 24, Monk, and Justice. He also starred as the captain in the 2009 Star Trek movie.[56]

Events[edit]

  • Flag raising events[57]
Pakistan day flag raising events are held throughout the US around August 14 every year.
  • Pakistan Independence Day Parade: The event is held every year around August 14 (the date Pakistan was established in 1947) in New York City.
  • The First International Urdu Conference was held in the United Nations Headquarters in New York on June 2000. The conference was organized by Urdu Markaz New York.
  • APPNA Conference: This event is organized every year by APPNA (Association of Pakistani Physicians in North America). The conference attracts hundreds of Pakistani American physicians and their families from all over North America. APPNA's doctors have also volunteered their time and services for a free health care event taking place throughout June 2010.[58]
  • Pakistan Independence Day Festival of Battery Park: This is the largest gathering of Pakistani Americans in United States which was founded by a very well-connected political and social activist, Khalid Ali.
  • In April 2010 the USA Cricket Association signed a deal with the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) to host games in America. The PCB said that they had reached an agreement with the USA Cricket Association and anticipated games starting in 2010.[59] This is also due to the large Pakistani American and Pakistani expatriate community residing in the United States.

Notable Pakistani Americans[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_SF1_QTP8&prodType=table
  2. ^ a b c d e "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2012-07-11. 
  3. ^ a b c Pakistanis in America March 2, 2012
  4. ^ a b c Pakistanis in U.S., 2010-05-20.
  5. ^ United States Census Bureau. "US demographic census". Retrieved 2006-11-19. 
  6. ^ "City of Paterson - Silk City". Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  7. ^ Alejandro Portes; Rubén G. Rumbaut (3 September 2006). Immigrant America: A Portrait. University of California Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-520-94048-2. 
  8. ^ "Press Releases 2010". Embassy of the United States Islamabad, Pakistan. 2010-06-16. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  9. ^ Aminah Mohammad-Arif. "The Paradox of Religion: The (re)Construction of Hindu and Muslim Identities amongst South Asian Diasporas in the United States". Samaj.revues.org. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Pakistani Migration to the United States: An economic perspective" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  11. ^ Pakistan Link - Nayyer Ali[dead link]
  12. ^ a b "Migration Information Source - Spotlight on the Foreign Born of Pakistani Origin in the United States". Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved 2010-05-11. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Pavri, Tinaz. "PAKISTANI AMERICANS". Retrieved 2006-04-10. 
  14. ^ a b Pakistanis in New England. Retrieved 05-19-2010.
  15. ^ a b Adil Najam (2006). Portrait of a Giving Community: Philanthropy by the Pakistani-American Diaspora. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674023666. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  16. ^ Census Profile: NYC's Pakistani American Population[dead link]
  17. ^ "Pakistanis in New York City (graphic)". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  18. ^ We are California, Featured group Pakistanis, Pg 1 Retrieved 08-09-2011
  19. ^ Ajay K. Mehrotra (2005). "Pakistanis". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  20. ^ Pakistani community in North Texas Retrieved 09-25-2011
  21. ^ a b "Consulate General of Pakistan Houston". Pakistanconsulatehouston.org. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  22. ^ "Pakistani American Leadership Center". PAL-C. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  23. ^ Community Overview - Pakistan Consulate General. Retrieved 11-29-2010.
  24. ^ "Pakistani ancestry maps". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  25. ^ a b Cities with Pakistani Ancestry. Retrieved 05-22-2010.
  26. ^ "Boonton, NJ". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  27. ^ "Lincolnia, VA". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  28. ^ "Stafford, TX". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  29. ^ "Avenel, NJ". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  30. ^ a b c Pakistanis in California Pg 2. Retrieved 05-21-2010.
  31. ^ "Pakistani American millionaires". Washington-report.org. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  32. ^ http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/extract/356/5/442
  33. ^ "IMGs by Country of Origin". Ama-assn.org. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  34. ^ [1][dead link]
  35. ^ Foreign-trained dentists licensed in the United States Retrieved 08-07-2011
  36. ^ Imtiaz, Huma. "US should apologise to Pakistan, NATO pay reparations to soldiers: Congressman Kucinich". Tribune.com.pk. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  37. ^ http://www.aafny.org/cic/briefs/pakistani.pdf
  38. ^ New cosmopolitanisms: South Asians in the US
  39. ^ U.S census bureau educational attainment Retrieved 08-09-2011
  40. ^ Embracing the American mainstream Retrieved 08-09-2011
  41. ^ Shahid Khan: The New Face Of The NFL And The American Dream
  42. ^ Shahid Khan on Forbes
  43. ^ Asian Americans: contemporary trends and issues
  44. ^ "Immigration and Jobs: Where U.S. Workers Come From". The New York Times. 2009-04-07. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  45. ^ The Irish Times. 2011-11-24 http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/world/2011/1124/1224308054813.html |url= missing title (help). (login required)
  46. ^ http://www.dailypioneer.com/world/64888-let-pak-lose-aid-for-inaction-us-bill.html
  47. ^ http://tribune.com.pk/story/379517/obama-might-veto-bill-calling-for-economic-restrictions-on-pakistan/
  48. ^ http://www.geo.tv/GeoDetail.aspx?ID=40269
  49. ^ http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2012\11\08\story_8-11-2012_pg5_7
  50. ^ Overseas Pakistanis get right to vote March 1, 2012
  51. ^ Pakistani-Americans hail voting rights move March 1, 2012
  52. ^ http://english.aljazeera.net/news/americas/2008/10/20081015181955164424.html
  53. ^ http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/American-Rose-fights-for-Pakistani-husband-01-sal-05
  54. ^ The Day Is Just Beginning for Marisol Nichols on '24'
  55. ^ TV Review Aliens In America (2007)
  56. ^ IMDB - Faran Tahir
  57. ^ Pak-American Community Association of NJ Flag Raising Event Accessed September 5, 2011
  58. ^ Pakistani-American Doctors Provide Free Health Care Nationwide
  59. ^ USA Cricket Board Signs Deal with New Zealand, Pakistan to Play in U.S.

External links[edit]

Organizations and associations[edit]

Other[edit]