Defense industry of Pakistan
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The defence industry of Pakistan, under the Ministry of Defence Production, was created in September 1951 to promote and coordinate the patchwork of military production facilities that have developed since independence. The ministry also includes seven other specialized organizations devoted to research and development, production, and administration.  Pakistan Navy is supported mainly by a facility at the Karachi Shipyard, which has limited production capacity. In 1987 development of a submarine repair and rebuild facility at Port Qasim was begun. By early 2000, in a joint project with China led to the development of the JF-17 Thunder fighter and the Al-Khalid Tank. Pakistan also has taken major steps to becoming self-sufficient in aircraft overhaul, modernization and tank and helicopter sales and a transfer of technology with France led to the construction of the Agosta B-90 Submarine in the late 1990s and early 2000s and is currently actively participating in many joint production projects such as Al Khalid 2, advance trainer aircraft, combat aircraft, navy ships and submarines.