Pal Dukagjini

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For other uses, see Pal Dukagjini (disambiguation).
Pal Dukagjini
Noble family Dukagjini
Father Tanush
Born 1411
Died 1458
Occupation ?–1444: Vassal of Lekë Zaharia
1444–1454: Vassal of Venice
1454–1457: Vassal of the Kingdom of Naples
1457: Joined Ottoman forces

Pal Dukagjini or Paul Ducagin (1411–1458)[1] was an Albanian nobleman, a member of the Dukagjini family. He and his kinsman Nicholas Dukagjini were initially subjects of Lekë Zaharia, a Venetian vassal who had possessions around Shkoder. Nicholas murdered Lekë, and the Dukagjini continued to rule over their villages under Venetian vassalage. Pal and Nicholas were part of the League of Lezhë, a military alliance that sought liberation of Albania from the Ottoman Empire, founded by the powerful Skanderbeg. In 1454, the Dukagjini accepted vassalage of Alfonso V of Aragon, as other chieftains had done three years earlier. Pal later abandoned Skanderbeg's army and deserted to the Ottomans.

Life[edit]

He was one of the founding members of the League of Lezhë, a military alliance of some Christian members of the Albanian nobility forged in Lezhë on 2 March 1444 by:[2][3][4]

Pal Dukagjin and Nikola Dukagjin were vassals of Lekë Zaharia until Nikola Dukagjini killed him in 1444.[5] Venice accepted their control over the properties they ruled when they were vassals of Lekë Zaharia (which included villages Buba, Salita, Gurichuchi, Baschina) because they agreed to be Venetian vassals after Zaharia's death.[6][7]

Alfonso V of Aragon first signed the Treaty of Gaeta with Skanderbeg in 1451 and then he signed similar treaties with Pal Dukagjini and other chieftains from Albania including: George Araniti, Ghin Musachi, George Strez Balšić, Peter Spani, Thopia Musachi, Peter of Himara, Simon Zenebishi and Carlo Toco.[8]

Pal was in Venice between November 1451 and February 1452, when the Venetian Senate accepted his request not to serve Venice in Ulcinj anymore but in Alessio because it was closer to his estates.[9] The Senate ordered the lord of Ulcinj to pay for the previous services of Pal Dukagjin, and ordered the lord of Alessio to accept Pal's future services.[10]

On 21 October 1454, Alphonso V of Naples informed Skanderbeg that Pal Dukagjini had sent his envoys and declared his loyalty and vassalage to the Kingdom of Naples, which assigned 300 ducats of annual provisions to him.[11]

Together with many other Albanian noblemen (like Moisi Arianit Golemi, Nicholas Dukagjini and Hamza Kastrioti) he abandoned Skanderbeg's forces and deserted to the Ottomans.[12] In 1457 Pope Callixtus III criticized the bishop of Krujë for the unjustified excommunication of Pal Dukagjini and his subjects.[13]

Pal Dukagjini left four sons: Nicholas Dukagjini, Lekë, Progon and Gjergj, of whom Nicholas and Lekë were politically notable.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë 2002, p. 310

    Pali (1411–1458), për të cilin Gjon Muzaka rrëfen se është edukuar pranë Gjon Kastriotit, ka qenë aktiv në jetën politike. Ai ka marrë pjesë në kuvendin e Lezhës dhe që në fillim është bashkuar me Skënderbeun. Pali ka pasur katër djem: Lekën, Nikollën, Progonin dhe Gjergjin.

  2. ^ Noli 1947, p. 36
  3. ^ Božić 1979, p. 364

    Никола Дукађин убио је Леку Закарију. Према млетачком хроничару Стефану Мању убио га је "у битки" као његов вазал. Мада Барлеције погрешно наводи да је убиство извршио Лека Дукађин

  4. ^ Schmitt 2001, p. 297

    Nikola und Paul Dukagjin, Leka Zaharia von Dagno, Peter Span, Herr der Berge hinter Drivasto, Georg Strez Balsha sowie Johann und Gojko Balsha, die sich zwischen Kruja und Alessio festgesetzt hatten, die Dushman von Klein-Polatum sowie Stefan (Stefanica) Crnojevic, der Herr der Oberzeta

  5. ^ Božić 1979, p. 364

    Крајем лета 1444. Никола Дукађин убио је Леку Закарију. Према млетачком хроничару Стефану Мању убио га је "у битки" као његов вазал.)

  6. ^ Schmitt 2001, p. 300

    Am folgenden Tag bestätigte Querini Paul Dukagjin und Leka Dukagjin, dem Sohn Tanushs – wohl des in Padua internierten, oben erwähnten Tanush Dukagjin – ihren Besitz auf dem Gebiet des verstorbenen Leka Zaharia. Die Dukagjin anerkannten Venedigs Herrschaft über Dagno, und „kamen freudigen Sinnes zu Übergabe und Gehorsam an die Dogenherrschaft von Venedig noch eifriger zu deinen als dem Herrn Leke Zaharia". Paul und Leka Dukagjin waren also fur ihren besitz bei Dagno vassalen Leka Zaharias.

  7. ^ Božić 1979, p. 364

    Нову власт прихватила је и Лекина породица, приклонили су јој се и његови дворани. Зато им је Франћеско Квирин потврдио поседе и стечена права. Павлу и Леки Дукађину призната су села Buba, Salita, Gurichuchi и Baschina

  8. ^ Noli 1947, p. 49

    Later on Alphonse concluded similar treaties with George Araniti, Ghin Musachi, George Stresi Balsha, Peter Spani, Paul Ducaghini,...

  9. ^ Božić 1979, p. 369

    Павле Дукађин дошао је, новембра 1451, у Млетке и задржао се више месеци; кра- јем фебруара 1452. Сенат је пристао да се као најамник не води више у Улцињу, већ у Љешу (који је био ближе њего- вим поседима)

  10. ^ Božić 1979, p. 369

    и наредио улцињском кнезу да исплати његова заостала потраживања а љешком провидуру да га упише...)

  11. ^ Spomenik, Volumes 95–97 (in Serbian). Serbian Academy of Science and Arts. 1942. p. xvi. Retrieved 2 February 2012. Кастел Нови код Напуља, 21. октобар 1454: Краљ Алфонс V јавља Скендербегу да му је Павле Дукађини преко свог посланика изјавио оданост и покорност и да му је као свом вазалу, одредио годишњу провизију од 300 дуката ... 
  12. ^ Skendi, Stavro (1980). Balkan cultural studies. East European Monographs. p. 175. ISBN 9780914710660. Retrieved 24 March 2012. ..Arianiti's nephew,...Nicholas and Paul Dukagjini and Hamza Kastrioti deserted to the Ottomans 
  13. ^ Božić 1979, p. 378

    ...Каликс III 1457. оштро критиковао епископа Кроје, поред осталог и због тога што је искључио из цркве "католичког кнеза Павла Дукађина и његове поданике без ваљаног разлога")

Sources[edit]