Palace of Culture and Science
|Palace of Culture and Science|
|Pałac Kultury i Nauki|
View from the Warsaw Financial Center
|Address||Plac Defilad 1|
|Construction started||2 May 1952|
|Completed||22 July 1955|
|Antenna spire||237 m (778 ft)|
|Roof||187.68 m (615.7 ft)|
|Observatory||114 m (374 ft)|
|Floor area||123,084 m2 (1,324,865 sq ft)|
|Design and construction|
The building was conceived as a "gift from the Soviet people to the Polish nation", and was completed in 1955. The structure was built in three years according to the design of the Soviet architect Lev Rudnev. Architecturally, it is a mix of Socialist realism and Polish historicism inspired by American art deco skyscrapers. Currently it is the headquarters of many companies and public institutions, such as cinemas, theaters, libraries, sports clubs, universities (including Collegium Civitas), scientific institutions and authorities of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
The building was originally known as the Joseph Stalin Palace of Culture and Science (Pałac Kultury i Nauki imienia Józefa Stalina), but in the wake of destalinization the dedication to Stalin was revoked; Stalin's name was removed from the interior lobby and one of the building's sculptures.
Construction started in 1952 and lasted until 1955. A gift from the Soviet Union to the people of Poland, the tower was constructed, using Soviet plans, almost entirely by 3500 workers from the Soviet Union, of whom 16 died in accidents during the construction. The Soviet builders were housed at a new suburban complex complete at Poland's expense with its own cinema, food court, community centre and swimming pool. The architecture of the building is closely related to several similar skyscrapers built in the Soviet Union of the same era, most notably the Moscow State University. However, the main architect Lev Rudnev incorporated some Polish architectural details into the project by traveling around Poland and seeing the architecture. The monumental walls are headed with pieces of masonry copied from Renaissance houses and palaces of Kraków and Zamość.
Shortly after opening, the building hosted the 5th World Festival of Youth and Students. Many visiting dignitaries toured the Palace, and it also hosted performances by notable international artists, such as a 1967 concert by the Rolling Stones, the first by a major western rock group behind the Iron Curtain. In 1985, it hosted the historic Leonard Cohen concert, surrounded by many political expectations, which were avoided by Cohen in his prolonged introductions during the three-hour show.
Four 6.3-metre clock faces were added to the top of the building ahead of the millennium celebrations in 2000. This briefly made the building the tallest clock tower in the world (it was superseded by the NTT DoCoMo Yoyogi Building, to which a clock was added in 2002, itself superseded by Makkah Clock Royal Tower in 2012).
As the city's most visible landmark, the building was controversial from its inception. Many Poles initially hated the building because they considered it to be a symbol of Soviet domination, and at least some of that negative feeling persists today. Some have also argued that, regardless of its political connotations, the building destroyed the aesthetic balance of the old city and imposed dissonance with other buildings. This contrast has been lessened somewhat over the years with the construction of several skyscrapers in the vicinity. Despite the controversies, the Palace became an internationally recognized symbol of Warsaw.
Varsovians still commonly use nicknames to refer to the palace, notably Pekin ("Beijing", because of its abbreviated name PKiN), Patyk ("stick") and Pajac ("clown", a word that sounds close to Pałac). Other less common names include Stalin's syringe, the Elephant in Lacy Underwear, or even the Russian Wedding Cake. The terrace on the 30th floor, at 114 metres, is a well-known tourist attraction with a panoramic view of the city.
The building currently serves as an exhibition center and office complex. It is 231 metres (757 ft) tall, which includes a 43-metre high spire. There are 3288 rooms on 42 above-ground floors, with an overall area of 123,000 m². The Palace contains a multiplex cinema with eight screens, four theaters (Studio, Dramatyczny, Lalka and 6. piętro), two museums (Museum of Evolution and Museum of Technology), offices, bookshops, a large swimming pool, an auditorium hall for 3000 people called Congress Hall, and an accredited university, Collegium Civitas, on the 11th and 12th floors of the building.
- Eighth Sister
- Latvian Academy of Sciences in Riga
- Neoclassical architecture
- Socialist realism in Poland
- The Museum of Communism in Poland
- Warsaw Parade Square (Plac Defilad)
- "Warsaw Palace of Culture and Science" (PDF). Best Urban Freight Solutions. May 24, 2007.
- "History of PKiN in a nutshell". www.pkin.pl. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
- Pałac Kultury i Nauki "Historia" at the PKN official website.
- Timothy Tilghman. "The Stones Tumultuous 1967 European Tour". rockontour.net. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
- "Leonard Cohen in Warsaw (1985) by Daniel Wyszogrodzki". Leonardcohenfiles.com. 1985-03-22. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
- "Warsaw: Don't Miss". www.whatsonwhen.com. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
- Małgorzata Barwicka (7 March 2007). "Pałac pod lupą". www.tc.ciechanow.pl (in Polish). Tygodnik Ciechanowski. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
- "Kinoteka: Wynajem sal". Retrieved 2015-01-29.
- Magdalena J. Zaborowska. "The Height of (Architectural) Seduction: Reading the "Changes" through Stalin's Palace in Warsaw, Poland". Centre for Cultural Research, University of Aarhus. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Palace of Culture and Science.|
- Official site
- Palace of Culture & Science at Structurae
- Skyscrapers of Warsaw - Palace of Culture and Science
- Google maps view on Palace of Culture and Science
- PALACE CULTURE Collection