Timeline of the name "Palestine"

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This article presents a list of notable historical references to the name Palestine, and cognates such as "Filastin" and "Palaestina", throughout the history of the region.

The term "Peleset" (transliterated from hieroglyphs as P-r-s-t) is found in five inscriptions referring to a neighboring people or land starting from c.1150 BCE during the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. The first known mention is at the temple at Medinet Habu which refers to the Peleset among those who fought with Egypt in Ramesses III's reign,[1][2] and the last known is 300 years later on Padiiset's Statue. The Assyrians called the same region "Palashtu" or "Pilistu", beginning with Adad-nirari III in the Nimrud Slab in c.800 BCE through to an Esarhaddon treaty more than a century later.[3][4] Neither the Egyptian nor the Assyrian sources provided clear regional boundaries for the term.[5]

The first clear use of the term Palestine to refer to the entire area between Phoenicia and Egypt was in 5th century BC Ancient Greece,[6][7] when Herodotus wrote of a 'district of Syria, called Palaistinê" in The Histories, which included the Judean mountains and the Jordan Rift Valley.[6][8][9][10][11][12] In the treatise Meteorology c.340 BCE, Aristotle wrote, "there is a lake in Palestine". [13][14] [15][16] This is understood by scholars to be a reference to the Dead Sea.[17] Later Greek writers such as Polemon and Pausanias also used the word, which was followed by Roman writers such as Ovid, Tibullus, Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder, Dio Chrysostom, Statius, Plutarch as well as Roman Judean writers Philo of Alexandria and Josephus.[18] Other writers, such as Strabo, referred to the region as Coele-Syria[a] ("all Syria") around 10-20 CE.[19][20] Circa 135 CE, Palestine was used in naming the new Roman province known as, Syria Palæstina,[b] when the Roman authorities created the imperial province after the Bar Kokhba Revolt.

Palaistinê (whence Palaestina, from which Palestine is derived)[21] is generally accepted to have a correspondence within the Sacred texts of Judaism such that Palaistinê is a translation of the name Peleshet (פלשת Pəlésheth, usually transliterated as Philistia). Peleshet and its derivates are used more than 250 times in Masoretic-derived versions of the Hebrew Bible,[22] of which 10 uses are in the Torah, with undefined boundaries, and almost 200 of the remaining references are in the Book of Judges and the Books of Samuel.[3][18][23] The term is rarely used in the Septuagint, who used a transliteration Land of Phylistieim (Γη των Φυλιστιειμ) different from the contemporary Greek place name Palaistínē (Παλαιστίνη).[6] The Septuagint instead used the term "allophuloi" (Αλλόφυλοι, "other nations") throughout the Books of Judges and Samuel,[24][25] such that the term "Philistines" has been interpreted to mean "non-Israelites of the Promised Land" when used in the context of Samson, Saul and David,[26] and Rabbinic sources explain that these peoples were different from the Philistines of the Book of Genesis.[24]

During the Byzantine period c.390, the imperial province of Syria Palaestina was reorganized into: Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda,[27] and Palaestina Salutaris.[27] Following the Muslim conquest, place names that were in use by the Byzantine administration generally continued to be used in Arabic.[3][28] The use of the name "Palestine" became common in Early Modern English,[29] was used in English and Arabic during the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem. In the 20th century the name was used by the geopolitical entities commonly known as “Mandatory Palestine” and the “State of Palestine”. Both incorporated geographic regions from the land commonly known as Palestine, into a new state whose territory was named Palestine.

Historical references[edit]

Ancient period[edit]

Egyptian period[edit]

Padiiset's Statue "the impartial envoy/commissioner/messenger of/for Canaan of/for Peleset"

Assyrian period[edit]

  • c.800 BCE: Adad-nirari III, Nimrud Slab[36]
  • c.800 BCE: Adad-nirari III, Saba'a Stele: "In the fifth year (of my official rule) I sat down solemnly on my royal throne and called up the country (for war). I ordered the numerous army of Assyria to march against Palestine (Pa-la-áš-tu)... I received all the tributes […] which they brought to Assyria. I (then) ordered [to march] against the country Damascus (Ša-imērišu)."[37]
  • c.735 BCE: Qurdi-Ashur-lamur to Tiglath-Pileser III, Nimrud Letter ND 2715: "Bring down lumber, do your work on it, (but) do not deliver it to the Egyptians (mu-sur-a-a) or Palestinians (pa-la-as-ta-a-a), or I shall not let you go up to the mountains."[38][39]
  • c.717 BCE: Sargon II's Prism A: records the region as Palashtu or Pilistu[40]
  • c.700 BCE: Azekah Inscription[41]
  • c.694 BCE: Sennacherib "Palace Without a Rival: A Very Full Record of Improvements in and about the Capital (E1)": (the people of) Kue and Hilakku, Pilisti and Surri ("Ku-e u Hi-lak-ku Pi-lis-tu u Sur-ri")[42]
  • c.675 BCE: Esarhaddon's Treaty with Ba'al of Tyre: Refers to the entire district of Pilistu (KUR.pi-lis-te)[43]

Classical antiquity[edit]

Persian (Achaemenid) Empire period[edit]

  • c.450 BCE: Herodotus, The Histories[44], First historical reference clearly denoting a wider region than biblical Philistia, referring to a "district of Syria, called Palaistinê"[45][8][46] (Book 3[47]): "The country reaching from the city of Posideium to the borders of Egypt... paid a tribute of three hundred and fifty talents. All Phoenicia, Palestine Syria, and Cyprus, were herein contained. This was the fifth satrapy."; (Book 4): "the region I am describing skirts our sea, stretching from Phoenicia along the coast of Palestine-Syria till it comes to Egypt, where it terminates"; (Book 7[48]): "[The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine], according to their own account, dwelt anciently upon the Erythraean Sea, but crossing thence, fixed themselves on the seacoast of Syria, where they still inhabit. This part of Syria, and all the region extending from hence to Egypt, is known by the name of Palestine." One important reference refers to the practice of male circumcision associated with the Hebrew people: "the Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians, are the only nations who have practised circumcision from the earliest times. The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine themselves confess that they learnt the custom of the Egyptians.... Now these are the only nations who use circumcision"[49]
  • c.340 BCE: Aristotle, Meteorology, "Again if, as is fabled, there is a lake in Palestine, such that if you bind a man or beast and throw it in it floats and does not sink, this would bear out what we have said. They say that this lake is so bitter and salt that no fish live in it and that if you soak clothes in it and shake them it cleans them." This is understood by scholars to be a reference to the Dead Sea[14][17][15][16]

Hellenic Kingdoms (Ptolemaic/Seleucid/Hasmonean) period[edit]

Roman Jerusalem period[edit]

  • c.10-19 BCE: Tibullus, Tibullus and Sulpicia: The Poems: "Why tell how the white dove sacred to the Syrians flies unharmed through the crowded cities of Palestine?"[60][61]
  • c.2 CE: Ovid, Ars Amatoria: "the seventh-day feast that the Syrian of Palestine observes"[62][63]
  • c.8: Ovid, Metamorphoses: (1) "...Dercetis of Babylon, who, as the Palestinians believe, changed to a fish, all covered with scales, and swims in a pool"[64] and (2) "There fell also Mendesian Celadon; Astreus, too, whose mother was a Palestinian, and his father unknown"[65][63]
  • c.17: Ovid, Fasti (poem): "When Jupiter took up arms to defend the heavens, came to Euphrates with the little Cupid, and sat by the brink of the waters of Palestine."[66][63]
  • c.40: Philo of Alexandria, (1) Every Good Man is Free: "Moreover Palestine and Syria too are not barren of exemplary wisdom and virtue, which countries no slight portion of that most populous nation of the Jews inhabits. There is a portion of those people called Essenes.";[67] (2) On the Life of Moses: "[God] conducted his people as a colony into Phoenicia, and into the Coele-Syria, and Palestine, which was at that time called the land of the Canaanites, the borders of which country were three days' journey distant from Egypt.";[68] (3) On Abraham: "The country of the Sodomites was a district of the land of Canaan, which the Syrians afterwards called Palestine"[69][17]
  • c.43: Pomponius Mela, De situ orbis: "Syria late litora tenet, terrasque etiam latius introrsus, aliis aliisque nuncupata nominibus: nam et Coele dicitur et Mesopotamia et Damascene et Adiabene et Babylonia et Iudaea et Commagene et Sophene. Hic Palaestine est qua tangit Arabas, tum Phoenice; et ubi se Ciliciae committit Antiochia, olim ac diu potens, sed cum eam regno Semiramis tenuit longe potentissima. Operibus certe eius insignia multa sunt; duo maxime excellunt; constituta urbs mirae magnitudinis Babylon, ac siccis olim regionibus Euphrates et Tigris immissi."[70][17]
  • c.78: Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Volume 1, Book V: Chapter 13: "Next to these countries Syria occupies the coast, once the greatest of lands, and distinguished by many names; for the part which joins up to Arabia was formerly called Palaestina, Judaea, Coele,[a] and Phoenice. The country in the interior was called Damascena, and that further on and more to the south, Babylonia."; Chapter 14: "After this, at the point where the Serbonian Bog becomes visible, Idumea and Palaestina begin. This lake, which some writers have made to be 150 miles in circumference, Herodotus has placed at the foot of Mount Casius; it is now an inconsiderable fen. The towns are Rhinocorura and, in the interior, Rafah, Gaza, and, still more inland, Anthedon: there is also Mount Argaris";[71] Book XII, Chapter 40: "For these branches of commerce, they have opened the city of Carræ, which serves as an entrepot, and from which place they were formerly in the habit of proceeding to Gabba, at a distance of twenty days' journey, and thence to Palæstina, in Syria"[72][17]
  • c.80: Marcus Valerius Probus, Commentary on Georgics: "Edomite palms from Idumea, that is Judea, which is in the region of Syria Palestine".[73]
  • c. 85: Silius Italicus, Punica: "While yet a youth, he [Titus] shall put an end to war with the fierce people of Palestine."[74][75]
  • c. 90: Dio Chrysostom, quoted by Synesius, refers to the Dead Sea as being in the interior of Palestine, in the very vicinity of "Sodoma"[76]
  • c.97: Josephus, Against Apion: "Nor, indeed, was Herodotus of Halicarnassus unaquainted with our nation, but mentions it after a way of his own... This, therefore, is what Herodotus says, that "the Syrians that are in Palestine are circumcised". But there are no inhabitants of Palestine that are circumcised excepting the Jews; and, therefore, it must be his knowledge of them that enabled him to speak so much concerning them."[77][17]
  • c.94: Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews: "...these Antiquities contain what hath been delivered down to us from the original creation of man, until the twelfth year of the reign of Nero, as to what hath befallen us Jews, as well is Egypt as in Syria, and in Palestine"[78][17]
  • c.100: Statius, Silvae, refers to "liquores Palestini"[19][63]
  • c.100: Plutarch, Parallel Lives:"Armenia, where Tigranes reigns, king of kings, and holds in his hands a power that has enabled him to keep the Parthians in narrow bounds, to remove Greek cities bodily into Media, to conquer Syria and Palestine, to put to death the kings of the royal line of Seleucus, and carry away their wives and daughters by violence."[79]

Roman Aelia Capitolina period[edit]

Palestine in c.100CE according to Ptolemy (map by Claude Reignier Conder of the Palestine Exploration Fund)
Undated Classical inscription from Constantinople, published by George Dousa in 1599, mentioning "Syriae Palaisteinae"[80]
  • c.135: Syria Palæstina[b] was a Roman province between 135 and about 390.[81] It was established by the merge of Roman Syria and Roman Judaea, following the defeat of the Bar Kokhba Revolt.
  • c.150: Appian, Roman History: "Intending to write the history of the Romans, I have deemed it necessary to begin with the boundaries of the nations under their sway.... Here turning our course and passing round, we take in Palestine-Syria, and beyond it a part of Arabia. The Phoenicians hold the country next to Palestine on the sea, and beyond the Phoenician territory are Coele-Syria, and the parts stretching from the sea as far inland as the river Euphrates, namely Palmyra and the sandy country round about, extending even to the Euphrates itself"[82]
  • c.150: Lucian of Samosata, Passing of Peregrinus: 11. “It was then that he learned the wondrous lore of the Christians, by associating with their priests and scribes in Palestine. And—how else could it be?—in a trice he made them all look like children, for he was prophet, cult-leader, head of the synagogue, and everything, all by himself. He interpreted and explained some of their books and even composed many, and they revered him as a god, made use of him as a lawgiver, and set him down as a protector, next after that other, to be sure, whom they still worship, the man who was crucified in Palestine because he introduced this new cult into the world.[83][84]
  • c.150: Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri: "Tyre then was captured, in the archonship at Athens of Anicetus in the month I lecatombacun...Alexander now determined to make his expedition to Egypt. The rest of Syrian Palestine (as it is called) had already come over to him, but a certain eunuch, Batis, who was master of Gaza, did not join Alexander"[85]
  • c.150: Ptolemy, Geography (Ptolemy), including map[86]
  • 155: First Apology of Justin Martyr, refers to "Flavia Neapolis in Palestine" in the introductory paragraph
  • c.225: Cassius Dio, Historia Romana, The Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus in 70CE: "Such was the course of these events; and following them Vespasian was declared emperor by the senate also, and Titus and Domitian were given the title of Caesars. The consular office was assumed by Vespasian and Titus while the former was in Egypt and the latter in Palestine"[87]
  • c.300: Antonine Itinerary[88][89]
  • 311: Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea, History of the Martyrs in Palestine. As the "Father of Church History", Eusebius' use of the name Palestine influenced later generations of Christian writers[90][91]

Late Antiquity period[edit]

Late Roman Empire (Byzantine) period[edit]

Notitia Dignitatum of c.410 CE showing Dux Palestinae[92]
Madaba map extract showing "οροι Αιγυπτου και Παλαιστινης" (the "border of Egypt and Palestine)
  • c.380: Ammianus Marcellinus, Book XIV, 8, 11: "The last province of the Syrias is Palestine, a district of great extent, abounding in well-cultivated and beautiful land, and having several magnificent cities, all of equal importance, and rivalling one another as it were, in parallel lines. For instance, Caesarea, which Herod built in honour of the Prince Octavianus, and Eleutheropolis, and Neapolis, and also Ascalon, and Gaza, cities built in bygone ages."[93][80]
  • c.384: Saint Jerome, Epistle 33: "He (Origen) stands condemned by his bishop, Demetrius, only the bishops of Palestine, Arabia, Phenicia, and Achaia dissenting"[19][94][63]
  • c.390: Palaestina was organised into three administrative units: Palaestina Prima, Secunda, and Tertia (First, Second, and Third Palestine), part of the Diocese of the East.[95][96] Palaestina Prima consisted of Judea, Samaria, the Paralia, and Peraea with the governor residing in Caesarea. Palaestina Secunda consisted of the Galilee, the lower Jezreel Valley, the regions east of Galilee, and the western part of the former Decapolis with the seat of government at Scythopolis. Palaestina Tertia included the Negev, southern Jordan—once part of Arabia—and most of Sinai with Petra as the usual residence of the governor. Palestina Tertia was also known as Palaestina Salutaris.[97] Recorded in the:
  • c. 400: Genesis Rabba, Jewish midrash, explains that the word "land" in Genesis 41:54 refers to three lands in the region - Phoenicia, Arabia and Palestine.(ויהי רעב בכל הארצות: בשלש ארצות בפנקיא ובערביא ובפלסטיני)[100][63]
  • c. 400: Lamentations Rabbah, Jewish midrash, mentions the dukes of Arabia, Phoenicia, Palestine and Alexandria as joining forces with Roman Emperor Vespasian. (שלש שנים ומחצה הקיף אספסיאנוס את ירושלם והיו עמו ארבעה דוכסין, דוכס דערביא, דוכס דאפריקא, דוכוס דאלכסנדריא, דוכוס דפלסטיני)[63]
  • c.450: Theodoret, Ecclesiastical History: "The see of Caesarea, the capital of Palestine, was now held by Acacius, who had succeeded Eusebius."[101]
  • c.450: Proclus of Constantinople: "Iosuae Palaestinae exploratori cohibendi solis lunaeque cursum potestatem adtribuit"[102]
  • c.500: Tabula Peutingeriana (map)
  • c.500: Zosimus, New History: "Finding the Palmyrene army drawn up before Emisa, amounting to seventy thousand men, consisting of Palmyrenes and their allies, [Emperor Aurelian] opposed to them the Dalmatian cavalry, the Moesians and Pannonians, and the Celtic legions of Noricum and Rhaetia, and besides these the choicest of the imperial regiment selected man by man, the Mauritanian horse, the Tyaneans, the Mesopotamians, the Syrians, the Phoenicians, and the Palestinians, all men of acknowledged valour; the Palestinians besides other arms wielding clubs and staves."[103]
  • c.550: Madaba map, "οροι Αιγυπτου και Παλαιστινης" (the "border of Egypt and Palestine)
  • c.550: Christian Topography
  • 555: Cyril of Scythopolis, The Life of St. Saba[104]
  • c.560: Procopius, The Wars of Justinian: "The boundaries of Palestine extend toward the east to the sea which is called the Red Sea."[105] Procopius also wrote that "Chosroes, king of Persia, had a great desire to make himself master of Palestine, on account of its extraordinary fertility, its opulence, and the great number of its inhabitants"[106][107]

Middle Ages[edit]

Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates period[edit]

Reconstruction of the c.700 CE Ravenna Cosmography showing "Palaestina"
  • 629: Heraclius, In 629 Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem in a majestic ceremony:[108][109] I.e. the so-called Fast of Heraclius, which immediately preceding Lent, forms the first week of the Great Fast. The origin of this fast is said to be as follows: that the emperor Heraclius, on his way to Jerusalem, promised his protection to the Jews of Palestine, but that on his arrival in the holy city, the schismatical patriarch and the Christians generally prayed him to put all the Jews to the sword, because they had joined the Persians shortly before in their sack of the city and cruelties towards the Christians. (Abu Salih the Armenian, Abu al-Makarim, ed. Evetts 1895, p. 39, Part 7 of Anecdota Oxoniensia: Semitic series Anecdota oxoniensia. Semitic series—pt. VII], at Google Books)
  • c.670: Adomnán, De Locis Sanctis, or the Travels of Arculf: "Que utique Hebron, ut fertur, ante omnes, non solum Palestíne, civitates condita fuerat, sed etiam universas Egyptiacas urbes in sua precessit conditione, que nunc misere monstratur destructa."[110] translated: "This Hebron, it is said, was founded before all the cities, not only of Palestine, but also preceded in its foundation all the cities of Egypt, although it has now been so miserably destroyed."[111][112]
  • c.700: Ravenna Cosmography
  • c.770: Thawr ibn Yazid, hadith, as quoted in Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Wasiti's Fada'il Bayt al-Muqaddas (c.1019): "The most holy spot [al-quds] on earth is Syria; the most holy spot in Syria is Palestine; the most holy spot in Palestine is Jerusalem [Bayt al-maqdis]; the most holy spot in Jerusalem is the Mountain; the most holy spot in Jerusalem is the place of worship [al-masjid], and the most holy spot in the place of worship is the Dome."[113][114]
  • c.770: Hygeburg, The Life of Willibald: "Then, having visited the church of St. George at Diospolis [he passed] through Joppe, a coast town of Palestine, where Peter raised to life the widow Dorcas, and went along the shore of the Adriatic Sea, and adored the footsteps of our Lord at Tyre and Sidon. And then, crossing Mount Libanus, and passing through the coast town of Tripoli, he visited Damascus again, and came to Emmaus, a village of Palestine, which the Romans after the destruction of Jerusalem called, after the event of the victory, Nicopolis."[115][116]
  • 810-815: Theophanes the Confessor, Chronicles:[117][118] Since Muhammad was a helpless orphan, he thought it good to go to a rich woman named Khadija ...to manage her camels and conduct her business in Egypt and Palestine... When he [Muhammad] went to Palestine he lived with both Jews and Christians, and hunted for certain writings among them. (Theophanes 1982, p. 35, The Chronicle of Theophanes)
  • c.870: Ibn Khordadbeh, Book of Roads and Kingdoms: "Filastin Province 500,000 dinars of taxes" (c.864 AD)[119][120]
  • c.870: al-Baladhuri, Conquests of the Lands Wrote that the main towns of the district, following its conquest by the Rashidun Caliphate, were Gaza, Sebastia (Sebastiya), Nablus, Caesarea, Ludd, Yibna, Imwas, Jaffa, Rafah, and Bayt Jibrin.[119]
  • c.880: Qudamah ibn Ja'far, Kitab Al Kharaj (The Book of the Land Tax): Filastin Province, 195,000 dinars (c.820 AD)
  • 891: Ya'qubi, Book of Lands: "Of the Jund Filastin, the ancient capital was Lydda. The Caliph Sulayman subsequently founded the city of Ramla, which he made the capital.... The population of Palestine consists of Arabs of the tribes of Lakhm, Judham, Amilah, Kindah, Kais and Kinanah"[119][120]
  • c.900: Limits of the Five Patriarchates: "The first See and the first patriarchate is of Jerusalem, James, the brother of God and apostle and eyewitness, and minister of the word and secrets of secrets and hidden mysteries, contains the whole Palestine a country until Arabia." (Πρῶτος θρόνος καὶ πρώτη πατριαρχία Ἱεροσολύμων, Ἱακώβου τοῦ ἀδελφοθέου καὶ ἀποστόλου, αὐτόπτου καί ὑπηρέτου τοῦ λόγου γενομένου καὶ μύστου τῶν ἀπορρήτων καὶ ἀθεάτων αὐτοῦ μυστηρίων θεαμάτων, περιέχων πᾶσαν τὴν Παλαιστίνων χώραν ἄχρι Ἀραβίας)
  • 903: Ibn al-Faqih, Concise Book of Lands[119][121]
  • c.913: Ibn Abd Rabbih[119][121]
  • c.930: Patriarch Eutychius of Alexandria, Eutychii Annales:[122][123][124] CHAPTER II: ADVERSITIES OF THE CHURCH.: 1 Persecutions of the Christians.: ...The Christians suffered less in this than in the preceding centuries. ...In the East especially in Syria and Palestine the Jews sometimes rose upon the Christians with great violence (Eutyrhius, Annales tom ii., p. 236, &c. Jo. Henr. Hottinger, Historia Orientalis, lib. i., c. id., p. 129, &c.) yet so unsuccessfully as to suffer severely for their temerity. (Mosheim 1847, p. 426, at Google Books)
  • 943: Al-Masudi, The Meadows of Gold[119][125]

Fatimid Caliphate period[edit]

  • 951-978: Estakhri, Traditions of Countries and Ibn Hawqal, The Face of the Earth: "The provinces of Syria are Jund Filstin, and Jund al Urdunn, Jund Dimaskh, Jund Hims, and Jund Kinnasrin.... Filastin is the westernmost of the provinces of Syria... its greatest length from Rafah to the boundary of Lajjun... its breadth from Jaffa to Jericho.... Filastin is the most fertile of the Syrian provinces.... Its trees and its ploughed lands do not need artificial irrigation... In the province of Filastin, despite its small extent, there are about 20 mosques.... Its capital and largest town in Ramla, but the Holy City (of Jerusalem) comes very near this last in size"[119][121]
  • 985: Al-Muqaddasi, Description of Syria, Including Palestine: "And further, know that within the province of Palestine may be found gathered together 36 products that are not found thus united in any other land.... From Palestine comes olives, dried figs, raisins, the carob-fruit, stuffs of mixed silk and cotton, soap and kercheifs"[126]
  • c.1000: Suda encyclopedic lexicon: "Παλαιστίνη: ὄνομα χώρας. καὶ Παλαιστι̂νος, ὁ ἀπὸ Παλαιστίνης." / "Palestine: Name of a territory. Also [sc. attested is] Palestinian, a man from Palestine.[127]
  • 1029: Rabbi Solomon ben Judah of Jerusalem, a letter in the Cairo Geniza, refers to the province of Filastin[128]
  • 1047: Nasir Khusraw, Safarnama[119] / Diary of a Journey through Syria and Palestine: "This city of Ramlah, throughout Syria and the West, is known under the name of Filastin."[129][130]
  • 1051: Ibn Butlan[119]

Crusaders period[edit]

Tabula Rogeriana, showing "Filistin" in Arabic in the middle of the right hand page
  • 1100-27: Fulcher of Chartres, Historia Hierosolymitana (1095-1127): "For we who were Occidentals have now become Orientals. He who was a Roman or a Frank has in this land been made into a Galilean or a Palestinian."[131]
  • c.1130, Fetellus, "The city of Jerusalem is situated in the hill-country of Judea, in the province of Palestine" [132]
  • 1154: Muhammad al-Idrisi, Tabula Rogeriana or The Book of Pleasant Journeys into Faraway Lands[119][133]
  • 1173: Ali of Herat, Book of Indications to Make Known the Places of Visitations[119]
  • 1177: A Brief Description, by Joannes Phocas, of the Castles and Cities, from the City of Antioch even unto Jerusalem; also of Syria and Phoenicia, and of the Holy Places in Palestine[134][135]
  • c.1180: William of Tyre, Historia Hierosolymitana[136]
  • 1185: Ibn Jubayr, The Travels of Ibn Jubayr[119]

Ayyubid and Mamluk periods[edit]

Palestina on the Fra Mauro map, 1459
Map of Palestine published in Florence 1482 and included in the Francesco Berlinghieri expanded edition of Ptolemy’s Geographia (Geography)
  • 1220: Jacques de Vitry, History of Jerusalem: "And there are three Palestines, which are parts of Greater Syria. The first is that whose capital is Jerusalem, and this part is specially named Judaea. The second is that whose capital is Caesarea Philippi, which includes all the country of the Philistines. The third is that whose capital is Scythopolis, which at this day is called Bethshan. Moreover, both the Arabias are parts of Syria: the first is that whose capital is Bostrum; the second is that whose capital is Petra in the Wilderness."[137]
  • 1225: Yaqut al-Hamawi, Dictionary of Geographies "Filastin is the last of the provinces of Syria towards Egypt. Its capital is Jerusalem. Of the principal towns are Ashkelon, Ramle, Gaza, Arsuf, Caesarea, Nablus, Jericho, Amman, Jaffa and Beit Jibrin"[119]
  • c. 1266 Abu al-Makarim, "The Churches and Monasteries of Egypt", Part 7 of Anecdota Oxoniensia: Semitic series Anecdota oxoniensia:[138] At the beginning of the caliphate [of Umar] George was appointed patriarch of Alexandria. He remained four years in possession of the see. Then when he heard that the Muslims had conquered the Romans, and had vanquished Palestine, and were advancing upon Egypt, he took ship and fled from Alexandria to Constantinople; and after his time the see of Alexandria remained without a Melkite patriarch for-ninety seven years. (Abu al-Makarim c. 1895, p. 73, at Google Books)
  • 1321: Abu'l-Fida, A Sketch of the Countries: "The Nahr Abi Futrus is the river that runs near Ramla in Filastin"[119]
  • 1322: Ishtori Haparchi, Sefer Kaftor Vaferach, mentions twice that Ramla is also known as Filastin
  • 1327: Al-Dimashqi[119][139]
  • 1338 Robert Mannyng The Chronicle
  • c.1350: Guidebook to Palestine (a manuscript primarily based on the 1285-1291 account of Christian pilgrim Philippus Brusserius Savonensis): "It [Jerusalem] is built on a high mountain, with hills on every side, in that part of Syria which is called Judaea and Palestine, flowing with milk and honey, abounding in corn, wine, and oil, and all temporal goods"[140]
  • 1351: Jamal ad Din Ahmad, Muthir al Ghiram (The Exciter of Desire) for Visitation of the Holy City and Syria: "Syria is divided into five districts, namely: i. Filastin, whose capital is Aelia (Jerusalem), eighteen miles from Ramla, which is the Holy City, the metropolis of David and Solomon. Of its towns are Ashkelon, Hebron, Sebastia, and Nablus."[119]
  • 1355: Ibn Battuta, Rihla[119] Ibn Battuta wrote that Ramla was also known as Filastin[141]
  • 1355: Jacopo da Verona: Liber Peregrinationis: "Primo igitur sciendum est. quod in tota Asyria et Palestina et Egipto et Terra Sancta sunt multi cristiani sub potentia soldani subjugati solventes annuale tributum soldano multa et multa milia."[142][143]
  • 1377: Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddimah: "Filastin Province taxes - 310,000 dinars plus 300,000 ratls of olive oil"[119]
  • c.1421: John Poloner "The land which we call the Holy Land came to be divided by lot among the twelve tribes of Israel, and with regard to one part was called the kingdom of Judaea ... with regard to the other part it was called the kingdom of Samaria... Both these kingdoms, together with the land of Philistim, were called Palestine, which was but a part thereof, even as Saxony and Lorraine are parts of Germany, and Lombardy and Tuscany are parts of Italy. And note that there are three Palestines. In the first, the capital city is Jerusalem, with all its hill country even to the Dead Sea and the wilderness of Kadesh Barnea. The second, whose capital city is Caesarea by the sea, with all the land of Philistim' beginning at Petra Incisa, and reaching as far as Gaza, was the Holy Land toward the south. The third is the capital city of Bethsan, at the foot of Mount Gilboa. This was once called Scythopolis, and is the place where the corpses of Saul's soldiers were hung up. This Palestine is properly called Galilee"[144]
  • 1430: Abu-l Fida Ishak, Muthir al Ghiram (The Exciter of Desire)[119]
  • 1459: Fra Mauro map
  • 1470: Al-Suyuti[119]
  • 1480: Felix Fabri "Joppa is the oldest port, and the most ancient city of the province of Palestine"[145]
  • 1482: Francesco di Niccolò Berlinghieri, Geographia, a treatise based upon Ptolemy's Geographica: map: Present-Day Palestine and the Holy Land
  • 1492: Martin Behaim's "Erdapfel" globe
  • 1496: Mujir al-Din al-'Ulaymi, The Glorious History of Jerusalem and Hebron:[119] According to Haim Gerber: "Among other things Mujir al-Din’s book is notable for its extensive use of the term “Palestine.” The simple fact is that Mujir al-Din calls the country he lives in Palestine (Filastin), a term he repeats 22 times. One other name he uses for the country is the Holy Land, used as frequently as Palestine. No other names, such as Southern Syria, are ever mentioned... What area did he have in mind when speaking about Palestine? It stretched from Anaj, a point near al-Arish, to Lajjun, south of the Esdraelon valley. It was thus clearly equivalent to the Jund Filastin of classical Islam."[146]

Early modern period[edit]

Early Ottoman period[edit]

1570 map in Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, captioned "Palaestinae Sive Totius Terrae Promissionis Nova Descriptio" ("Palestine, the whole of the Promised Land, a new description")
Published 1720
Published 1736
Published 1794
18th century maps of Ottoman Syria identifying the region of Palestine
  • c. 1560 Ebussuud Efendi: Ebu Suud is asked in a fatwa, "What is the meaning of the term the Holy Land, arazi-i mukaddese?" His answer is that various definitions of the term exist, among them the whole of Syria, to Aleppo and Ariha in the north. Others equate it with the area of Jerusalem (al-Quds); still others equate it with the term "Palestine."[147]
  • c.1561: Anthony Jenkinson, published by Richard Hakluyt, The Principall Navigations, Voiages, and Discoveries of the English Nation: "I William Harborne, her Majesties Ambassadour, Ligier with the Grand Signior, for the affaires of the Levant Company in her Majesties name confirme and appoint Richard Forster Gentleman, my Deputie and Consull in the parts of Alepo, Damasco , Aman, Tripolis, Jerusalem, and all other ports whatsoever in the provinces of Syria, Palestina, and Jurie, to execute the office of Consull over all our Nation her Majesties subjects"[148]
  • 1563: Josse van Lom, physician of Philip II of Spain: A treatise of continual fevers: "Therefore the Scots, English, Livonians, Danes, Poles, Dutch and Germans, ought to take less blood away in winter than in summer; on the contrary, the Portuguese, Moors, Egyptians, Palestinians, Arabians, and Persians, more in the winter than in summer"[149]
  • 1563: John Foxe, Foxe's Book of Martyrs: "Romanus, a native of Palestine, was deacon of the church of Casearea at the time of the commencement of Diocletian's persecution".[150]
  • c.1565: Tilemann Stella, map: The Holy Land, the land of promise, which is a part of Syria, the parts that are called Palestina[151] at The Library of Congress
  • 1570: Abraham Ortelius, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World),[152] map: Palestinæ
  • 1570: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, folio 51[153]
  • 1577: Holinshed's Chronicles: "The principal and chief cause I suppose and think to be, because that whereas the patriarch of Jerusalem named Heraclius came in an ambassage unto him, in the name and behalf of all the whole land of Palestine called the Holy Land, requesting that he would take upon him to be their help, and defending the same against the Saladin then king of Egypt and of Damascus"[154]
  • 1591: Johannes Löwenklau: Historiae Musulmanae Turcorum Latin: "Cuzzimu barec ea ciuitas est Palæstinæ, quam veteres Hierosolyma dixerunt, Hebræi Ierusalem. Nomen hodiernum significa locum benedictum vel inclytum", translates as "Quds Barış is the city of the Palestinians, also known as Hierosolyma, in Hebrew, Jerusalem. The name means the holy one or the glorious one"[155]
  • 1591: Giovanni Botero[156]
  • 1594: Uri ben Shimon and Jakob Christmann (ed.): Calendarium Palaestinorum Et Universorum Iudaeorum... "Auctore Rabbi Ori filio Simeonis, Iudeo Palaestino" [Author Rabbi Uri son of Simeon, Palestinian Jew]"[157]
  • 1596: Giovanni Antonio Magini, Geographia, Cosmographia, or Universal Geography: An atlas of Claudius Ptolemy's world of the 2nd century, with maps by Giovanni Antonio Magini of Padua,[158] map: Palaestina, vel Terra Sancta,[159] at Google Books
  • c.1600: Shakespeare: The Life and Death of King John: Scene II.1 "Richard, that robb'd the lion of his heart, and fought the holy wars in Palestine"[160] / Othello Scene IV.3: "I know a lady in Venice would have walked barefoot to Palestine for a touch of his [Lodovico's] nether lip."[161]
  • 1616: Pietro Della Valle: Viaggi di Pietro della Valle il Pellegrino[162]
  • 1624: Francis Bacon, New Atlantis, "The Phoenicians, and especially the Tyrians, had great fleets; so had the Carthaginians their colony, which is yet farther west. Toward the east the shipping of Egypt, and of Palestine, was likewise great."[163]
  • 1637: Philipp Cluverius, Introductionis in universam Geographiam (Introduction to World Geography),[164][165] map: Palaestina et Phienice cum parte Coele Syria[166]
  • 1639: Thomas Fuller[167]
  • 1647: Sadiq Isfahani, The Geographical Works of Sadik Isfahani: "Filistin, a region of Syria, Damascus, and Egypt, comprising Ramla, Ashkelon, Beit al Mukuddes (Jerusalem), Kanaan, Bilka, Masisah, and other cities; and from this province is denominated the "Biaban-i Filistin" (or Desert of Palestine), which is also called the "Tiah Beni-Israil""[168]
  • c.1649: Evliya Çelebi, Travels in Palestine: "All chronicles call this country the Land of Palestine"[169]
  • c.1670: Khayr al-Din al-Ramli, al-Fatawa al-Khayriyah: According to Haim Gerber "on several occasions Khayr al-Din al-Ramli calls the country he was living in Palestine, and unquestionably assumes that his readers do likewise. What is even more remarkable is his use of the term “the country” and even “our country” (biladuna), possibly meaning that he had in mind some sort of a loose community focused around that term."[170] Gerber describes this as "embryonic territorial awareness, though the reference is to social awareness rather than to a political one."[147]
  • c.1670: Salih b. Ahmad al-Timurtashi, The Complete Knowledge of the Limits of the Holy Land and Palestine and Syria (Sham).[171]
  • 1688: John Milner, A Collection of the Church-history of Palestine:[172] Hitherto of Places, now follows an account of the Persons concerned in the Church-History of Palestine. (Milner 1688, p. 19, at Google Books)
  • 1688: Edmund Bohun, A Geographical Dictionary, Representing the Present and Ancient Names of All the Countries:[173] Jerusalem, Hierosolyma, the Capital City of Palestine, and for a long time of the whole Earth; taken notice of by Pliny, Strabo, and many of the Ancients. (Bohun 1688, p. 353, at Google Books)
  • 1693: Patrick Gordon (Ma FRS), Geography Anatomiz'd:[174][175] Palestine, or Judea, Name.] This Country ...is term'd by the Italians and Spaniards, Palestina; by the French, Palestine; by the Germans Palestinen, or das Gelobte Land; by the English, Palestine, or the Holy Land. (Gordon 1704, p. 290, at Google Books)
  • 1709: Matthäus Seutter, map: Deserta Aegypti, Thebaidis, Arabiae, Syriae etc. ubi accurata notata sunt loca inhabitata per Sanctos Patres Anachoretas at The Library of Congress
  • 1714: Adriaan Reland, Palaestina ex monumentis veteribus illustrata: "All regions which the Jews inhabited had the name Palestine. Hebrew writers, Philo, Jospehus and others have all used this name.":[176] map: Palaestina prima, on Google Books
  • 1717: Laurent d'Arvieux, Voyage dans la Palestine
  • 1718: Isaac de Beausobre, David Lenfant, Le Nouveau Testament de notre seigneur Jesus-Christ: On a déja eu occasion de parler des divers noms, que portoit autrefois la Terre d Israël, , Ici nous désignerons sous le nom de Palestine qui est le plus commun. (We previously spoke of the various names for the Land of Israel, ...Now we will refer to the Land of Israel by the name of Palestine which is the most common)[177][178]
  • 1730: Joshua Ottens, map: Persia (Iran, Iraq, Turkey)[179]
  • 1736: Herman Moll, map: Turkey in Asia[180]
  • 1743: Richard Pococke: Description of the East
  • 1746: Modern History Or the Present State of All Nations: "Jerusalem is still reckoned the capital city of Palestine"[181]
  • 1747: The modern Gazetteer: "Palestine, a part of Asiatic Turkey, is situated between 36 and 38 degrees of E longitude and between 31 and 34 degress of N latitude, bounded by the Mount Libanus, which divides it from Syria, on the North, by Mount Hermon, which separates it from Arabia Deserta, on the East, by the mountains of Seir, and the deserts of Arabia Petraea, on the South, and by the Mediterranean Sea on the West, so that it seems to have been extremely well secured against foreign invasions."[182]
  • 1751: The London Magazine[183]
  • 1792: Giovanni Mariti: Travels Through Cyprus, Syria, and Palestine; with a General History of the Levant[184]
  • 1794: Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville, map: A New Map of Turkey in Asia[185]
  • 1799: Pierre Jacotin, Napoleon's director of surveyancing, begins work on the "Jacotin Map": The region is labelled "Palestine" in French and فلسطين أو أرض قدس ("Palestine or Holy Land") in Arabic[186]

Modern period[edit]

Late Ottoman period[edit]

Published 1862
Published 1895
19th century maps of Ottoman Syria identifying the region of Palestine
Map showing the "Quds Al-Sharif Mutasarrifate", from an atlas dated 1907. The map shows the 1860 borders between Ottoman Syria and the Khedivate of Egypt, although the border was moved to the current Israel-Egypt border in 1906. The area north of the Negev Desert is labelled "Filastin" (Palestine).
Palestine, by Salomon Munk, 1913.
Females of distinction in Palestine, and even in Mesopotamia, are not only beautiful and well-shaped, but, in consequence of being always kept from the rays of the sun, are very fair.[195]
  • 1827: Philippe Vandermaelen, Atlas universel de geographie physique: map: Syrie et Palestine {Asie 63}, at Princeton gisserver
  • 1833: Heinrich Friedrich Pfannkuche: "In the writings of the Greeks and Romans, we need not look for indications of a very familiar acquaintance with the history and language of the Palestinian Jews, since they did not even vouchsafe their attention to the language and national writings of the more civilized nations of antiquity, such as the Carthaginians, Phoenicians, and Strabo, from whom we have quoted above the passages bearing upon our subject, is perhaps the only one who imparts this general information of the Syrians, (to whom the Palestinians also belonged,) that they and their neighbours spoke a cognate language, but he enters on no farther explanation as to the difference between their dialects"[196]
  • c.1834: Neophytos, monk of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre: “The conquest of Ptolemais was celebrated in Jerusalem with illuminations, dancing and music, in every street and place in the city… The Moslems alone could not hide their sorrow and sullenness (although they danced with the rest), because they had a presentment that Egypt would use its power against them. They felt they could not continue to act as they wished, and that hereafter Jerusalem and all of Palestine would be reformed.”[197]
  • 1837: Lord Lindsay, Letters on Egypt, Edom and the Holy Land: "...we bade adieu to Jerusalem... It was our intention, after exploring Palestine (properly so called), to cross the Jordan, and visit Jerash"[198]
  • 1841: Charles Henry Churchill in correspondence with Sir Moses Montefiore: "Were the resources which you all possess steadily directed towards the regeneration of Syria and Palestine, there cannot be a doubt but that, under the blessing of the Most High, [the European Powers] would amply repay the undertaking, and that you would end by obtaining the sovereignty of at least Palestine."
  • 1841: John Kitto: Palestine: the Physical Geography and Natural History of the Holy Land, Illustrated with Woodcuts.[199][200]
  • 1844: John Kitto: The Pictorial History of Palestine and The Holy Land including a Complete History Of The Jews,
Vol. I. Biblical History.[201]
Vol. II. Biblical History, Continued. Natural History And Geography.[202]
  • 1856: James Redhouse, An English and Turkish dictionary: Regarded as the original and authoritative Ottoman-English dictionary, translates Holy Land as dari-filastin (House of Palestine)[203]
  • 1859: Samuel Augustus Mitchell, map: Turkey in Asia and Geographicus - Arabia
  • 1872-1917: The Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem was commonly referred to at the time as "Palestine".[204][205]
  • 1879: Nu'man ibn 'Abdu al-Qasatli: al-Rawda al-Numaniyya in the travelogue to Palestine and some Syrian Towns[206]
  • 1880s: The Ottoman government issues a number of decrees to foreign governments, intended to limit Zionist immigration, land purchases and settlement. The decrees refer to "Palestine", but the term is not defined.[207]
  • 1890: Reinhold Röhricht, Bibliotheca Geographica Palestine, from the year A.D. 333 to A.D. 1878:[208][209] among the books on Palestine. Bibliotheca Geographica Palestinae, (Berlin, 1890), enumerates 3515 books, issued between 333 A.D. and 1878 A.D.[210] Bibliotheca Geographica Palestine. Chronologisches Verzeichniss der auf die Geographic des heiligen Landes beziiglichen Literatur von 333 bis 1878 und Versuch einer Cartographic. Herausgegeben von Reinhold Rohricht. (Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1890.) The title indicates clearly enough the general character of this book. It professes to give a list of all the books relating to the geography of Palestine from the year A.D. 333 to A.D. 1878 and also a chronological list of maps relating to Palestine. But the title does not give any idea of the exhaustive method in which the subject has been treated ; the completeness is such that the book, which has rightly been described as 'indispensable' to students of Palestinian geography, will be found of great service in many other fields. (The Church Quarterly Review 1891, p.259, at Google Books) (Bibliotheca Geographica Palestinae, (Berlin, 1890), at openlibrary.org)
  • 1897: First Zionist Congress: the Basel program sets out the goals of the Zionist movement: "Zionism aims at establishing for the Jewish people a publicly and legally assured home in Palestine"
  • c.1900-10: Ottoman Governors: According to Haim Gerber "The remnants of the correspondence of the Ottoman governors with their superiors in the first decade of the twentieth century quite often relate to the Zionist question and the resistance to it among local inhabitants. The country is referred to throughout as Palestine."[211]
  • 1902: The Anglo-Palestine bank: A subsidiary of the Bank Leumi, the financial instrument of the Zionist Organization
  • 1911: Filastin (newspaper)[212]
  • 1913: Al-Karmil (newspaper): "We hoped that they [the Ottoman Party for Administrative Decentralization] would rid us of Zionist threats and dangers. We comprised a group of people who had hoped the best for their leaders. This team possessed tremendous power; not to ignore that Palestine, their country, was part of the Ottoman Empire."[213]
  • c.1913: Ruhi Khalidi, Zionism or the Zionist Question, according to Haim Gerber "It is noteworthy that whenever the name of the country appears, it is always Palestine, never southern Syria or anything else."[214]
  • 1914: Four days after Britain's declaration of war on the Ottoman Empire at a British Cabinet meeting on 9 November 1914, David Lloyd George, Chancellor of the Exchequer, "referred to the ultimate destiny of Palestine."[215][216]
  • 1915: VIII Corps (Ottoman Empire), Filastin Risalesi ("Palestine Document"), an Ottoman army country survey which formally identified Palestine as including the sanjaqs of Akka (the Galilee), the Sanjaq of Nablus, and the Sanjaq of Jerusalem (Kudus Sherif).[217]

Formation of the British Mandate[edit]

Further information: History of Zionism and History of Israel
Passport, coin and stamp from Mandatory Palestine. When written in English all show "Palestine", with the latter two also showing Arabic: فلسطينFilasţīn and Hebrew: פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י) Palestína (EY)[218]
  • 1918: House of Commons of the United Kingdom: Minutes: "Major Earl Winterton asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs what facilities have been given to the Palestinian and Syrian political leaders now in Egypt to visit Palestine?"[219] An early use of the word Palestinian in British politics, which was used often in following years in the British government[220]
  • 1919: Zionist Organization, Statement on Palestine at the Paris Peace Conference: "The boundaries of Palestine shall follow the general lines set out below: Starting on the North at a point on the Mediterranean Sea in the vicinity south of Sidon and following the watersheds of the foothills of the Lebanon as far as Jisr El-Karaon thence to El-Bire, following the dividing line between the two basins of the Wadi El-Korn and the Wadi Et-Teim, thence in a southerly direction following the dividing line between the Eastern and Western slopes of the Hermon, to the vicinity west of Beit Jenn, then eastward following the northern watersheds of the Nahr Mughaniye close to and west of the Hedjaz Railway. In the east a line close to and west of the Hedjaz Railway terminating in the Gulf of Akaba. In the south a frontier to be agreed upon with the Egyptian Government. In the west the Mediterranean Sea."[221][222]
  • 1919: Syrian National Congress: "We ask that there be no separation of the southern part of Syria, known as Palestine, nor of the littoral western zone, which includes Lebanon, from the Syrian country." [223]
  • 1920: Franco-British boundary agreement - the framework agreement in which the borders of the Mandate of Palestine were established, being finally approved on 7 March 1923[224][225]
  • 1920: Herbert Samuel during an Advisory Council meeting: "He was aware that there was no other name in the Hebrew language for this land except 'Eretz-Israel'. At the same time he thought that if 'Eretz-Israel' only were used, it might not be regarded by the outside world as a correct rendering of the word 'Palestine', and in the case of passports or certificates of nationality, it might perhaps give rise to passports or certificates of nationality, it might perhaps give rise to difficulties, so it was decided to print 'Palestine' in Hebrew letters and to add after it the letters 'Aleph' 'Yod', which constitute a recognised abbreviation of the Hebrew name. His Excellency still thought that this was a good compromise. Dr. Salem wanted to omit 'Aleph' 'Yod' and Mr. Yellin wanted to omit 'Palestine'. The right solution would be to retain both."[226][218]
  • 1921: Syrian-Palestinian Congress
  • 1913: British Mandate for Palestine is ratified
  • 1926: Permanent Mandates Commission: "M. Palacios [Spanish representative], returning to the concrete questions of a general character of which the Arabs complained, recalled those concerning the national title, the national hymn and the flag.... As regards the first point, the Arabs claimed that it was not in conformity with Article 22 of the Mandate to print the initials and even the words "Eretz Israel" after the name "Palestine" while refusing the Arabs the title "Surial Janonbiah" ("Southern Syria"). The British Government had not accepted the use of this Arab title, but gave the place of honour to the Hebrew word used for 2,000 years and decided that the official name in Hebrew was "Palestina" followed by the initials signifying "Aleph Jod", the regular Hebrew name. Was the question still under discussion and could the accredited representative give the Commission any further information? Colonel Symes explained that the country was described as "Palestine" by Europeans and as "Falestin" by the Arabs. The Hebrew name for the country was the designation "Land of Israel", and the Government, to meet Jewish wishes, had agreed that the word "Palestine" in Hebrew characters should be followed in all official documents by the initials which stood for that designation. As a set-off to this, certain of the Arab politicians suggested that the country should be called "Southern Syria" in order to emphasise its close relation with another Arab State."[227]
  • 1936: Peel Commission Report: "[Jewish nationalism] claims, for example, that, though Palestine is not an Arab word and might therefore fairly serve for Jews as well as Arabs, Eretz Israel (Land of Israel) should be also accepted as the official translation of "Palestine", and pro­tests that the printing of the Hebrew initials "E. I." after "Palestine" on every stamp and coin is not enough."[228][218]

Biblical references[edit]

The Philistines and Philistia are mentioned more than 250 times in the Hebrew Bible.[229][230][30] The Hebrew word Peleshet (פלשת Pəlésheth) - usually translated as Philistia in English, is used in the Bible to denote the southern coastal region that was inhabited by the Philistines ("Plištim" (פְּלִשְׁתִּים Pəlištîm)[23] The Philistines first appear in a listing of the Hamitic branch of Noah's descendants.[231] The word Philistia is generally accepted to be a cognate of the word Palestine. However, the terms for biblical Philistia and geographical Palestine have been different since at least the second century BCE. As early as the LXX, thought to have been completed in 132 BCE, the biblical term for Philistines in Greek (Philistieim) was different from the contemporary Greek name for the region (Palaistine)[45]

The five books of the Pentateuch / Torah include a total of 10 references, including:[229][230]

  • Genesis 10:14: (first reference) "And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim."
  • Genesis 21:32-34: "Thus they made a covenant at Beersheba: then Abimelech rose up, and Phichol the chief captain of his host, and they returned into the land of the Philistines. And Abraham planted a grove in Beersheba, and called there on the name of the LORD, the everlasting God. And Abraham sojourned in the Philistines' land many days."
  • Exodus 13:17: "And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt"
  • Exodus 23:31: "And I will set thy bounds from the Red sea even unto the sea of the Philistines, and from the desert unto the river: for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand; and thou shalt drive them out before thee."

The Historical books (see Deuteronomistic history) include over 250 references, almost 200 of which are in the Book of Judges and the Books of Samuel, including:[229][230]

  • Joshua 13:1-3: "Now Joshua was old and stricken in years; and the LORD said unto him, Thou art old and stricken in years, and there remaineth yet very much land to be possessed. This is the land that yet remaineth: all the borders of the Philistines, and all Geshuri, from Sihor, which is before Egypt, even unto the borders of Ekron northward, which is counted to the Canaanite: five lords of the Philistines; the Gazathites, and the Ashdothites, the Eshkalonites, the Gittites, and the Ekronites; also the Avites"
  • 1Kings 4:21: "And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms from the river unto the land of the Philistines, and unto the border of Egypt: they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days of his life."

Wisdom books include only 6 references, all in the Psalms, including:[229][230]

  • Psalm 87:4: "I will make mention of Rahab and Babylon to them that know me: behold Philistia, and Tyre, with Ethiopia; this man was born there."

Books of the Major prophets and Minor prophets include around 20 references, including:[229][230]

  • Zephaniah 2:5: "Woe unto the inhabitants of the sea coast, the nation of the Cherethites! the word of the LORD is against you; O Canaan, the land of the Philistines, I will even destroy thee, that there shall be no inhabitant."
  • Amos 9:7: "Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, O children of Israel? saith the LORD. Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt? and the Philistines from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir?"

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External web links[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b †Coele-Syria
  2. ^ a b †Syria Palaestina

a. †Coele-Syria

During the Roman period "Palestine" was not the only geographical term for the region. For example, Strabo, in his description of Jerusalem and Judea, uses the term "Coele-Syria" ("all Syria"), and Pliny (as above) uses both terms.[51][20][234]
Nomenclatures of Syria given by Strabo[235]
Primary Cœlê-Syria & Seleucis-Syria & Phœnicia &c. &c. Cœlê-Syria ≠ Cœlo-Syrians
Alternate Cœlo-Syrians & Syrians & Phœnicians Similar to nomenclature given by Herodotus
Coele-Syria (332-064 BCE), Greek writers used the term Palestine to refer to the region during this period, such as Polemon of Athens and Pausanias.[53][54][236]

b. †Syria Palaestina

After crushing Bar Kochba's revolt in 132-135, the Roman Emperor Hadrian applied the name Syria Palestina to the entire region that had formerly included Iudaea Province.[237] There is circumstantial evidence linking Hadrian with the name change,[19] although the precise date is not certain,[19] and the assertion of some scholars that the name change was intended "to suppress Jewish national feelings"[81][238] is disputed.[6] after they combined Iudaea Province with Galilee and the Paralia to form "Syria Palaestina". There is circumstantial evidence linking Hadrian with the name change,[19] but the precise date is not certain[19] and the assertion of some scholars that the name change was intended "to complete the dissociation with Judaea"[81][239][citation not found][238] is disputed.[6][citation needed]

c. †Achaemenid Empire

Catalogues of Satrapies of the Achaemenid empire.[240]
  • Darius' Behistun inscription
  • Histories of the Greek researcher Herodotus
the tribute list
the list of Persian armed forces
  • the inscription on Darius' tomb at Naqš-i Rustam
  • the Daiva inscription of Xerxes.
There are many satrapies mentioned in a book about Alexander the Great, the Anabasis by Arrian of Nicomedia.
Darius, Behistun
(521 BCE)
Herodotus, Histories 3.90-94
(Tribute list)
Darius, Naqš-i Rustam
(492 BCE?)
Herodotus, Histories 7.61-96
(Army list) (480/481 BCE)
Xerxes, XPh
(daiva inscription)
Arrian, Anabasis
(on history of the 4th century BCE)
Cappadocia district III/c:
Syrians, Phrygians
Cappadocia Syrians
(= Cappadocians)
Cappadocia Cappadocia
  district IV:
Cilicians
  Cilicia   Cilicia
Beyond the river district V:
Phoenicia; Palestina; Cyprus
  Phoenicia; Palestina; Cyprus    Syria; Palestina
 Egypt district VI/a:
Egypt
Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fahlbusch et al., 2005, p. 185.
  2. ^ a b Ancient Records of Egypt: The first through the seventeenth dynasties, James Henry Breasted, page 24
  3. ^ a b c Sharon, 1988, p. 4.
  4. ^ Carl S. Ehrlich "Philistines" The Oxford Guide to People and Places of the Bible. Ed. Bruce M. Metzger and Michael D. Coogan. Oxford University Press, 2001.
  5. ^ Eberhard Schrader wrote in his seminal "Keilinschriften und Geschichtsforschung" ("KGF", in English "Cuneiform inscriptions and Historical Research") that the Assyrian tern "Palashtu" or "Pilistu" referred to the wider Palestine or "the East" in general, instead of "Philistia". See KGF p123-124 and Tiglath Pileser III by Abraham Samuel Anspacher, p48
  6. ^ a b c d e Jacobson 1999: "The earliest occurrence of this name in a Greek text is in the mid-fifth century b.c., Histories of Herodotus, where it is applied to the area of the Levant between Phoenicia and Egypt."..."The first known occurrence of the Greek word Palaistine is in the Histories of Herodotus, written near the mid-fifth century B.C. Palaistine Syria, or simply Palaistine, is applied to what may be identified as the southern part of Syria, comprising the region between Phoenicia and Egypt. Although some of Herodotus' references to Palestine are compatible with a narrow definition of the coastal strip of the Land of Israel, it is clear that Herodotus does call the "whole land by the name of the coastal strip."..."It is believed that Herodotus visited Palestine in the fifth decade of the fifth century B.C."..."In the earliest Classical literature references to Palestine generally applied to the Land of Israel in the wider sense."
  7. ^ Jacobson 2001: "As early as the Histories of Herodotus, written in the second half of the fifth century B.C.E., the term Palaistinê is used to describe not just the geographical area where the Philistines lived, but the entire area between Phoenicia and Egypt—in other words, the Land of Israel. Herodotus, who had traveled through the area, would have had firsthand knowledge of the land and its people. Yet he used Palaistinê to refer not to the Land of the Philistines, but to the Land of Israel
  8. ^ a b The Southern and Eastern Borders of Abar-Nahara Steven S. Tuell Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 284 (Nov., 1991), pp. 51–57
  9. ^ Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast Anson F. Rainey Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 321 (Feb., 2001), pp. 57–63
  10. ^ In his work, Herodotus referred to the practice of male circumcision associated with the Hebrew people: "the Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians, are the only nations who have practised circumcision from the earliest times. The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine themselves confess that they learnt the custom of the Egyptians.... Now these are the only nations who use circumcision." The History of Herodotus
  11. ^ Beloe, W., Rev., Herodotus, (tr. from Greek), with notes, Vol.II, London, 1821, p.269 "It should be remembered that Syria is always regarded by Herodotus as synonymous with Assyria. What the Greeks called Palestine the Arabs call Falastin, which is the Philistines of Scripture."
  12. ^ Elyahu Green, Geographic names of places in Israel in Herodotos This is confirmed by George Rawlinson in the third book (Thalia) of The Histories where Palaestinian Syrians are part of the fifth tax district spanning the territory from Phoenicia to the borders of Egypt, but excludes the kingdom of Arabs who were exempt from tax for providing the Assyrian army with water on its march to Egypt. These people had a large city called Cadytis, identified as Jerusalem.
  13. ^ Again if, as is fabled, there is a lake in Palestine, such that if you bind a man or beast and throw it in it floats and does not sink (Aristotle, Webster ed. 2004, p. 38)
  14. ^ a b "Meteorology By Aristotle". Classics.mit.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  15. ^ a b Aristotle (1 January 2004). E. W. Webster, ed. Meteorology. Digireads.com Publishing. pp. 38–. ISBN 978-1-4209-0042-2. etvHt-bBafMC. Again if, as is fabled, there is a lake in Palestine, such that if you bind a man or beast and throw it in it floats and does not sink (Aristotle, Webster ed. 2004, p. 38) 
  16. ^ a b Aristotle, Meteorology 1.8, trans. E.W. Webster, rev. J. Barnes.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Schmidt 2001, p. 29.
  18. ^ a b Robinson, Edward, Physical geography of the Holy Land, Crocker & Brewster, Boston, 1865, p.15. Robinson, writing in 1865 when travel by Europeans to the Ottoman Empire became common asserts that, "Palestine, or Palestina, now the most common name for the Holy Land, occurs three times in the English version of the Old Testament; and is there put for the Hebrew name פלשת, elsewhere rendered Philistia. As thus used, it refers strictly and only to the country of the Philistines, in the southwest corner of the land. So, too, in the Greek form, Παλαςτίνη), it is used by Josephus. But both Josephus and Philo apply the name to the whole land of the Hebrews ; and Greek and Roman writers employed it in the like extent."
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Feldman 1996
  20. ^ a b The Hellenistic settlements in Syria, the Red Sea Basin, and North Africa, 2006, Getzel M. Cohen, p36-37, "“Palestine” did not come into official use until the early second century ad, when the emperor Hadrian decided to rename the province of Judaea; for its new name he chose “Syria Palaestina.” The new name took hold. It is found thereafter in inscriptions, on coins, and in numerous literary texts. Thus Arrian (7.9.8, Indica 43.1) and Appian (Syr. 50), who lived in the second century ad, and Cassius Dio (e.g., 38.38.4, 39.56.6), who lived in the third, referred to the region as “Palestine.” And in the rabbinic literature “Palestine” was used as the name of the Roman province.
  21. ^ "Palestine and Israel", David M. Jacobson, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 313 (February 1999), pp. 65–74; "The Southern and Eastern Borders of Abar-Nahara," Steven S. Tuell, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 284 (November 1991), pp. 51–57; "Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast", Anson F. Rainey, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 321 (February 2001), pp. 57–63; Herodotus, Histories
  22. ^ Killebrew 2005, p. 205.
  23. ^ a b Lewis 1980, p. 1.
  24. ^ a b Jobling, David; Rose, Catherine (1996), "Reading as a Philistine", in Mark G. Brett, Ethnicity and the Bible, BRILL, p. 404, ISBN 9780391041264, Rabbinic sources insist that the Philistines of Judges and Samuel were different people altogether from the Philistines of Genesis. (Midrash Tehillim on Psalm 60 (Braude: vol. 1, 513); the issue here is precisely whether Israel should have been obliged, later, to keep the Genesis treaty.) This parallels a shift in the Septuagint's translation of Hebrew pelistim. Before Judges, it uses the neutral transliteration phulistiim, but beginning with Judges it switches to the pejorative allophuloi. [To be precise, Codex Alexandrinus starts using the new translation at the beginning of Judges and uses it invariably thereafter, Vaticanus likewise switches at the beginning of Judges, but reverts to phulistiim on six occasions later in Judges, the last of which is 14:2.] 
  25. ^ Drews 1998, p. 49: "Our names ‘Philistia’ and ‘Philistines’ are unfortunate obfuscations, first introduced by the translators of the LXX and made definitive by Jerome’s Vg. When turning a Hebrew text into Greek, the translators of the LXX might simply—as Josephus was later to do—have Hellenized the Hebrew פְּלִשְׁתִּים as Παλαιστίνοι, and the toponym פְּלִשְׁתִּ as Παλαιστίνη. Instead, they avoided the toponym altogether, turning it into an ethnonym. As for the ethnonym, they chose sometimes to transliterate it (incorrectly aspirating the initial letter, perhaps to compensate for their inability to aspirate the sigma) as φυλιστιιμ, a word that looked exotic rather than familiar, and more often to translate it as άλλόφυλοι. Jerome followed the LXX’s lead in eradicating the names, ‘Palestine’ and ‘Palestinians’, from his Old Testament, a practice adopted in most modern translations of the Bible."
  26. ^ Drews 1998, p. 51: "The LXX’s regular translation of פְּלִשְׁתִּים into άλλόφυλοι is significant here. Not a proper name at all, allophyloi is a generic term, meaning something like ‘people of other stock’. If we assume, as I think we must, that with their word allophyloi the translators of the LXX tried to convey in Greek what p'lištîm had conveyed in Hebrew, we must conclude that for the worshippers of Yahweh p'lištîm and b'nê yiśrā'ēl were mutually exclusive terms, p'lištîm (or allophyloi) being tantamount to ‘non-Judaeans of the Promised Land’ when used in a context of the third century BCE, and to ‘non-Israelites of the Promised Land’ when used in a context of Samson, Saul and David. Unlike an ethnonym, the noun פְּלִשְׁתִּים normally appeared without a definite article."
  27. ^ a b Kaegi, 1995, p. 41.
  28. ^ Marshall Cavendish, 2007, p. 559.
  29. ^ Gudrun Krämer (2008) A History of Palestine: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Founding of the State of Israel Translated by Gudrun Krämer and Graham Harman Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-11897-3 p.16
  30. ^ a b Killebrew 2005, p. 202.
  31. ^ "Text of the Papyrus Harris". Specialtyinterests.net. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  32. ^ a b Killebrew 2005, p. 204.
  33. ^ Bernard Bruyère, Mert Seger à Deir el Médineh, 1929, page 32-37
  34. ^ Alan Gardiner, Ancient Egyptian Onomastica, Volume 1, Oxford, 1947, no. 270, pages 200-205
  35. ^ Ehrlich 1996, p. 65.
  36. ^ Ehrlich 1996, p. 168.
  37. ^ Ehrlich 1996, p. 171.
  38. ^ ND 2715 ( = XII; IM 64130; Plate 31), Re-edited in TCAE, pp. 390-3 and Fales, CLNA, pp. 90-95, 128-132,11.2 Translation in "The Nimrud Letters", 1952, H.W.F. Saggs, Volume: VI, 2001, page 156-157
  39. ^ Ehrlich 1996, p. 190.
  40. ^ COS, p. 2.118i and ANET, p. 287
  41. ^ COS, p. 2.119D
  42. ^ Daniel David Luckenbill, The Annals of Sennacherib, Oriental Institute Publications 2, University of Chicago Press, 1924, p104
  43. ^ COS, p. 2.120 and ANET, p. 533
  44. ^ Rabinowitz, Nick. "Herodotus Timemap". Timemap.js - Open Source Javascript library. nickrabinowitz.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014. Book 1, Ch.105: From there they marched against Egypt: and when they were in the part of Syria called Palestine, Psammetichus king of Egypt met them and persuaded them with gifts and prayers to come no further. So they turned back, and when they came on their way to the city of Ascalon in Syria, most of the Scythians passed by and did no harm, but a few remained behind and plundered the temple of Heavenly Aphrodite. ἐνθευ̂τεν δὲ ἤισαν ἐπ᾽ Αἴγυπτον. καὶ ἐπείτε ἐγένοντο ἐν τῃ̂ Παλαιστίνῃ Συρίῃ, Ψαμμήτιχος σφέας Αἰγύπτου βασιλεὺς ἀντιάσας δώροισί τε καὶ λιτῃ̂σι ἀποτράπει τὸ προσωτέρω μὴ πορεύεσθαι.οἳ δὲ ἐπείτε ἀναχωρέοντες ὀπίσω ἐγένοντο τη̂ς Συρίης ἐν Ἀσκάλωνι πόλι, τω̂ν πλεόνων Σκυθέων παρεξελθόντων ἀσινέων, ὀλίγοι τινὲς αὐτω̂ν ὑπολειφθέντες ἐσύλησαν τη̂ς οὐρανίης Ἀφροδίτης 
  45. ^ a b Jacobson 1999, p. 65.
  46. ^ Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast, Anson F. Rainey, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 321 (Feb., 2001), pp. 57–63
  47. ^ Rabinowitz, Nick. "Herodotus Timemap". Timemap.js - Open Source Javascript library. nickrabinowitz.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014. Book 3, Ch.5: Now the only apparent way of entry into Egypt is this. The road runs from Phoenicia as far as the borders of the city of Cadytis, which belongs to the so-called Syrians of Palestine. From Cadytis (which, as I judge, is a city not much smaller than Sardis) to the city of Ienysus the seaports belong to the Arabians; then they are Syrian again from Ienysus as far as the Serbonian marsh, beside which the Casian promontory stretches seawards;from this Serbonian marsh, where Typho is supposed to have been hidden, the country is Egypt. Now between Ienysus and the Casian mountain and the Serbonian marsh there lies a wide territory for as much as three days journey, terribly arid. μούνῃ δὲ ταύτῃ εἰσὶ φανεραὶ ἐσβολαὶ ἐς Αἴγυπτον. ἀπὸ γὰρ Φοινίκης μέχρι οὔρων τω̂ν Καδύτιος πόλιος ἐστὶ Σύρων τω̂ν Παλαιστίνων καλεομένων·ἀπὸ δὲ Καδύτιος ἐούσης πόλιος, ὡς ἐμοὶ δοκέει, Σαρδίων οὐ πολλῳ̂ ἐλάσσονος, ἀπὸ ταύτης τὰ ἐμπόρια τὰ ἐπὶ θαλάσσης μέχρι Ἰηνύσου πόλιος ἐστὶ του̂ Ἀραβίου, ἀπὸ δὲ Ἰηνύσου αὐ̂τις Σύρων μέχρι Σερβωνίδος λίμνης, παρ᾽ ἣν δὴ τὸ Κάσιον ὄρος τείνει ἐς θάλασσαν·ἀπὸ δὲ Σερβωνίδος λίμνης, ἐν τῃ̂ δὴ λόγος τὸν Τυφω̂ κεκρύφθαι, ἀπὸ ταύτης ἤδη Αἴγυπτος. τὸ δὴ μεταξὺ Ἰηνύσου πόλιος καὶ Κασίου τε ὄρεος καὶ τη̂ς Σερβωνίδος λίμνης, ἐὸν του̂το οὐκ ὀλίγον χωρίον ἀλλὰ ὅσον τε ἐπὶ τρει̂ς ἡμέρας ὁδόν, ἄνυδρον ἐστὶ δεινω̂ς. 
  48. ^ Rabinowitz, Nick. "Herodotus Timemap". Timemap.js - Open Source Javascript library. nickrabinowitz.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014. Book 7, Ch.89: The number of the triremes was twelve hundred and seven, and they were furnished by the following: the Phoenicians with the Syrians of Palestine furnished three hundred; for their equipment, they had on their heads helmets very close to the Greek in style; they wore linen breastplates, and carried shields without rims, and javelins.These Phoenicians formerly dwelt, as they themselves say, by the Red Sea; they crossed from there and now inhabit the seacoast of Syria. This part of Syria as far as Egypt is all called Palestine. τω̂ν δὲ τριηρέων ἀριθμὸς μὲν ἐγένετο ἑπτὰ καὶ διηκόσιαι καὶ χίλιαι, παρείχοντο δὲ αὐτὰς οἵδε, Φοίνικες μὲν σὺν Σύροισι τοι̂σι ἐν τῃ̂ Παλαιστίνῃ τριηκοσίας, ὡ̂δε ἐσκευασμένοι· περὶ μὲν τῃ̂σι κεφαλῃ̂σι κυνέας εἰ̂χον ἀγχοτάτω πεποιημένας τρόπον τὸν Ἑλληνικόν, ἐνδεδυκότες δὲ θώρηκας λινέους, ἀσπίδας δὲ ἴτυς οὐκ ἐχούσας εἰ̂χον καὶ ἀκόντια.οὑ̂τοι δὲ οἱ Φοίνικες τὸ παλαιὸν οἴκεον, ὡς αὐτοὶ λέγουσι, ἐπὶ τῃ̂ Ἐρυθρῃ̂ θαλάσσῃ, ἐνθευ̂τεν δὲ ὑπερβάντες τη̂ς Συρίης οἰκέουσι τὸ παρὰ θάλασσαν· τη̂ς δὲ Συρίης του̂το τὸ χωρίον καὶ τὸ μέχρι Αἰγύπτου πα̂ν Παλαιστίνη καλέεται. 
  49. ^ wikisource:History of Herodotus and "The History of Herodotus". Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  50. ^ Studies in Josephus and the varieties of ancient Judaism: Louis H. Feldman. BRILL. p. 113. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  51. ^ a b Feldman 1996, p. 558.
  52. ^ Book 1 Chapter 14
  53. ^ a b "Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9. 1 - 22". Theoi.com. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  54. ^ a b Parke, Herbert William. Sibyls and sibylline prophecy in classical antiquity. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-28. 
  55. ^ Collins, John Joseph. Seers, sibyls, and sages in Hellenistic-Roman Judaism. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-28. 
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  57. ^ Men on the Rocks: The Formation of Nabataean Petra, Michel Mouton, Stephan G. Schmid, Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH, 2013
  58. ^ Diodorus of Sicily, with an English translation by C.H. Oldfather
  59. ^ Noth 1939, p. 139.
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  63. ^ a b c d e f g Feldman 1996, p. 565.
  64. ^ Book IV, 45-46 "...Babylonia, narret, Derceti, quam versa squamis velantibus artus stagna Palaestini credunt motasse figura an magis, ut sumptis illius filia pennis extremes albis in turribus egerit annos, nais an ut cantu nimiumque potentibus herbis verteritin tacitos iuvenalia corpora pisces"
  65. ^ Book V, 144-145 "occidit et Celadon Mendesius, occidit Astreus matre Palaestina dubio genitore creatus"
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  73. ^ "Idumaeas autem palmas ab Idumaeorum gente, id est ludaeorum, quae regio est in Syria Palaestina" In Vergilii Bucolica et Georgica commentarius, accedunt scholiorum Veronensium et aspri quaestionum Vergilianarum fragmenta, editor: Henricus Keil (1848)
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  109. ^ Abu Salih the Armenian; Abu al-Makarim (1895). Basil Thomas Alfred Evetts, ed. "History of Churches and Monasteries", Abu Salih the Armenian c. 1266 - Part 7 of Anecdota Oxoniensia: Semitic series Anecdota oxoniensia. [Semitic series--pt. VII]. Clarendon Press. pp. 39–. the emperor Heraclius, on his way to Jerusalem, promised his protection to the Jews of Palestine. (Abu Salih the Armenian, Abu al-Makarim, ed. Evetts 1895, p. 39, Part 7 of Anecdota Oxoniensia: Semitic series Anecdota oxoniensia. Semitic series--pt. VII) (Abu Salih the Armenian was just the Book's owner, the author is actually Abu al-Makarim.) 
  110. ^ Arculfi relatio de locis sanctis scripta ab Adamnano, p.30, Latin
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  117. ^ The Chronicle of Theophanes: An English Translation, Harry Turtledove
  118. ^ Theophanes (the Confessor) (1 September 1982). Harry Turtledove, ed. The Chronicle of Theophanes: Anni Mundi 6095-6305 (A.D. 602-813). University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 35–. ISBN 0-8122-1128-6. lK5wIPb4Vi4C. Since Muhammad was a helpless orphan, he thought it good to go to a rich woman named Khadija ...to manage her camels and conduct her business in Egypt and Palestine... When he [Muhammad] went to Palestine he lived with both Jews and Christians, and hunted for certain writings among them. (Theophanes 1982, p. 35, The Chronicle of Theophanes) 
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  135. ^ Röhricht 1890, p. 41.
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  137. ^ History of Jerusalem Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society
  138. ^ Abu al-Makarim (1895). B.T.A. Evetts, ed. Ta'rīḫ Aš-šaiḫ Abī-Ṣaliḥ Al-Armanī Tuḏkaru Fīhi Aḫbār Min Nawāḥi Miṣr Wa-iqṭaihā. [Semitic series--pt. VII]. Johann Michael Vansleb. Clarendon Press. pp. 73–. RCJiAAAAMAAJ. At the beginning of the caliphate [of Umar] George was appointed patriarch of Alexandria. He remained four years in possession of the see. Then when he heard that the Muslims had conquered the Romans, and had vanquished Palestine, and were advancing upon Egypt, he took ship and fled from Alexandria to Constantinople; and after his time the see of Alexandria remained without a Melkite patriarch for-ninety seven years. (Abu al-Makarim 1895, p. 73) 
  139. ^ Röhricht 1890, p. 72.
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  141. ^ The Travels of Ibn Battuta, ed. H.A.R. Gibb (Cambridge University Press, 1954), 1:71-82
  142. ^ Liber Peregrinationis, Chapter V, p.59
  143. ^ Georgia in the reign of Giorgi the Brilliant : 1314-1346
  144. ^ John Poloner Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society
  145. ^ [1] Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society
  146. ^ Gerber 2008, p. 49.
  147. ^ a b Gerber 1998.
  148. ^ Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of the English Nation
  149. ^ A treatise of continual fevers: in four parts by Jodocus Lommius, English translation of 1732. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  150. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  151. ^ Terræ Sanctæ, qua Promissionis terra, est Syriæ pars ea, quæ Palæstina uocatur
  152. ^ Ortelius, Abraham; Hogenberg (1570). Theatrum orbis terrarum [Ded. Philippo II. Carmen A. Mekerchi. De Mona druidum insula per H. Lhuyd]. Auctoris aere et cura impressum absolutumque apud Aegid. Coppenium Diesth. pp. 3–. L0mV9Lv4oX8C. p.3: Title image at Google Books 
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  154. ^ Holinshed's Chronicles page 224 and Holinshed's Chronicles at Perseus
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  156. ^ Le relationi vniversali
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  159. ^ "Palaestina, vel Terra Sancta" by Magini, From the "Geography" of Claudius Ptolemy, edited by Magini, first printed in Padua in 1596
  160. ^ "King John: Entire Play". Shakespeare.mit.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
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  162. ^ Petri della Valle, eines vornehmen Römischen patritii, Reiss-Beschreibung in unterschiedliche Theile der Welt : nemlich in Türckey, Egypten, Palestina, Persien, Ost-Indien, und andere weit entlegene Landschafften, samt einer aussführlichen Erzehlung aller Denck- und Merckwürdigster Sachen, so darinnen zu finden und anzutreffen
  163. ^ s:New Atlantis
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  165. ^ File:Philip Clüver00.jpg
  166. ^ Cluverius, Philippus (1672). Introductionis in universam geographiam tam vetiram quam novam, Libri VI: tabulis aeneis illustrati. Ex officina Elzeviriana. pp. 5–. 5ee9nDT4Pq0C. p.5: Title image at Google Books 
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  168. ^ The Geographical Works of Sadik Isfahani, 1832 translation. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  169. ^ trans. St. H. Stephan (Ariel Publishing, 1980), p63).
  170. ^ Gerber 2008, p. 50.
  171. ^ Gerber 2008, p. 51:"Another Palestinian writer of the seventeenth century who used Filastin to name his country was Salih b. Ahmad al-Timurtashi, who wrote a fadail (Merits) book titled “The Complete Knowledge of the Limits of the Holy Land and Palestine and Syria (Sham)." [Footnote]: Ghalib Anabsi, From the “Merits of the Holy Land” Literature, MA thesis, Tel Aviv University, 1992."
  172. ^ Milner, John (1688). A Collection of the Church-history of Palestine: From Birth of Christ .... Dring. pp. 19–. bjQBAAAAcAAJ. Hitherto of Places, now follows an account of the Persons concerned in the Church-History of Palestine. (Milner 1688, p. 19) 
  173. ^ Bohun, Edmund (1688). A Geographical Dictionary, Representing the Present and Ancient Names of All the Countries, Provinces, Remarkable Cities ...: And Rivers of the Whole World: Their Distances, Longitudes and Latitudes. C. Brome. pp. 353–. U3lMAAAAMAAJ. Jerusalem, Hierosolyma, the Capital City of Palestine, and for a long time of the whole Earth; taken notice of by Pliny, Strabo, and many of the Ancients. (Bohun 1688, p. 353 ) 
  174. ^ Gordon, Patrick (1704) [1702]. Geography anatomiz'd: or, the geographical grammar. Being a short and exact analysis of the whole body of modern geography after a new and curious method. comprehending, I. A general view of the terraqueous globe. Being a compendious system of the true fundamentals of geography; digested into various definitions, problems, theorems, and paradoxes: with a transient survey of the surface of the earthly ball, as it consists of land and water. II. A particular view of the terraqueous globe. Being a clear and pleasant prospect of all remarkable countries upon the face of the whole earth; shewing their situation, extent, division, subdivision, cities, chief towns, name, air, soil, commodities, rarities, archbishopricks, bishopricks, universities, manners, languages, government, arms, religion. collected from the best authors, and illustrated with divers maps. The fourth edition corrected, and somewhat enlarg'd. by Pat. Gordon, M.A., F.R.S. (4 ed.). S. and J. Sprint, John Nicholson, Sam Burrows in Little Britain, and Andrew Bell and R. Smith in Cornhill. pp. 1 vol., xxvi + 431pp. OMEwAAAAYAAJ. This Country ...is term'd by the Italians and Spaniards, Palestina; by the French, Palestine; by the Germans Palestinen, or das Gelobte Land; by the English, Palestine, or the Holy Land. (Gordon 1704, p. 290) 
  175. ^ Life of James Ferguson, F.R.S.: In a Brief Autobiographical Account, and Further Extended Memoir. A. Fullarton. 1867. pp. 20–. hItnAAAAMAAJ. Geography Anatomiz d or the Geographical Grammar by Patrick Gordon MA FRS ...In some old catalogues of books in our possession we observe that editions of it were issued in 1693 and in 1722 (p. 20, at Google Books @ http://books.google.com/books?id=hItnAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA20&img=1&zoom=3&hl=en&sig=ACfU3U2EDy7lgav9J5b5uMApPtsA1KhX0Q&ci=154%2C1248%2C721%2C183&edge=0 ) 
  176. ^ Reland 1714: "Regio omnis quam Judaei incoluerunt nomen Palaestinae habuit. Hebraeorum scriptores, Philo, Jospehus et alii hoc nomine usi"
  177. ^ Beausobre, Isaac de; Lenfant, David (1718). Le Nouveau Testament de notre seigneur Jesus-Christ. Humbert. pp. 169–. rmRAAAAAcAAJ. p:169 On a déja eu occasion de parler des divers noms, que portoit autrefois la Terre d Israël, ,,,Ici nous désignerons sous le nom de Palestine qui est le plus commun. (We previously spoke of the various names for the Land of Israel, ...Now we will refer to the Land of Israel by the name of Palestine which is the most common) 
  178. ^ Beausobre, Isaac de; Lenfant, Jacques (1806). An Introduction to the Reading of the Holy Scriptures: Intended Chiefly for Young Students in Divinity ; Written Originally in French. J. and E. Hudson. pp. 252–. 
  179. ^ or Regnum Persicum Imperium Turcicum in Asia Russorum Provinciae and Mare Caspium
  180. ^ or Turkey in Asia Minor
  181. ^ Salmon, Thomas (1744). Modern History Or the Present State of All Nations. 
  182. ^ The modern Gazetteer or, a short view of the several nations of the world, Thomas Salmon
  183. ^ The London Magazine, and Monthly Chronologer. 1741. 
  184. ^ Travels Through Cyprus, Syria, and Palestine; with a General History of the Levant
  185. ^ or Geographicus - Turkey in Asia
  186. ^ David Rumsey map collection
  187. ^ Lant Carpenter (1811). An Introduction to the Geography of the New Testament, Comprising a Summary Chronological and Geographical View of the Events Recorded Respecting the Ministry of Our Saviour: Accompanied with Maps, Questions for Examination, and an Accented Index: Principally Designed for the Use of Young Persons, and for the Sunday-employment of Schools. William Hilliard. 
  188. ^ Carpenter, Lant (1807). An Introduction to the Geography of the New Testament, Comprising a Summary Chronological and Geographical View of the Events Recorded Respecting the Ministry of Our Saviour: Accompanied with Maps, with Questions for Examination, and an Accented Index : Principally Designed for the Use of Young Persons, and for the Sunday-employment of Schools. Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, Pater-noster-Row. 
  189. ^ "Carpenter, Lant (DNB00)". Wikisource. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  190. ^ Itinéraire de Paris à Jérusalem (1884 edition)
  191. ^ Horne, Thomas Hartwell (1839). A Manual of Biblical Bibliography: Comprising a Catalogue Metodically Arranged of the Principal Editions and Versions of the Holy Scriptures ; Together with Notices of the Principal Philologers, Critics, and Interpreters of the Bible. T. Cadell. pp. 391–. 
  192. ^ Paxton, George (1842). Illustrations of Scripture (3 ed.). Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  193. ^ Paxton, George (1822). Chase, Ira, ed. Volume 1 of Illustrations of the Holy Scriptures: In Three Parts, Rev. Ira Chase. J. E. Moore ; J. Harding, printer. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  194. ^ a b Paxton, George (1822). Chase, Irah, ed. Illustrations of the Holy Scriptures: In Three Parts. Volume 2. J. E. Moore ; J. Harding, printer. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  195. ^ Paxton, George (1822). "Part 3, Chap. 1". Illustrations of the Holy Scriptures: In Three Parts ... 2. J. E. Moore ; J. Harding, printer. pp. 158–. qY9HAAAAYAAJ. Retrieved 30 November 2014. Females of distinction in Palestine, and even in Mesopotamia, are not only beautiful and well-shaped, but, in consequence of being always kept from the rays of the sun, are very fair. 
  196. ^ THE LANGUAGE OF PALESTINE IN THE AGE OF CHRIST AND THE APOSTLES. By De Rossi and Heinrich Friedrich Pfannkuche, translated and printed in Philological Tracts, London 1833. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  197. ^ Annals of Palestine, 1821-1841, S.N. Spyridon, in: Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society, Volume 18, 1938
  198. ^ "Letters on Egypt, Edom and the Holy Land". Archive.org. 2001-03-10. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  199. ^ Kitto, John (1841). Palestine: the Physical Geography and Natural History of the Holy Land, Illustrated with Woodcuts. - London, Knight 1841. CHARLES KNIGHT AND CO., LUDGATE STREET. 
  200. ^ Palestine: the Bible history of the ... - John Kitto - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  201. ^ Kitto, John (1844). The Pictorial History of Palestine and the Holy Land, Including a Complete History of the Jews, Volume 1. C. Knight. Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  202. ^ Kitto, John (1844). The Pictorial History of Palestine and the Holy Land, Including a Complete History of the Jews, Volume 2. C. Knight. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  203. ^ James Redhouse (1856). An English and Turkish dictionary. 
  204. ^ Hamidian Palestine: Politics and Society in the District of Jerusalem 1872-1908, By Johann Büssow, p5
  205. ^ Khalidi 1997, p. 151.
  206. ^ Gerber 2008, p. 51: "Abdul Karim Rafeq, who wrote an extensive study on Ottoman Palestine, came across the term a number of times [Footnote]: Abdul-Karim Rafeq, “Filastin fi Ahd al-Uthmaniyin”, al-Mawsua al-Filistiniyya, Part 2, Special Studies, Vol. 2, Historical Studies, Beirut: Hay’at al-Mawsua al-Filistiniyya, 1990, pp. 695–990." "Among his sources for the late-nineteenth century was a travelogue of a Damascene traveler, Nu`man al-Qasatli. This book, still in manuscript, is called “al-Rawda al-Numaniyya in the travelogue to Palestine and some Syrian Towns.”"
    [see also]: Nu`man ibn `Abdu al-Qasatli, The Forgotten Surveyor of Western Palestine, Journal of Palestinian Archaeology 1 (2000): 28-29
  207. ^ The Boundaries of Modern Palestine, 1840-1947, Gideon Biger, p15
  208. ^ Röhricht, Reinhold (1890). Reinhold Röhricht, Bibliotheca Geographica Palestine, from the year A.D. 333 to A.D. 1878. H. Reuther. pp. 1–. YY_bk3Jf-9QC. Google Books title image @ http://books.google.com/books?id=YY_bk3Jf-9QC&pg=PR1&img=1&zoom=3&hl=en&sig=ACfU3U21AQl8wuT1bmaYDcYjnpmrNG_zEQ&ci=73%2C174%2C793%2C1213&edge=0 
  209. ^ The Church Quarterly Review. S.P.C.K. 1891. pp. 259–. VJE3AAAAMAAJ. Bibliotheca Geographica Palestine. Chronologisches Verzeichniss der auf die Geographic des heiligen Landes beziiglichen Literatur von 333 bis 1878 und Versuch einer Cartographic. Herausgegeben von Reinhold Rohricht. (Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1890.) The title indicates clearly enough the general character of this book. It professes to give a list of all the books relating to the geography of Palestine from the year A.D. 333 to A.D. 1878 and also a chronological list of maps relating to Palestine. (The Church Quarterly Review 1891, p. 259) 
  210. ^ A History of Civilization in Palestine. CUP Archive. pp. 130–. GGKEY:5CEENZCZEW9. p. 130: Bibliography: Only a small selection can be mentioned from among the books on Palestine. Bibliotheca Geographica Palestinae, (Berlin, 1890), enumerates 3515 books, issued between 333 A.D. and 1878 A.D. 
  211. ^ Gerber 2008, p. 51: "Perhaps the clearest indication that it was not the British who invented the term Palestine is its usage by the Ottoman authorities. The remnants of the correspondence of the Ottoman governors with their superiors in the first decade of the twentieth century quite often relate to the Zionist question and the resistance to it among local inhabitants. The country is referred to throughout as Palestine."
  212. ^ Gerber 2008, p. 48.
  213. ^ "Arab nationalism and the Palestinians, 1850-1939, ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz ʻAyyād". Passia.org. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  214. ^ Gerber 2008, p. 51: "An important source shedding light on the question is Ruhi al-Khalidi’s book on the history of Zionism, written in the first decade of the twentieth century. It is noteworthy that whenever the name of the country appears, it is always Palestine, never southern Syria or anything else. Al-Khalidi does not seem to be inventing it, otherwise it would be difficult to see why he does not try to explain what he is doing, or where he found this “bizarre” name. He is simply using what his language and his knowledge have imparted to him. [Footnote: Walid Khalidi, “Kitab al-Sionism, aw al-Mas’ala al-Sahyiuniyya li-Muhammad Ruhi al-Khalidi al-mutwaffa sanat 1913,” in Hisham Nashshabe, ed., Dirasat Filastiniyya, Beirut: Muassasat al-Dirasat al-Filistiniyya, 1988, pp. 37–82.]"
  215. ^ Grooves Of Change: A Book Of Memoirs, Herbert Samuel
  216. ^ Britain's Moment in the Middle East, 1914-1956, Elizabeth Monroe, p26
  217. ^ Shifting Ottoman Conceptions of Palestine-Part 2: Ethnography and Cartography, Salim Tamari
  218. ^ a b c Grief 2008, p. 473.
  219. ^ "Hansard ARAB POLITICAL REPRESENTATIVES (VISIT TO PALESTINE). HC Deb 25 June 1918 vol 107 c903W". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. 1918-06-25. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  220. ^ "Hansard search "Palestinian"". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  221. ^ "Zionist Organization Statement on Palestine, Paris Peace Conference, February 3, 1919". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
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  223. ^ Pipes, Daniel (1992). Greater Syria: The History of an Ambition. Oxford University Press US. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-19-506022-5. 
  224. ^ "Franco-British Convention on Certain Points Connected with the Mandates for Syria and the Lebanon, Palestine and Mesopotamia" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  225. ^ Lewis 1980, p. 12.
  226. ^ Meeting on November 9, 1920, quoted in: Memorandum No. 33, “Use of the Name Eretz-Israel’,” in the Report by the Palestine Royal Commission, 1937, Memoranda Prepared by the Government of Palestine, C. O. No. 133.
  227. ^ "Permanent Mandates Commission, 22nd meeting, minutes of the ninth session, Geneva, June 1926". Domino.un.org. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  228. ^ Palestine: Report of the Royal Commission, 1936, CAB 24/270/8 / Former Reference: CP 163 (37), 22 June 1937
  229. ^ a b c d e Richard Abbott. "The Philistines". Oldtestamentstudies.net. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  230. ^ a b c d e "All references to words beginning Philis*". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  231. ^ Smith, 1863, p. 1546.
  232. ^ A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period Page 174 Lester L. Grabbe - 2008 "The place of Judah in Coele-Syria was readily known in geographical writings. According to Strabo, Syria includes the following areas: We set down as parts of Syria, beginning at Cilicia and Mt. Amanus, both Commagene and the Seleucis ...
  233. ^ Strabo 16.2, Geographica
  234. ^ Studies in Josephus and the varieties of ancient Judaism: Louis H. Feldman. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  235. ^ The Bar-Kokhba Revolt (132-135 C.E.) by Shira Schoenberg, The Jewish Virtual Library
  236. ^ a b Sharon, 1998, p. 4. According to Moshe Sharon: "Eager to obliterate the name of the rebellious Judaea", the Roman authorities (General Hadrian) renamed it Palaestina or Syria Palaestina.
  237. ^ Lehmann, Clayton Miles (Summer 1998). "Palestine: History: 135–337: Syria Palaestina and the Tetrarchy". The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. University of South Dakota. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  238. ^ Lendering, Jona. "Satraps and satrapies". Livius.org. Livius. Retrieved 17 December 2014.