Palatal nasal click
|Palatal nasal click|
The palatal nasal click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is 〈ǂ̃〉 or 〈ᵑǂ〉. (Variations of the latter include 〈ŋǂ〉 and 〈ǂŋ〉.)
Features of the palatal nasal click:
- The airstream mechanism is lingual ingressive (also known as velaric ingressive), which means a pocket of air trapped between two closures is rarefied by a "sucking" action of the tongue, rather than being moved by the glottis or the lungs/diaphragm. The release of the forward closure produces the "click" sound. Voiced and nasal clicks have a simultaneous pulmonic egressive airstream.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
- It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
|Khoekhoe||ǂnauǃhuiǂgui||[ᵑǂə̀űᵑ̊ǃʰȕíǂȕí] = [
||to give s.o. a bloody nose|
|Naro||ntcùú qhuri c’õa
(nçùú qhuri c’õa)
|[ᵑǂǔːǃʰūɾīŋǀˀõ̯ã] = [
||the Milky Way|
|Taa||ǂnûm||[ᵑǂûm] = [
|Gǀui||[ᵑǂâː] = [
Glottalized alveolar nasal click
palatal nasal click
All Khoisan languages, and a few Bantu languages, have glottalized nasal clicks. These are formed by closing the glottis so that the click is pronounced in silence; however, any preceding vowel will be nasalized.
|Khoekhoe||ǂamǁgû||[ᵑǂ͡ʔàm̀ǁṹṹ] = [ǂ̃ˀàm̀ǁṹṹ]||to inadvertently bite a hard object|
|Gǀui||[ᵑǂ͡ʔáː] = [ǂ̃ˀáː]||to hide (oneself)|