|Duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg|
|State of the Holy Roman Empire (until 1806)|
|Capital||Neuburg an der Donau|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|-||Established||July 30, 1505|
|-||Ceded to Zweibrücken||1557|
|-||Merged with the Electorate of the Palatinate||1685|
Palatinate-Neuburg (German: Herzogtum Pfalz-Neuburg) is a former territory of the Holy Roman Empire, founded in 1505 by a branch of the House of Wittelsbach. Its capital was Neuburg an der Donau. Its area was about 2,750 km², with a population of some 100,000.
The Duchy of Pfalz-Neuburg was created in 1505 as the result of the Landshut War of Succession and existed until 1799 or 1808. After the so-called Kölner Spruch (Verdict of Cologne) the Duchy was created from the territories north of the Danube for Otto Henry and Philipp, the sons of Ruprecht of the Palatinate. While they were minors, their grandfather Philipp ruled the Duchy until his death in 1508, followed by Frederick II. In 1557 Otto Henry ceded his duchy (the so-called Young Palatinate) to Wolfgang of Pfalz-Zweibrücken. The eldest son of Wolfgang, Philipp Louis, founded in 1569 the elder line of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Neuburg, from which the Palatinate-Sulzbach lineage was separated in 1614. Pfalz-Neuburg joined the Protestant Union in 1608.
Dukes of Palatinate-Neuburg
- Two brothers, first under regency of Frederick II, Elector Palatine
House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Neuburg
- Wolfgang, 1559–69
- Philipp Ludwig, 1569–1614
- Wolfgang Wilhelm, 1614–53
- Philip William, 1653–90 (also Elector Palatine from 1685)
- Johann Wilhelm, 1690–1716 (Elector Palatine from 1690)
- Charles Philip, 1716–42 (Elector Palatine from 1716)
With the death of Elector Charles Philip in 1742 all his territories including the state of Palatinate-Neuburg passed to the Palatinate-Sulzbach line of the Wittelsbach dynasty. Charles Theodor of the Sulzbach line was a descendant of Augustus, Count Palatine of Sulzbach, a brother of Wolfgang Wilhelm.