The Palatinate Railway or Pfalzbahn was an early German railway company in the period of the German Empire prior to the First World War. It was formed on 1 January 1870, as the United Palatinate Railway based in Ludwigshafen, by the amalgamation of the following railway companies:
By Spring 1889, the railway network had grown to 664 km (413 mi); of which 12 km (7.5 mi) was in Alsace-Lorraine and 8 km (5.0 mi) in Prussian Rhineland. It handled through traffic from north and south Germany into the southern Rhineland, to Lorraine and France, as well as from north Germany into Alsace, Switzerland and to Italy.
The three united private railways remained officially independent until they were nationalised on 1 January 1909, and merged into the Royal Bavarian State Railways.