Palatine Hill

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The Palatine Hill
One of the seven hills of Rome
Latin name Palatium
Italian name Colle Palatino
Rione Campitelli
Buildings Flavian Palace
People Cicero, Augustus, Tiberius, Domitian
Events Finding of Romulus and Remus
Ancient Roman religion Temple of Apollo Palatinus, Temple of Cybele, Lupercalia, Secular Games
Mythological figures Romulus and Remus, Faustulus
Ruins of the Domus Augustana on Palatine Hill.
Schematic map of Rome showing the seven hills and Servian wall
17th century aviaries on the hill, built by Rainaldi for Odoardo Cardinal Farnese: once wirework cages surmounted them.
Massive retaining walls extended the area on the Palatine available for the Imperial building complex.
Part of the Imperial Palace complex on the Palatine Hill overlooking the Circus Maximus.
View of the Stadium of Domitian on the Palatine Hill, January 2013
The church of San Bonaventura (1625) al Palatino located on the highest peak of the Palatine Hill.

The Palatine Hill (Latin: Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus) is the centermost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city. It stands 40 metres[1] above the Forum Romanum, looking down upon it on one side, and upon the Circus Maximus on the other.

It is the etymological origin of the word "palace" and its cognates in other languages (Italian "Palazzo", French "Palais", German "Palast", etc.).

Mythology[edit]

According to Roman mythology, the Palatine Hill was the location of the cave, known as the Lupercal, where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants, and with his wife Acca Larentia raised the children. When they were older, the boys killed their great-uncle (who seized the throne from their grandfather), and they both decided to build a new city of their own on the banks of the River Tiber. Suddenly, they had a violent argument with each other and in the end Romulus killed his twin brother Remus. This is how "Rome" got its name - from Romulus. Another legend to occur on the Palatine is Hercules' defeat of Cacus after the monster had stolen some cattle. Hercules struck Cacus with his characteristic club so hard that it formed a cleft on the southeast corner of the hill, where later a staircase bearing the name of Cacus was constructed.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people have lived there since approximately 1000 BC.

According to Livy, after the immigration of the Sabines and the Albans to Rome, the original Romans lived on the Palatine.[2]

Many affluent Romans of the Republican period (c.509 BC – 44 BC) had their residences there. During the Empire (27 BC – 476 AD) several emperors resided there; in fact, the ruins of the palaces of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), Tiberius (14 – 37) and Domitian (81 – 96) can still be seen. Augustus also built a temple to Apollo here, beside his own palace.

The Palatine Hill was also the site of the festival of the Lupercalia.

Location[edit]

One building, believed to be the residence of Livia (58 BC – 29 AD), the wife of Augustus, is currently undergoing renovation. Situated near to the house of Livia is the temple of Cybele, currently not fully excavated and not open to the public. Behind this structure, cut into the side of the hill, is the so-called House of Tiberius.

Overlooking the Forum Romanum is the Flavian Palace which was built largely during the reign of the Flavian dynasty (69 – 96) – Vespasian, Titus and Domitian. This palace, which was extended and modified by several emperors, extends across the Palatine Hill and looks out over the Circus Maximus. The building of the greater part of the palace visible from the Circus was undertaken in the reign of the emperor Septimius Severus (146 – 211).

Immediately adjacent to the palace of Severus is the Hippodrome of Domitian. This is a structure which has the appearance of a Roman Circus and whose name means Circus in Greek, but is too small to accommodate chariots. It can be better described as a Greek Stadium, that is, a venue for foot races. However, its exact purpose is disputed. While it is certain that during the Severan period it was used for sporting events, it was most likely originally built as a stadium-shaped garden. According to a guide from the Sopraintendenza Archeologica di Roma, most of the statuary in the nearby Palatine museum comes from the Hippodrome. (Domitian also built a larger stadium that was actually used for foot-racing competitions; it exists today as Piazza Navona, lo stadio di Domiziano.)

The Palatine Hill, and the Roman Forum beneath it, is now a large open-air museum and can be visited on the same ticket as the Colosseum. The entrance is on Via di San Gregorio, the street just beyond the Arch of Constantine, going away from the Colosseum.

Excavations[edit]

During Augustus' reign, an area of the Palatine Hill was roped off for a sort of archaeological expedition, which found fragments of Bronze Age pots and tools. He declared this site the "original town of Rome." Modern archaeology has identified evidence of Bronze Age settlement in the area which predates Rome's founding. There is a museum on the Palatine in which artifacts dating from before the official foundation of the City are displayed. The museum also contains Roman statuary.

An altar to an unknown deity, once thought to be Aius Locutius, was discovered here in 1820.

In July 2006, archaeologists announced the discovery of the Palatine House, which they believe to be the birthplace of Rome's first Emperor, Augustus.[3] Head archaeologist Clementina Panella uncovered a section of corridor and other fragments under Rome's Palatine Hill, which she described on July 20 as "a very ancient aristocratic house." The two story house appears to have been built around an atrium, with frescoed walls and mosaic flooring, and is situated on the slope of the Palatine that overlooks the Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine. The Republican-era houses on the Palatine were overbuilt by later palaces after the Great Fire of Rome (64), but apparently this one was not; the tempting early inference is that it was preserved for a specific and important reason. On the ground floor, three shops opened onto the Via Sacra.

The location of the domus is important because of its potential proximity to the Curiae Veteres, the earliest shrine of the curies of Rome.[4]

The photo released of the recently excavated cave beneath the Domus Livia on the Palatine Hill, believed to be the Lupercal. The photo was taken with a remote sensing device.

In January 2007, Italian archeologist Irene Iacopi announced that she had probably found the legendary Lupercal cave beneath the remains of Augustus' residence, the Domus Livia (House of Livia) on the Palatine. Archaeologists came across the 16-metre-deep cavity while working to restore the decaying palace. The first photos of the cave show a richly decorated vault encrusted with mosaics and seashells. The Lupercal was probably converted to a sanctuary by Romans in later centuries.[5]

On November 20, 2007 archaeologists unveiled photographs of the cave. Partially collapsed and decorated with seashells and colored marble, the vaulted sanctuary is buried 16 metres inside the Palatine hill. A white eagle was found atop the sanctuary's vault. Most of the sanctuary is collapsed or filled with earth, but laser scans allowed experts to estimate that the circular structure has a height of 8 metres and a diameter of 7.3 metres. Adriano La Regina (former Rome’s archaeological superintendent 1976-2004, professor of Etruscology at Rome’s La Sapienza University),[6] Prof. Fausto Zevi (professor of Roman Archaeology at Rome's La Sapienza University)[7] and Prof. Henner von Hesberg (head of the German Archaeological Institute, Rome)[8] denied the identification of the grotto with Lupercal on topographic and stylistic grounds. They concluded that the grotto is actually a nymphaeum or underground triclinium from Neronian times.

Etymology[edit]

According to Livy[9] (59 BC – AD 17) the Palatine hill got its name from the Arcadian settlement of Pallantium. More likely, it is derived from the noun palātum "palate"; Ennius uses it once for the "heaven", and it may be connected with the Etruscan word for sky, falad.[10]

The term palace itself stems from Palatium.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palatine Hill. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 25, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: britannica.com
  2. ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:33
  3. ^ For a classical account of the birth (and birthplace) of Augustus, refer to: Suetonius, Life of Augustus, 5.
  4. ^ Varro Linguae Latinae 5.155; Festus L 174; Tacitus Annales 12.24
  5. ^ Sacred Cave of Rome's Founders Found, Scientists Say
  6. ^ Aloisi, Silvia "Expert doubts Lupercale 'find'" The Australian November 24, 2007 theaustralian.news.com
  7. ^ "È uno splendido ninfeo, ma il Lupercale non era lì" la Repubblica November 23, 2007 [1]
  8. ^ Schulz, Matthia "Is Italy's Spectacular Find Authentic?"Spiegel Online November 29, 2007 spiegel.de
  9. ^ Livy 1.5.1.
  10. ^ Ernout and Meillet, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine, s.v. palātum.

Tomei, Maria Antonietta. "The Palatine." Trans. Luisa Guarneri Hynd. Milano: Electa (Ministero per i Beni e le Actività Culturali Sopraintendenza Archeologica di Roma), 1998.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 41°53′18″N 12°29′13″E / 41.88833°N 12.48694°E / 41.88833; 12.48694