Palau

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This article is about the country. For other uses, see Palau (disambiguation).
Republic of Palau
Beluu er a Belau
Flag Seal
Anthem: Belau rekid
Our Palau
Capital Ngerulmud, Melekeok Statea[1]
7°21′N 134°28′E / 7.350°N 134.467°E / 7.350; 134.467
Largest city Koror
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups (2000)
Demonym Palauan
Government Unitary presidential republic Under a Non-partisan democracy
 -  President Tommy Remengesau
 -  Vice President Antonio Bells
Legislature National Congress
Independence
 -  Compact of Free Association with the United States 1 October 1994 
Area
 -  Total 465.55 km2 (196th)
177 sq mi
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2014 estimate 18,000 (224th)
 -  2012 census 17,500
 -  Density 28.4/km2
45.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $164 million[2] (not ranked)
 -  Per capita $8,100[2] (119th)
HDI (2013) Steady 0.775[3]
high · 60th
Currency United States dollar (USD)
Time zone (UTC+9)
Drives on the right
Calling code +680
ISO 3166 code PW
Internet TLD .pw
a. On 7 October 2006, government officials moved their offices in the former capital of Koror to Ngerulmud in Melekeok State, located 20 km (12 mi) northeast of Koror on Babelthaup Island and 2 km (1 mi) northwest of Melekeok village.

Palau (Listeni/pəˈl/, sometimes spelled Belau or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Palauan: Beluu er a Belau),[4] is an island country and a United States Associated State located in the western Pacific Ocean. It is geographically part of the larger island group of Micronesia. The country's population of around 21,000 is spread across 250 islands forming the western chain of the Caroline Islands. The most populous island is Koror. The capital Ngerulmud is located in Melekeok State on the nearby island of Babeldaob. The islands share maritime boundaries with Indonesia, the Philippines, and the Federated States of Micronesia.

The country was originally settled around 3,000 years ago by migrants from the Philippines and sustained a Negrito population until around 900 years ago. The islands were first visited by Europeans in the 18th century, and were made part of the Spanish East Indies in 1885. Following Spain's defeat in the Spanish–American War in 1898, the islands were sold to Imperial Germany in 1899 under the terms of the German–Spanish Treaty, where they were administered as part of German New Guinea. The Imperial Japanese Navy conquered Palau during World War I, and the islands were later made a part of the Japanese-ruled South Pacific Mandate by the League of Nations. During World War II, skirmishes, including the major Battle of Peleliu, were fought between American and Japanese troops as part of the Mariana and Palau Islands campaign. Along with other Pacific Islands, Palau was made a part of the United States-governed Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1947. Having voted against joining the Federated States of Micronesia in 1979, the islands gained full sovereignty in 1994 under a Compact of Free Association with the United States.

Politically, Palau is a presidential republic in free association with the United States, which provides defense, funding, and access to social services. Legislative power is concentrated in the bicameral Palau National Congress. Palau's economy is based mainly on tourism, subsistence agriculture and fishing, with a significant portion of gross national product (GNP) derived from foreign aid. The country uses the United States dollar as its currency. The islands' culture mixes Japanese, Micronesian and Melanesian elements. The majority of citizens are of mixed Micronesian, Melanesian, and Austronesian descent, with significant groups descended from Japanese and Filipino settlers. The country's two official languages are Palauan (member of the wider Sunda–Sulawesi language group) and English, with Japanese, Sonsorolese, and Tobian recognised as regional languages.

Name[edit]

The name for the islands in the Palauan language, Belau, likely derives from either the Palauan word for "village", beluu,[5] or from aibebelau ("indirect replies"), relating to a creation myth.[6] The name "Palau" entered the English language from the Spanish Los Palaos, via the German Palau. An archaic name for the islands in English was the "Pelew Islands".[7] It should not be confused with Pulau, which is a Malay word meaning "island".

History[edit]

Main article: History of Palau

Palau was originally settled between the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, most likely from the Philippines or Indonesia.[8]

The islands sustained a population of short-statured Negrito or Pygmy people until the 12th century, when they were replaced.[citation needed] The modern population, judging by its language, may have come from the Sunda Islands.

Sonsorol, part of the Southwest Islands, an island chain approximately 600 kilometres (370 mi) from the main island chain of Palau, was sighted by Europeans as early as 1522, when the Spanish mission of the Trinidad, the flagship of Ferdinand Magellan's voyage of circumnavigation, sighted two small islands around the 5th parallel north, naming them "San Juan".[9]

British traders became prominent visitors to Palau in the 18th century, followed by expanding Spanish influence in the 19th century. Following its defeat in the Spanish–American War, Spain sold Palau and most of the rest of the Caroline Islands to Germany in 1899. Control passed to Japan in 1914 and during World War II the islands were taken by the United States in 1944, with the costly Battle of Peleliu between 15 September and 25 November when more than 2,000 Americans and 10,000 Japanese were killed. The islands passed formally to the United States under United Nations auspices in 1947 as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

Four of the Trust Territory districts formed a single federated Micronesian state in 1979, but the districts of Palau and the Marshall Islands declined to participate. Palau, the westernmost cluster of the Carolines, instead opted for independent status in 1978. It approved a new constitution and became the Republic of Palau in 1981.[10] It signed a Compact of Free Association with the United States in 1982. After eight referenda and an amendment to the Palauan constitution, the Compact was ratified in 1993. The Compact went into effect on 1 October 1994,[11] marking Palau de jure independent, although it had been de facto independent since 25 May 1994, when the trusteeship ended.

Legislation making Palau an "offshore" financial center was passed by the Senate in 1998. In 2001, Palau passed its first bank regulation and anti-money laundering laws.

Politics and government[edit]

Main article: Politics of Palau

Palau is a multi-party democratic republic. The President of Palau is both head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the Palau National Congress. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The capital is Ngerulmud. Palau adopted its own constitution in 1981.

The governments of the United States and Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association in 1986, similar to compacts that the United States had entered into with the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands.[12] The compact entered into force on 1 October 1994, concluding Palau's transition from trusteeship to independence[12] as the last portion of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to secure its independence.

Free association[edit]

The Compact of Free Association between the United States and Palau[13] sets forth the free and voluntary association of their governments. It primarily focuses on the issues of government, economic, security and defense relations.[14] Palau has no independent military, relying on the United States for its defense. Under the compact, the American military was granted access to the islands for 50 years. The US Navy role is minimal, limited to a handful of Navy Seabees (construction engineers.) The United States Coast Guard patrols in national waters.

Foreign relations[edit]

As a sovereign nation, Palau conducts its own foreign relations.[12] Since independence, Palau has established diplomatic relations with a number of nations, including many of its Pacific neighbors. Palau was admitted to the United Nations on 15 December 1994 and has since joined several other international organizations. In September 2006, Palau hosted the first Taiwan-Pacific Allies Summit. Its President has made official visits to other Pacific countries, including Taiwan.

The United States maintains a diplomatic delegation and an embassy in Palau, but most aspects of the countries' relationship have to do with Compact-funded projects, which are the responsibility of the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Insular Affairs.[15] This has led to some ambiguity in the official status of Palau.[citation needed]

In international politics, Palau often votes with the United States with respect to United Nations General Assembly resolutions.[16]

Palau is a member of the Nauru Agreement.[17]

Nuclear-free constitution[edit]

In 1981, Palau voted for the world's first nuclear-free constitution. This constitution banned the use, storage and disposal of nuclear, toxic chemical, gas and biological weapons without first being approved by a 3/4 majority in a referendum.[18] This ban delayed Palau's transition to independence, because while negotiating the Compact, the U.S. insisted on the option to operate nuclear propelled vessels and store nuclear weapons within the territory.[19] After several referendums that failed to achieve a 3/4 majority, the people of Palau finally approved the Compact in 1994.[20][21]

Asylum for former Guantanamo prisoners[edit]

In June 2009, Palau announced that it would accept up to seventeen Uyghurs that had previously been detained by the American military at Guantanamo Bay,[22] with some American compensation for the cost of their upkeep.[23]

Only one of the Uyghurs initially agreed to resettlement,[24] but by the end of October, six of the seventeen had been transferred to Palau.[25] An aid agreement with the United States, finalized in January 2010, was reported to be unrelated to the Uyghur agreement.[26]

States[edit]

The sixteen states of Palau.
Main article: States of Palau

Palau is divided into sixteen states (until 1984 called municipalities). These are listed below with their areas (in square kilometres) and 2005 Census populations:

State Area (km2) Census 2012
Aimeliik 44 281
Airai 59 2537
Angaur 8.06 130
Hatohobei 0.9 10
Kayangel 1.7 76
Koror 60.52 11670
Melekeok 26 300
Ngaraard 34 453
Ngarchelong 11.2 281
Ngardmau 34 195
Ngaremlengui 68 310
Ngatpang 33 257
Ngchesar 43 287
Ngiwal 17 226
Peleliu 22.3 510
Sonsorol 3.1 42
Population of Palau by State 2012

Historically, Palau's Rock Islands have been part of the State of Koror.

Republic of Palau.

Geography[edit]

Main article: Geography of Palau

Palau's most populous islands are Angaur, Babeldaob, Koror and Peleliu. The latter three lie together within the same barrier reef, while Angaur is an oceanic island several miles to the south. About two-thirds of the population live on Koror. The coral atoll of Kayangel is north of these islands, while the uninhabited Rock Islands (about 200) are west of the main island group. A remote group of six islands, known as the Southwest Islands, some 375 miles (604 km) from the main islands, make up the states of Hatohobei and Sonsorol.

Climate[edit]

Palau has a tropical climate with an annual mean temperature of 82 °F (28 °C). Rainfall is heavy throughout the year, averaging 150 inches (3,800 mm). The average humidity is 82% and although rain falls more frequently between July and October, there is still much sunshine. Typhoons are rare, as Palau is outside the main typhoon zone. The most recent typhoon that struck Palau was Typhoon Haiyan during the 2013 Pacific typhoon season. A mandatory evacuation was issued for Kayangel. A storm surge damaged several houses. Despite residents' refusal to evacuate safely, no fatalities or major injuries were reported.

Climate data for Palau Islands (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.6
(87.1)
30.6
(87.1)
30.9
(87.6)
31.3
(88.3)
31.4
(88.5)
31.0
(87.8)
30.6
(87.1)
30.7
(87.3)
30.9
(87.6)
31.1
(88)
31.4
(88.5)
31.1
(88)
30.97
(87.74)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.3
(81.1)
27.2
(81)
27.5
(81.5)
27.9
(82.2)
28.0
(82.4)
27.6
(81.7)
27.4
(81.3)
27.5
(81.5)
27.7
(81.9)
27.7
(81.9)
27.9
(82.2)
27.7
(81.9)
27.62
(81.72)
Average low °C (°F) 23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
24.1
(75.4)
24.4
(75.9)
24.5
(76.1)
24.2
(75.6)
24.1
(75.4)
24.3
(75.7)
24.5
(76.1)
24.4
(75.9)
24.4
(75.9)
24.2
(75.6)
24.24
(75.63)
Precipitation mm (inches) 271.8
(10.701)
231.6
(9.118)
208.3
(8.201)
220.2
(8.669)
304.5
(11.988)
438.7
(17.272)
458.2
(18.039)
379.7
(14.949)
301.2
(11.858)
352.3
(13.87)
287.5
(11.319)
304.3
(11.98)
3,758.3
(147.964)
Avg. precipitation days 19.0 15.9 16.7 14.8 20.0 21.9 21.0 19.8 16.8 20.1 18.7 19.9 224.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 198.4 194.9 244.9 234.0 210.8 168.0 186.0 176.7 198.0 179.8 183.0 182.9 2,357.4
Source: Hong Kong Observatory,[27]

Environment[edit]

Rock Islands in Palau.
WCTC Shopping Centre
Aerial view of limestone islands

While much of Palau remains free of environmental degradation, areas of concern include illegal dynamite fishing, inadequate solid waste disposal facilities in Koror and extensive sand and coral dredging in the Palau lagoon. As with other Pacific island nations, rising sea level presents a major environmental threat. Inundation of low-lying areas threatens coastal vegetation, agriculture and already-insufficient water supply. Wastewater treatment is a problem, along with the handling of toxic waste from fertilizers and biocides.

Saltwater crocodiles are also residents of Palau and occur in varying numbers throughout the various mangroves and even in parts of the beautiful rock islands. Although this species is generally considered extremely dangerous, there has only been one fatal human attack in Palau within modern history, and that was in the 1960s. In Palau, the largest crocodile measured in at 4.5 metres (15 ft).[citation needed]

The nation is also vulnerable to earthquakes, volcanic activity, and tropical storms. Palau already has a problem with inadequate water supply and limited agricultural areas to support its population.

Leadership[edit]

On 5 November 2005, President Tommy E. Remengesau, Jr. took the lead on a regional environmental initiative called the Micronesia challenge, which would conserve 30% of near-shore coastal waters and 20% of forest land by 2020. Following Palau, the initiative was joined by the Federated States of Micronesia and Marshall Islands, and the U.S. territories of Guam and Northern Mariana Islands. Together, this combined region represents nearly 5% of the marine area of the Pacific Ocean and 7% of its coastline.

On 25 September 2009, Palau announced that it would create the world's first shark sanctuary.[28] Palau banned all commercial shark fishing within its EEZ waters. The sanctuary protects about 600,000 square kilometres (230,000 sq mi) of ocean,[29] a similar size to France.[30][31][32] President Johnson Toribiong announced the sanctuary at a meeting of the United Nations.[30][33][34] President Toribiong proposed a worldwide ban on fishing for sharks.[30] In 2012, Palau received the Future Policy Award from World Future Council, because "Palau is a global leader in protecting marine ecosystems".[35]

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Palau

Palau's economy consists primarily of tourism, subsistence agriculture and fishing. Tourist activity focuses on scuba diving and snorkeling in the islands' rich marine environment, including its barrier reefs walls and World War II wrecks. The government is the major employer, relying heavily on US financial assistance. Business and tourist arrivals numbered some 50,000 in financial year 2000/2001. The population enjoys a per capita income twice that of Micronesia as a whole. Long-term prospects for the key tourist sector have been greatly bolstered by the expansion of air travel in the Pacific, the rising prosperity of leading East Asian countries and the willingness of foreigners to finance infrastructure development.

Air service has at times been spotty. Palau Micronesia Air, Asian Spirit and Pacific Flier provided service to the Philippines and other destinations at various times during the 2000s, but all suspended service.[36] United Airlines now provides near-daily service to and from Guam, and once-weekly service to Yap. Also, Delta Airlines provides service three times per week to Tokyo.

In November 2006, Palau Saving Bank officially announced bankruptcy. On 13 December of the same year the Palau Horizon reported that 641 depositors had been affected. Among them 398 held less than $5000 USD, with the remainder ranging from $5000 to 2 million USD. On 12 December 79 affected people received compensation. Mr. Toribiong said, "The fund for the payout came from the balance of Palau government's loan from Taiwan." From a total of $1 million USD, which originally was for assisting Palau's development, $955,000 USD was left at the time of bankruptcy. Toribiong requested the Taiwanese government use the balance to repay its loans. Taiwan agreed to the request. The compensation would include those who held less than $4,000 USD in an account.[37]

The income tax has three brackets with rates of 9.3%, 15% and 19.6%. Corporate tax is 4% and general sales tax is 7.5%. There are no property taxes.

Demographics[edit]

A desert island in Palau.
Main article: Demographics of Palau
Historical population
Year Pop.
1970 11,210
1980 12,116
1990 15,122
2000 21,000

The population of Palau is approximately 21,000, of whom 70% are native Palauans of mixed Melanesian, Micronesian, and Austronesian descent. Many Palauans also have some Asian ancestry, from intermarriage between settlers and Palauans beginning in the 19th and 20th centuries. Palauans with mixed Japanese ancestry accounted for the largest group. Some also had some Chinese or Korean ancestry. Filipinos form the second largest ethnic group.

The official languages of Palau are Palauan and English, except for two states (Sonsorol and Hatohobei) where the local language, along with Palauan, is official. Japanese is spoken widely amongst older Palauans and is an official language in the State of Angaur.[38][39] Tagalog is not official in Palau, but is the fourth-largest spoken language.[citation needed]

Culture[edit]

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Palau

The German and Japanese occupations of Palau both subsidized missionaries to follow the Spanish. Three quarters of the population are Christians (mainly Roman Catholics and Protestants), while Modekngei (a combination of Christianity, traditional Palauan religion and fortune telling) and the ancient Palauan religion are commonly observed. Japanese rule brought Mahayana Buddhism and Shinto to Palau, which were the majority religions among Japanese settlers. However, following Japan's World War II defeat, the remaining Japanese largely converted to Christianity, while the remainder continued to observe Buddhism, but stopped practicing Shinto rites.[40] According to the 2005 census[41] 49.4% of the population is Roman Catholic, 21.3% Protestant, 8.7% Modekngei and 5.3% Seventh-day Adventist. Only 1% of the population was estimated to be Buddhist in 2010, with the Chinese community also practicing Chinese folk religion as well.[42] The small Jewish community in 2009 sent 3 members to the 18th Maccabiah Games.[citation needed] There are also approximately 400 Bengali Muslims in Palau.[citation needed]

Society[edit]

A traditional Palauan hut (2012)

Palauan society, much like the island's language, has always been unique to the islands. Palauan society follows a very strict matrilineal system. Matrilineal practices are seen in nearly every aspect of Palauan traditions, especially in funeral, marriage, inheritance and the passing of traditional titles.

The cuisine includes local foods such as cassava, taro, yam, potato, fish and pork. Western cuisine is favored among young Palauans and the locals are joined by foreign tourists. Restaurants on the main island of Koror consist mainly of Korean food, as well as Chinese, burgers, pizza and pasta. Indigenous cuisine consists mainly of root vegetables, fish, pigs and chicken. The rest of Micronesia is similar with much less tourism, leading to fewer restaurants. Tourists eat mainly at their hotels on such islands. Some local foods include an alcoholic drink made from coconut on the tree; the drink made from the roots of the kava; and the chewing of betel nuts. The Filipino presence in the islands supports the presence of that cuisine.

The Palauan people respect their traditions. The traditional government system still influences the nation's affairs, leading the federal government to repeatedly attempt to limit its power. Many of these attempts took the form of amendments to the constitution that were supported by the corporate sector to protect what they deemed should be free economic zones. One such example occurred in early 2010, where the Idid clan, the ruling clan of the Southern Federation, under the leadership of Bilung, the Southern Federation's queen, raised a civil suit against the Koror State Public Lands Authority (KSPLA). The Idid clan laid claim over Malakal Island, a major economic zone and Palau's most important port, citing documents from the German Era. The verdict held that the Island belonged to the KSPLA.

Traditional government[edit]

The present day "traditional" government of Palau is a continuation of its ancestor, composed of practices that span thousands of years. Traditionally, Palau was organized hierarchically. The lowest level is the village or hamlet, then the chiefdom (now politically referred to as a state) and finally alliances of chiefdoms. In ancient times, numerous federations divided power, but upon the 17th century introduction of firearms by the British, an imbalance of power occurred. Palau became divided into northern and southern federations. The Northern Federation is headed by the high chief and chiefess of the ruling clan Uudes of Melekeok state, the Reklai and Ebilreklai. They are commonly referred to as the king and queen of the Northern Federation. This northern federation comprises the state of Kayangel, Ngerchelong, Ngardmau, Ngiwal, Ngaraard, Ngatpang, Ngeremlengui, Melekok, Aimeliik, Ngchesar and Airai. The Southern Federation is likewise represented by the high chief and chiefess of the ruling Idid of Koror state. The Southern Federation comprises the states of Koror, Peleliu and Angaur. However, fewer and fewer Palauans have knowledge of the concept of federations, and the term is slowly dying out. Federations were established as a way of safeguarding states and hamlets who shared economic, social, and political interests, but with the advent a federal government, safeguards are less meaningful. It is interesting to note however, that in international relations, the king of Palau is synonymous with the Ibedul of Koror. This is because Koror is the industrial capital of the nation, elevating his position over the Reklai of Melekeok.

It is a misconception that the king and queen of Palau, or any chief and his female counterpart for that matter are married. Traditional leaders and their female counterparts have always been related and unmarried (marrying relatives was a traditional taboo). Usually, a chief and his female counterpart are brother and sister, or close cousins, and have their own spouses.

Sports[edit]

Baseball is a popular sport in Palau after its introduction by the Japanese in the 1920s. The Palau national baseball team won the gold medal at the 1990, 1998 and 2010 Micronesian Games, as well as at the 2007 Pacific Games.

Palau also has a national football team, organised by the Palau Soccer Association, but is not a member of FIFA. The Association also organizes the Palau Soccer League.

Education[edit]

Some fields of study are available at Palau Community College. For professional and graduate programs, students must travel to a larger institution.

Cuisine[edit]

Palauan cuisine includes local foods such as cassava, taro, yam, potato, fish and pork. Western cuisine is favored among young Palauans.

Restaurants on the main island of Koror consist mainly of Korean food, as well as Chinese, burgers, pizza, pasta, etc. Indigenous cuisine consists mainly of root vegetables, fish, pigs and chicken.

The rest of Micronesia has a similar cuisine except that the rest of Micronesia has less tourism and fewer restaurants. Tourists eat mainly at their hotels on less visited islands. Some local foods include an alcoholic drink made from coconut on the tree, the drink made from the roots of the Kava Plant, and the chewing of betel nuts.

Filipino immigrants added their cuisine to Palau's mixture.

Transport[edit]

Palau International Airport provides scheduled direct flights to Guam, Manila, Seoul and Taipei and since December 2010, Tokyo-Narita. In addition, the states of Angaur and Peleliu have regular service to international destinations.

Freight, military and cruise ships often call at Malakal Harbor, on Malakal Island outside Koror. The country has no railways, and of the 61 km or 38 mi of highways, only 36 km or 22 mi are paved. Driving is on the right and the speed limit is 40 km/h (25 mph). Taxis are available in Koror. They are not metered and fares are negotiable. Only Koror offers bus service. Transportation between islands mostly relies on private boats and domestic air services.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Government offices moved to a new National Capitol Building complex located at Ngerulmud, Melekeok State" US Department of State. Palau (02/09). Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  2. ^ a b 2008 estimate. "Palau". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  3. ^ "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  4. ^ Constitution of palau. (PDF). palauembassy.com. Retrieved on 1 June 2013.
  5. ^ Culture of Palau – Every Culture. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  6. ^ The Bais of Belau – Underwater Colours. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  7. ^ Palau: Portrait of Paradise. Underwater Colours. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  8. ^ Palau – Historical Boys' Clothing. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  9. ^ Palau – Foreign Ships in Micronesia. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  10. ^ "Pacific Island Battleground Now the Republic of Belau". Bangor, Maine, USA: Bangor Daily News, via Google News. Associated Press. 23 January 1981. 
  11. ^ "Palau Gains Independence on Saturday". Salt Lake City, Utah, USA: The Deseret News, via Google News. Associated Press. 30 September 1994. 
  12. ^ a b c "Compact of Free Association: Palau’s use of and accountability for U.S. assistance and prospects for economic self-sufficiency" (PDF). Report to Congressional Committees (United States Government Accountability Office). GAO-08-732: 1–2. 10 June 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  13. ^ Compact of Free Association Between the Government of the United States of America and the government of Palau, preamble
  14. ^ Compact of Free Association Between the Government of the United States of America and the government of Palau, Table of Contents
  15. ^ Responsibilities and Authorities. USDOI Office of Insular Affairs. doi.gov
  16. ^ General Assembly – Overall Votes – Comparison with U.S. vote lists Palau as in the country with the third high coincidence of votes. Palau has always been in the top three.
  17. ^ "Pacific nations extend bans on tuna fishing". Radio Australia (East West Center). 5 October 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  18. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Palau". The Government of Palau. 2 April 1979. Retrieved 1 November 2009. 
  19. ^ "Issues Associated. With Palau's Transition to Self-Government". Government Accountability Office. July 1989. Retrieved 1 November 2009. 
  20. ^ Lyons, Richard D. (6 November 1994). "Work Ended, Trusteeship Council Resists U.N. Ax for Now". New York Times. Retrieved 1 November 2009. 
  21. ^ "Trusteeship Mission reports on Palau voting. (plebiscite on the Compact of Free Association with the United States)" 27 (2). UN Chronicle. June 1990. 
  22. ^ "Pacific state Palau to take Uighur detainees". CTV News. 10 June 2009. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2009. 
  23. ^ Kirit Radia (10 June 2009). "US and Palau wrangling over Gitmo transfer details, including $$$". ABC News. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. 
  24. ^ "Palau Government still not sure if Uighurs are coming". Radio New Zealand International. 30 June 2009. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. 
  25. ^ "Six Guantanamo Uighurs arrive in Palau: US". Agence France Presse. 31 October 2009. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. 
  26. ^ "Palau receives aid boost from US". Australia Network News. 30 January 2010. Archived from the original on 4 February 2010. "The president insisted there was no link to the island's hosting of six inmates from Guantanamo Bay. Palau had earlier rejected a 156 million dollar offer and the settlement came after the island nation agreed to resettle six Muslim Uighurs who had been held for more than seven years at the US naval base at Guantanamo Bay. The six arrived in Palau in November. But Johnson said the two issues were not related." 
  27. ^ "Climatological Information for Palau Islands, Pacific Islands, United States". Hong Kong Observatory. 
  28. ^ "Palau creates world's first shark haven". The Philippine Star. 26 September 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009. 
  29. ^ Richard Black (25 September 2009). Palau pioneers 'shark sanctuary'. BBC News.
  30. ^ a b c "Palau's EEZ becomes shark sanctuary". Xinhua News Agency. 27 September 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009. 
  31. ^ Sophie Tedmanson (26 September 2009). "World's first shark sanctuary created by Pacific island of Palau". London: The Times. Retrieved 28 September 2009. 
  32. ^ Ker Than (25 September 2009). "France-Size Shark Sanctuary Created – A First". National Geographic. Retrieved 28 September 2009. 
  33. ^ "Palau creates shark sanctuary to protect tourism and prevent overfishing". Radio New Zealand. 27 September 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009. 
  34. ^ Cornelia Dean (24 September 2009). "Palau to Ban Shark Fishing". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 September 2009. 
  35. ^ "Tiny Nation of Palau Proves Sharks Worth More Alive Than Dead". Jakarta Globe. 22 October 2012. 
  36. ^ Ghim-Lay Yeo. "Palau's PacificFlier relooks business plan after suspension". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  37. ^ 李光儀、王光慈. "帛琉銀行倒閉 賠償存戶竟由台灣埋單 (Taiwan pay for the bill of compensation for PSB bankruptcy)". udn.com Center. Archived from the original on 2010-12-24. Retrieved 20 December 2010. 
  38. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing :: Languages". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 17 February 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2010. 
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  40. ^ Brigham Young University—Hawaii Campus (1981), p. 36
  41. ^ Office of Planning and Statistics, Republic of Palau: Census of Population and Housing, Table 59, Retrieved 1 March 2007
  42. ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives | National Profiles". Thearda.com. Retrieved 2013-06-03. 

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