|Glottolog:||east2331 (East Palaungic)
west2791 (West Palaungic)
The nearly thirty Palaungic or Palaung–Wa languages form a branch of the Austroasiatic languages.
Most of the Palaungic languages lost the contrastive voicing of the ancestral Austro-Asiatic consonants, with the distinction often shifting to the following vowel. In the Wa branch, this is generally realized as breathy voice vowel phonation; in Palaung–Riang, as a two-way register tone system. The Angkuic languages have contour tone — the U language, for example, has four tones, high, low, rising, falling, — but these developed from vowel length and the nature of final consonants, not from the voicing of initial consonants.
Diffloth & Zide (1992)
The Palaungic family includes at least three branches, with the position of some languages as yet unclear. Lamet, for example, is sometimes classified as a separate branch. The following classification follows that of Diffloth & Zide (1992), as quoted in Sidwell (2009:131).
- Western Palaungic (Palaung–Riang)
- Eastern Palaungic
The following classification follows the branching given by Sidwell (2010, ms).
- Danau (Khano)
- Palaungic proper
- Western (Riang–Palaung)
- Lamet (Xmet)
Paul Sidwell (2014) also considers Bit, Kháng, Bumang, and Quang Lam as constituting a Bit-Khang subgroup within Palaungic, since these languages display Palaungic lexical innovations such as 'eye', 'fire', 'blood', and 'laugh'.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "East Palaungic". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "West Palaungic". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Three Austroasiatic branches and the ASJP (Fig. 23)
- Hall, Elizabeth. 2010. A Phonology of Muak Sa-aak. M.A. thesis, Payap University.
- Sidwell, Paul. 2014. "Khmuic classification and homeland". Mon-Khmer Studies 43.1:47-56
Gordon, Darren. (2013) ''A selective Palaungic linguistic bibliography. Mon-Khmer Studies vol. 42 Mahidol University and SIL International.