Palembang

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Not to be confused with Palimbang.
Palembang
City
From top left, clockwise: Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Museum, Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium, Palembang Great Mosque, Ampera Bridge.
From top left, clockwise: Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Museum, Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium, Palembang Great Mosque, Ampera Bridge.
Official seal of Palembang
Seal
Nickname(s): "Bumi Sriwijaya (The Land of Srivijaya)"
Motto: Palembang BARI (Bersih, Aman, Rapi, Indah) (Palembang: Clean, Safe, Neat, and Beautiful)
Palembang is located in Sumatra
Palembang
Palembang
Location of the town in southern Sumatra
Palembang is located in Indonesia
Palembang
Palembang
Location of the town in Indonesia
Coordinates: 2°59′10″S 104°45′20″E / 2.98611°S 104.75556°E / -2.98611; 104.75556Coordinates: 2°59′10″S 104°45′20″E / 2.98611°S 104.75556°E / -2.98611; 104.75556
Country Indonesia
Province South Sumatra
Incorporated (city) 16 June 683
Government
 • Mayor H. Romi Herton (2013-2018)
 • Vice Mayor H. Harnojoyo (2013-2018)
Area
 • Total 374.03 km2 (144.41 sq mi)
Elevation 8 m (26 ft)
Population (2013)
 • Total 1,742,186
 • Density 4,858/km2 (12,580/sq mi)
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Area code(s) +62 711
Website kota.palembang.go.id/

Palembang is the capital city of the South Sumatra province in Indonesia. Located on the Musi River banks on the east coast of southern Sumatra island, it has an area of 374.03 square kilometres and a population of 1,742,186 people (2013 estimate).[1] Palembang is the second-largest city in Sumatra after Medan and the seventh-largest city in Indonesia after Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, Semarang, and Makassar. The city hosted the 26th edition of Southeast Asian Games from 11 to 22 November 2011 along with Jakarta.

Palembang is one of the oldest cities in Indonesia, and has a history of being the capital city of the Kingdom of Srivijaya, a powerful Malay kingdom, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.[2] The earliest evidence of its existence dates from the 7th century; a Chinese monk, Yijing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in the year 671 for 6 months. The first inscription in which the name Srivijaya appears also dates from the 7th century, namely the Kedukan Bukit Inscription around Palembang in Sumatra, dated 683.[3]

Palembang landmarks include the Ampera bridge and the Musi River, the latter of which divides the city into two, Seberang Ilir to the north and Seberang Ulu to the south. The Seberang Ilir is Palembang's economic and cultural centre and the Seberang Ulu is its political centre.

History[edit]

The city was once the capital of the ancient Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya, which controlled a large part of what is now Indonesia, Malaysia and Southern Thailand. In 1025, it was conquered by the Chola Empire (In the period of Emperor Rajendra Chola I) of southern India.[4][5] Srivijaya's capital eventually moved northward to Jambi. Palembang is also the origin of Parameswara, founder of the Malacca Sultanate.

The architectural legacy of Dutch colonisation is still visible in the city. Deep-water port facilities which flow through the city have been built along the Musi River.

The naval Battle of Palembang was fought near the city during the Second World War between 13 and 15 February 1942.

Kingdom of Srivijaya[edit]

The Kedukan Bukit Inscription, which is dated 682 CE, is the oldest inscription found in Palembang. The inscription tells of a king who acquires magical powers and leads a large military force over water and land, setting out from Tamvan delta, arriving at a place called "Matajap," and (in the interpretation of some scholars) founding the polity of Srivijaya. The "Matajap" of the inscription is believed to be Mukha Upang, a district of Palembang.[6]

In the period 850 - 1025 A.D., Palembang prospered as a centre of trade between the East and West and as a center of Sanskrit and Buddhist learning. Students from China stopped in Palembang to study Sanskrit before continuing their studies in India.[7]

In the year 990, an army from the Kingdom of Medang in Java attacked Srivijaya. Palembang was sacked and the palace was looted. Chulamanivarmadeva, however, requested protection from China. By 1006, the invasion was finally repelled. In retaliation, Chulamanivarmadeva sent his troops to assist King Wurawari of Luaram in his revolt against Medang. In subsequent battles, Medang Palace was destroyed and the royal family of Medang executed.[8]

In 1068, King Virarajendra Chola of the Chola Dynasty of India conquered what is now Kedah from Srivijaya.[9] Having lost many soldiers in the war and with its coffers almost empty due to the twenty-year disruption of trade. The reach of Srivijaya was diminished. Its territories began to free themselves from the suzerainty of Palembang and to establish many small kingdoms all over the former empire.[10]

The Fall of Srivijaya[edit]

During the last days of the Srivijaya Empire, the centre of power shifted to Malayu in Muaro Jambi[disambiguation needed] area, Jambi and later moved upstream to Dharmasraya. After the collapse of Srivijaya, there was no major political power to control the town, however some Malay nobility families remain in town. At this time, the last Srivijaya prince, Parameswara, emerged. He tried to revive the city as an independent centre of commerce once again and breaking from Majapahit overlordship. Majapahit took this action as rebellion and sent massive punitive naval expedition to Palembang. Parameswara fled to Tumasik with Sang Nila Utama. There he killed the governor of the Tumasik Thai nationals, and when the Thai army attacked Tumasik, Parameswara and his followers moved to Malacca in the Malay Peninsula, and established the Kingdom of Malacca. Parameswara converted to Islam in order to marry the daughter of Pasai, and changed his name to Sultan Iskandar Shah. Malacca flourished in the 15th century and Parameswara became the sole ruler of the Malacca Strait and waters around it.

After the fall of Palembang to Majapahit invasion, there was no major political power to control the town. The town was left in chaos and desolation. At that time in Palembang and the surrounding villages local militias forces began emerging, such as the Great Commander in the lower Yellow River Musi, The Sigentar Alam group in the hills, the Tuan Bosai on river upstream, Commander Gumay groups along the Bukit Barisan, and so on.[citation needed] In addition, some merchants from China made this city as their trade base, also inviting pirates from China. Orang laut also made Palembang as their home, and these rough sailors without government and authority has transformed Palembang as a pirate haven for many years to come. Chinese pirates are known to investing the area around Malaccan straits, until Cheng Ho naval expedition on behalf of Ming dynasty defeated these pirates.

Sultanate of Palembang[edit]

Local elders of Palembang during colonial period.

Destruction of Majapahit in Java indirectly influenced Sumatra. Several key figures behind the collapse of Majapahit were Raden Patah, Ario Dillah (Ario Damar) and Pati Unus, figures closely associated with Palembang. The Sultanate of Demak subsequently replaced Majapahit in Java. Sultanate of Palembang was establishedin early 17th century by Ki gede ing Suro, a Javanese nobles fleeing the Demak court intrique after the death of Trenggana Sultan of Demak. Palembang was made the center of a sultanate with Darussalam Mukmiminin Khalifatul susuhunan Sayyidu Abddurrahaman Faith as its first king. This kingdom formed from the merger of two cultures. The maritime heritage of the Sriwijaya and Majapahit combined to create the greatest agricultural and trade centre of the Malay world at the time. One of the most famous king during this period was Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II, who won three battles against both Dutch and English forces.

Colonial period[edit]

The walled city of Palembang with its three fortresses in 1682.

In 1619 the Dutch East Indies opened a trading post in Palembang.[citation needed] Although it was closed a few years later by Jan Pieterszoon Coen, some contact was maintained with the town. The VOC's Resident in Jambi ordered pepper from the traders of Palembang, who sailed to Batavia themselves to sell the pepper. Because of the low profit yield for the Company, Batavia asked the sultan for permission to reopen the trading post in the town. The contract with the sultan gave the VOC Resident authority over all foreign ships calling at the harbour of Palembang. This enabled the Company to guard against illicit trading. Despite these privileges, the Company was still dependent on the sultan, who decided whether the Resident's demands were acceptable or not.[11]

In the 18th century Palembang supplied around 50,000 pounds of white pepper annually.[11]

After the fall of the Sultanate of Palembang Darussalam, Palembang became a subordinate kingdom within the Dutch East Indies. The main victory of Dutch forces under de Kock occurred in 1821. Some of the sultans of surrendered states succeeding Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II tried to rebel against the Dutch. All attempts failed and resulted in the burning of imperial buildings.[citation needed]

After that Palembang was divided into two major prefectures, and settlements in Palembang were divided into regions and Ulu Ilir.

Palembang today[edit]

SEA GAMES XXVI 2011 opening ceremony held in Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium, Palembang in 11 November 2011

The President of Indonesia declared Palembang to be the "City of Water Tour" on 27 September 2005. The President revealed that the city would increasingly be known for its water attractions, similar to other South East Asian cities such as Bangkok and Phnom Penh.[citation needed]

The city of Palembang in 2008 publicized its tourist attractions with the slogan "Visit Musi 2008". More recently, Palembang has drawn further international attention as one of the host cities of the SEA GAMES XXVI 2011 and Islamic Solidarity Games 2013.

Geography[edit]

Palembang is located at 2°59'S 104°45'E. The total area of Palembang City is 102.47 km², with an average elevation of 8 meters above sea level. Location of Palembang is strategic because it passed by the road linking the Trans Sumatra between regions in the island of Sumatra. Palembang is split by the Musi River, which can be crossed over the Ampera Bridge, which serves as a means of transport and trade across the river.

The city of Neiva in Colombia is the antipode of Palembang (the point on the Earth's surface which is diametrically opposite to the city).

Climate[edit]

Palembang has a tropical rainforest climate with relatively high humidity and sometimes significant winds. Wind speeds range from 2.3 km / h to 4.5 km / hour.[citation needed] The temperature ranges from 23.4 to 31.7 degrees Celsius. Annual rainfall ranges from 2000 mm to 3000 mm. Humidity ranges from 75 to 89% with an average of 45% of annual sunshine. During its wettest months, the city's marshlands are routinely inundated. Average temperatures are nearly identical throughout the year in the city.

Climate data for Palembang
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29
(85)
30
(86)
31
(87)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(87)
30
(86)
31
(87)
Average low °C (°F) 24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(76)
25
(77)
24
(76)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
Precipitation mm (inches) 240
(9.45)
240
(9.45)
280
(11.02)
270
(10.63)
190
(7.48)
110
(4.33)
100
(3.94)
90
(3.54)
110
(4.33)
200
(7.87)
260
(10.24)
330
(12.99)
2,460
(96.85)
Source: http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=12269&refer=&units=metric

Topography[edit]

Palembang is generally flat, with altitudes generally between an average of 0 to 20 m. Only a small portion of the land area of the city sees significant elevation, namely in the northern part of town. The type of soil in Palembang is layered alluvial soil. Clay and sand, which lie in the topmost layer, may contain petroleum.[citation needed]

Border area[edit]

  • North side; with Fortress Base Village, the Village and Village Kenten Spinner, Coconut Talang District, District Banyuasin
  • South side; with Lily Village Sub Inderalaya Ogan Ilir and District Muara Enim
  • West side; with Sukajadi Village District Banyuasin Regency Coconut Gutters
  • East side; the Central District Makmur Banyuasin I Banyuasin District

Administration[edit]

Palembang divided into 16 districts and 107 [12] 'villages':

  • Alang-Alang Lebar
  • Bukit Kecil
  • Gandus
  • Ilir Barat I
  • Ilir Barat II
  • Ilir Timur I
  • Ilir Timur II
  • Kalidoni
  • Kemuning
  • Kertapati
  • Plaju
  • Sako
  • Seberang Ulu I
  • Seberang Ulu II
  • Sematang Borang
  • Sukarame

Demography[edit]

The local language of Palembang, Musi, belongs to the same group as Malay. There are also Palembang residents originating from other parts of South Sumatra. They have their own regional languages, such as Komering, Lahat, Rawas, and Semendo. There are also people that came from outside South Sumatra. Most of them are Javanese, Chinese, Arab, Indian, Minangkabau, or Sundanese.

Palembang's primary religion is Muslim, but many of the inhabitants also practice Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucianism.[citation needed]

Transport[edit]

Palembang has networks of mini-bus routes for the main form of public transport and the new Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, Trans Musi as well.

  • Corridor 1 : Bus stop below the Ilir part of Ampera Bridge - Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12)
  • Corridor 2 : Perumnas Bus Station - PIM (Palembang Indah Mall)
  • Corridor 3 : Plaju - PS Mall (Palembang Square Mall)
  • Corridor 4 : Jakabaring - Karya Jaya Bus Station (Kertapati)
  • Corridor 5 : Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12) - Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II International Airport
  • Corridor 6 : Pusri - Palembang Square (PS)
  • Corridor 7 : Kenten - Dempo (Coming Soon)
  • Corridor 8 : Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12) - Terminal Karya Jaya (Kertapati)
  • Pangkalan Balai Corridor : Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12) - Pangkalan Balai
  • Indralaya Corridor : Terminal Karya Jaya - Indralaya
  • Unsri Corridor : Unsri Bukit - Unsri Indralaya

Palembang also has a large number of taxis. The number keeps rising since the Pekan Olahraga Nasional 2004 and SEA Games 2011, which both were held in Palembang.

There are also traditional and speed boats that serve the people who live near the riverside. The traditional boats are called "Keteks" or sampans.

The city is served by Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II International Airport which has scheduled flights to many cities in Indonesia and also to Singapore by Silk Air and Kuala Lumpur by AirAsia. This airport also serves other cities around South Sumatra Province.

Palembang also has three main harbours, Tanjung Api-api Harbor (which is the International harbor of Palembang, located on sea-shore, 68 kilometres from city), 36 Ilir Harbour, and Boom Baru Harbour on riverside. From Tanjung Api-api Harbour frequent ferries connect Palembang to Tanjung Kalian Harbour in western side of Bangka Island (it takes only 2 hours on ferries from Tanjung Api-api to Bangka), Bangka-Belitung Islands Province, and also ferries to Batam Island.

Tanjung Api Api Harbour is now fully operational. It opened at 10.00 am on 11 December 2013. It is an international port so it can be visited by all kind of boats from all over the globe.

Railway tracks connect Palembang to Bandar Lampung, Tanjung Enim, Lahat dan Lubuk Linggau. The largest railway station in Palembang is Kertapati Station.

Economy[edit]

Palembang's economy has been developed significantly since it became a host for a National Sporting Event in 2004.

Tourism and recreation[edit]

People enjoying local dishes on floating warung boats.
A statue of Buddha, discovered in Bukit Seguntang archaeological site, today displayed in Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Museum Palembang.
  • Musi River, about 750 km along the river which divides the city into two parts, namely Palembang Seberang Ulu and Ilir opposite is the longest river in Sumatra. Since the first of the Musi River has become the economic lifeblood and the city of Palembang in South Sumatra Province. Along the banks of the river there are many attractions like the Ampera Bridge, Fort Religious Tourism, Museum of Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II, Kemaro Island, 16 Ilir Market, home Raft, Pertamina's oil refineries, fertilizer plants PUSRI, beach Good Yellow, Musi II Bridge, Al Munawar Mosque, etc..
  • Ampera Bridge, main city landmark, is a bridge crossed over 1177 meters above the Musi River which connects Seberang Ulu and Seberang Ilir area of Palembang. It was built in 1962 and was built using the spoils of Japan and Japanese experts.[citation needed]
  • Grand Mosque of Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Palembang, Palembang is located in downtown, this mosque is the largest mosque in South Sumatra[citation needed] with a capacity of 15,000 pilgrims.
  • Benteng Kuto Besak, situated on the banks of the Musi River and adjacent to Ampera Bridge, this fort is one of the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate of heritage buildings. Inside the fort there are the health office II Sriwijaya Military Command and hospitals.
  • Kantor Ledeng, located in downtown, at first this building serves as a water tower because it serves to drain the water throughout the city so well known as the Office of Plumbing.[citation needed] Today this building serves as the Office of the Mayor of Palembang
  • Kambang Iwak, a lake situated in the tourist center of town, close to Palembang mayor's residence. On the banks of this lake, there is a park and recreation arena which is always crowded on holidays.
  • Punti Kayu Tourism Forest, city forest located about 6 miles from the city center with an area of 50 ha and since 1998 designated as protected forests. In this forest there is a family recreation area and a local shelter a group of monkeys: long-tail macaque (Macaca fascicularis) and monkey (Macaca nemistriana) under the Sumatran Pine wood (Pinus mercussi).[13]
  • Sriwijaya Kingdom Archaeological Park, the remnants of Sriwijaya site located on the banks of the River Musi. There is an inscription and stone relics, complex of ancient pond, artificial island and canals dated from the Srivijayan kingdom in this area. The Srivijaya Museum is located in this complex.
  • Bukit Seguntang archaeological park, located in the hills west of Palembang city. In this place there are many relics and tombs of the ancient Malay-Srivijayan king and nobles.
  • People's Struggle Monument (Indonesian: Monumen Perjuangan Rakyat), located in downtown, adjacent to the Great Mosque and Ampera Bridge. As its name in this building there are relics of history in the colonial period.
  • Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Museum, located near the Bridge and Fort Ampera Religious Tourism and former royal palace is one of the relics of Palembang Darussalam.

Culture[edit]

Palembang bride in Aesan Gede wedding costume wearing gold jewelry and songket Palembang.

Since ancient times, Palembang has been a cosmopolitan port city which absorbs neighboring, as well as foreign, cultures and influences. The influences and cultures of coastal Malay, inland Minangkabau, Javanese, Indian, Chinese, and Arab, has created a rich Palembang culture.[citation needed] Throughout its history, Palembang has attracted migrants from other regions in the archipelago, and has made this city as a multi-cultural city. Although today the city had lost its function as the major port city in the archipelago, the remnants of its heyday still evident in its culture. Most of its population was then adopted the culture of coastal Malays and Javanese.[citation needed] Even now it can be seen in its culture and language. Word such as "wong (person)" is an example of Javanese loanword in Palembang language. Also the Javanese knight and noble honorific titles, such as Raden Mas or Raden Ayu is used by Palembang nobles, the remnant of Palembang Sultanate courtly culture. The tombs of the Islamic heritage was not different in form and style with Islamic tombs in Java.

Artforms[edit]

Art and culture of Palembang, among others:

  • Kesenian Dul Muluk (traditional drama performances Palembang).
  • Traditional dances such as Gending Sriwijaya, Tanggai and Tapak Tiga dances are usually held in wedding reception or performed to welcome and honor the guests.
  • Regional Songs such as Dek Sangke, Cuk Mak Ilang, Pempek Lenjer, and Ribang Kemambang.
  • Traditional House of Palembang are Stilt house, Limas House and House Raft.
  • Ornamental boat festival and competition in the River Musi bidar.

Palembang also holds a variety of festivals every year, among them, "Sriwijaya Festival", held in June to commemorate Palembang's anniversary, Bidar and Ornamental Boat Festival celebrate Independence Day, Musi River Triboatton and various festivals commemorating the Islamic New Year, Month of Ramadan, and New Year's Day .

Cuisine[edit]

Palembang is famous for its local cuisine called pempek Palembang. It is a Pempek served in sweet and sour sauce called kuah cuko. Another Palembang signature dishes are tekwan, model, mie celor, laksan and lakso, and also pindang patin (pangasius in sweet and sour soup).

Sport[edit]

Jakabaring Aquatic Center in Jakabaring Sport City complex.

Jakabaring Sport City[edit]

Jakabaring Sport City ia a sport complex located 5 kilometers southeast from Palembang city center, across Musi river through Ampera Bridge in Jakabaring, Seberang Ulu I area. It was the main venue of 2011 Southeast Asian Games. Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium, one of the largest stadium in Indonesia, is located within this complex. The complex consists of Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium football field, Dempo sport hall, Ranau sport hall, Athletic stadium, Aquatic center, Baseball and Softball field, Shooting range, Athlete lodging, Artificial lake for outdoor water sports (rowing, water ski, dragon boat) and Golf course. two matches were staged at the stadium in the AFC Asian Cup continued in 2007, the Group D qualifier between Saudi Arabia and Bahrain as well as grabbing a third place between South Korea and Japan. The 2011 Southeast Asian Games was held at Palembang along with Jakarta in November, 2011. The opening and closing ceremonies held in Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium. This sport complex also planned to host the 2018 Asian Games in Indonesia along with Jakarta and Bandung in West Java.

Sriwijaya F.C.[edit]

Sriwijaya Football Club, which is commonly referred to simply as Sriwijaya, is an Indonesian football club based in Palembang, Province of South Sumatra, Indonesia. They are now playing in Djarum Indonesian Super League.

Education[edit]

Universities in Palembang:

  • University of Sriwijaya
  • State Polytechnic of Sriwijaya Palembang
  • State Islamic Institute of Raden Fattah Palembang
  • School of Journalism Indonesia. First Journalism School in Indonesia, SJI was inaugurated by President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono at the top of National Press Day (HPN) in Palembang, 9 February 2010. School of Journalism is the first international journalism school in Indonesia under the auspices of UNESCO This school is addressed to who wants to understand the world of Journalism, this is temporarily sat Training Kepegawaiaan South Sumatra Province.
  • Universitas Bina Darma
  • Universitas Indo Global Mandiri
  • Universitas Muhammadiyah Palembang
  • Universitas Palembang
  • Universitas Sjakhyakirti
  • Universitas IBA
  • Universitas Taman Siswa
  • Universitas PGRI
  • Universitas Kader Bangsa
  • Universitas Tridinanti
  • Universitas Terbuka
  • Politeknik Akamigas Palembang
  • STMIK/AMIK Multi Data Palembang
  • ST MUSI

High schools in Palembang:

  • SMA Xaverius 1 Palembang
  • Ignatius Global School
  • Sekolah Palembang Harapan
  • Sekolah Kusuma Bangsa
  • SMA Xaverius 3 Palembang
  • SMA Bina Warga 2 Palembang
  • SMA Negeri 1 Palembang
  • SMA Negeri 3 Palembang
  • SMA Negeri 5 Palembang
  • SMA Negeri 6 Palembang
  • SMA Negeri 7 Palembang
  • SMA Plus Negeri 17 Palembang
  • SMA Negeri Sumatera Selatan (Sampoerna Academy)
  • SMA Negeri 2 Palembang

Top Junior schools in Palembang:

  • SMP Negeri 10 Palembang
  • SMP Bina Warga Palembang
  • SMP Ignatius Global School
  • SMP Xaverius 1 Palembang
  • SMP Kusuma Bangsa
  • SMP Xaverius 6 Palembang
  • SMP Xaverius Maria Palembang
  • SMP Negeri 1 Palembang
  • SMP Negeri 3 Palembang
  • SMP Negeri 8 Palembang
  • SMP Negeri 9 Palembang
  • SMP Negeri 34 Palembang
  • MTS Negeri 1 Palembang

Gallery[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://inspektorat.palembang.go.id/tampung/dokumen/dokumen-13-4.pdf
  2. ^ Munoz. Early Kingdoms. p. 117. 
  3. ^ Peter Bellwood, James J. Fox, Darrell Tryon (1995). "The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives". 
  4. ^ Early kingdoms of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay Peninsula by Paul Michel Munoz p.161
  5. ^ Cengage Advantage Books: The Earth and Its Peoples by Richard Bulliet,Pamela Crossley,Daniel Headrick,Steven Hirsch,Lyman Johnson p.182
  6. ^ Template:Author= George Coedès
  7. ^ Munoz. Early Kingdoms. p. 122. 
  8. ^ Munoz. Early Kingdoms. p. 151. 
  9. ^ The Cambridge Economic History of India: c.1200-c.1750 herausgegeben by Tapan Raychaudhuri,Irfan Habib,Dharma Kumar p.40
  10. ^ Munoz. Early Kingdoms. p. 166. 
  11. ^ a b "Palembang". Atlas of Mutual Heritage. Atlas of Mutual Heritage. 2009. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 
  12. ^ Situs resmi kota Palembang
  13. ^ "Punti Kayu: Sumatran Jungle Tours In Palembang, South Sumatera". 1 December 2011. 
  14. ^ http://www.deplu.go.id/bogota/Pages/CountryProfile.aspx?l=en

External links[edit]