Paleobiota of the Solnhofen Formation

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Solnhofen Limestone Formation
Stratigraphic range: Tithonian[1][2]
Brittle star-fossil.jpg
A brittle star fossil from the Solnhofen Formation.
Type Geological formation
Underlies Mornsheim Formation[1]
Overlies Painten Formation[1]
Lithology
Primary Lithographic Limestone[1]
Location
Country  Germany

The Solnhofen Plattenkalk, or Solnhofen Limestone Formation, is famous for its well preserved fossil flora and fauna.

Chondrostei[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes

Coccolepis[3]

C. bucklandi[3]

Halecostomi[edit]

Semionotidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Lepidotes[4]

L. decoratus[4]

L. intermedius[4]

L. maximus[4]

L. notopterus[4]

L. oblongus[4]

L. pustulosus[4]

L. subovatus[4]

L. unguiculatus[4]

Macrosemiidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Histionotus[5]

H. oberndorferi[5]

Macrosemius[5]

M. rostratus[5]

Notagogus[5]

N. decoratus[5]

N. denticulatus

Propterus[5]

P. elongatus[5]

P. microstomus[5]

Eusemius[5]

E. beatae[5]

Pycnodontiformes[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Eomesodon[6]

E. gibbosus[6]

Gyrodus[6]

G. circularis[6]

G. hexagonus[6]

Mesturus[6]

M. verrucosus[6]

Macromesodon[6]

M. heckeli[6]

M. macropterus[6]

Proscinetes[6]

P. elegans[6]

P. formosus[6]

Pachycormidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Asthenocormus[7]

A. titanius[7]

Hypsocormus[7]

H. insignis[7]

H. macrodon[7]

Orthocormus[7]

O. cornutus[7]

Pseudoasthenocormus[8]

P. retrodorsalis[8]

Sauropsis[7]

S. depressus[7]

S. longimanus[7]

Others[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Heterostrophus[9]

H. latus[9]

Halecomorphi[edit]

Caturidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Amblysemius[10]

A. bellicianus[10]

A. pachyurus[10]

Caturus[10]

C. furcatus[10]

C. giganteus[10]

Liodesmus[10]

L. gracilis[10]

L. sprattiformis[10]

Ionoscopidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Ionoscopus[11]

I. cyprinoides[11]

I. esocinus[11]

I. münsteri[11]

I. striatissimus[11]

Furidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Furo[12]

F. angustus[12]

F. latimanus[12]

F. longiserratus[12]

F. microlepidotes[12]

F. microlepidotes[12]

Other halecomorphs[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Amiopsis[13]

A. lepidota[13]

Amiid.[13]

Ophiopsis[13]

O. attenuta[13]

O. procera[13]

Solnhofenamia[13]

S. elongata[13]

Amiid.[13]

Halecomorphi incertae cedis[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Brachyichthys[14]

B. radiato-punctatus[14]

B typicus[14]

Callopterus[14]

C. agassizzi[14]

Lophiurus[14]

L. minutus[14]

Teleostei[edit]

Pleuropholidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Pleuropholis[15]

P. laevissima[15]

P. pompecki[15]

P. wagneri[15]

Aspidorhynchidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Aspidorhynchus[16]

A. acutirostris[16]

Belonostomus[16]

B. münsteri[16]

B. tenuirostris[16]

Pholidophoridae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Ankylophorus[17]

Indeterminate.[17]

Eurycormus[17]

E. speciosus[17]

Pholidophoristion[17]

P. micronyx[17]

P. ovatus[17]

Pholidophorus[17]

P. armatus[17]

P. diagonalis[17]

P. falcifer[17]

P. macrocephalus[17]

P. microps[17]

P. sculptus[17]

Allothrissopidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Allothrissops[18]

A. mesogaster[18]

A. salmoneus[18]

Pachythrissops[18]

P. propterus[18]

Thrissops[18]

T. formosus[18]

T. subovatus[18]

Orthogonikleithridae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Leptolepides[19]

L. haerteisi[19]

L. sprattiformis[19]

Orthogonikleithrus[19]

O. hoelli[19]

O. leichi[19]

Anaethalionidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Anaethalion[20]

A. angustissimus[20]

A. angustus[20]

A. knorri[20]

A. subovatus[20]

Others[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Ascalabos[21]

A. voithii[21]

Living Elops individual.

Daitingichthys[21]

D. tischlingeri[21]

Eichstättia[21]

E. mayri[21]

Elops[21]

cf. E. sp. 1[21]

cf. E. sp. 2[21]

cf. E. sp. 3[21]

Tharsis[21]

T. dubius[21]

Tischlingerichtys[21]

T. viohli[21]

Reptiles[edit]

Lizards[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Ardeosaurus

A. brevipes

Eichstätt

A. digitalellus

Solnhofen, Eichstätt

Bavarisaurus

B. macrodactylus

Kelheim

Eichstaettisaurus

E. schroederi

Eichstätt

Rhynchocephalians[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Homeosaurus

H. maximillioni

Eichstätt

Pleurosaurus

P. goldfussi

Eichstätt, Langenaltheim

Acrosaurus fischmanni is a synonym.[22]

Ichthyosaurs[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Aegirosaurus

A. leptospondylus

Eichstatt, Solnhofen[23]

A. leptospondylus tail

"Ichthyosaurus"

"I." posthumus

Eichstatt, Kelheim, Solnhofen

Nomen dubium. Known only from isolated teeth.

Turtles[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Eurysternum

E. wagleri

Solnhofen, Kelheim[24]

Cyrtura

C. temnospondyla

Solnhofen

Helochelys

H. danubinus

Kelheim

Idiochelys

I. fitzingeri

Eichstatt

Palaeomedusa

P. testa

Kelheim, Eichstatt, Solnhofen

Eurysternum crassipes and Thalassemys marina are synonyms.

Platychelys

P. oberndorferi

Kelheim

Solnhofia

S. parsonsi

Eichstatt

Crocodylomorphs[edit]

Name Species Presence Specimens Notes Images

Alligatorellus

A. beaumonti

Kelheim

  • Partial skeleton[25]

An atoposaurid

Cricosaurus

C. elegans

Eichstatt, Solnhofen

  • Skull and vertebrae (NHM 43005)[26]
  • Partial skull (NHM 37006[26])

A metriorhynchid

Dakosaurus

D. maximus

Schernfeld

  • Isolated teeth (JME-SOS4577, JME-SOS2535[26])[27]

A metriorhynchid

Geosaurus

G. giganteus

Solnhofen

  • Skull and mandible (NHM 37020)[28]
  • Isolated tooth (NHM 37016)[28]

A metriorhynchid

Rhacheosaurus

R. gracilis

Eichstatt, Zankt

A metriorhynchid

Dinosaurs[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Archaeopteryx[29]

A. siemensii[30]

Langenaltheim, Workerszell

Wellnhoferia and Jurapteryx are synonyms.

A. lithographica[29]

Langenaltheim, Eichstätt

?Compsognathus[29]

?C. longipes[29]

Kelheim (Goldberg)?

Most likely from the underlying Painten Formation

Pterosaurs[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Aerodactylus

A. scolopaciceps

Formerly classified as a species of Pterodactylus, closely related to Ardeadactylus, Aurorazhdarcho, and Cycnorhamphus.[31]

Anurognathus

A. ammoni

Ardeadactylus

A. longicollum

Formerly considered a species of Pterodactylus, it is more closely related to Gnathosaurus and Germanodactylus.[32]

Aurorazhdarcho

A. micronyx

Ctenochasma

C. elegans

Originally classified as Pterodactylus elegans

Cycnorhamphus

C. suevicus

Originally classified as Pterodactylus suevicus

Germanodactylus

G. cristatus

Originally classified as Pterodactylus cristatus

G. rhamphastinus

Gnathosaurus

G. subulatus

Pterodactylus

P. antiquus

  • Only one species is currently supported as valid, the rest represent growth stages, often of other species, synonyms, or nomina dubia.[33]

Rhamphorhynchus

R. muensteri

  • Only one species is currently supported as valid, the rest represent growth stages, often of other species, synonyms, or nomina dubia.[34]

Scaphognathus[35]

S. crassirostris[35]

  1. Only two specimens have been recovered from the formation.[35] The first was found in Eichstatt, the second in Mulheim.[35]
  • A Solnhofen genus erected in 1861 by J. A. Wagner when he recognized the rhamphorhynchoid nature of "Pterodactylus" crassirostris after the discovery of a specimen with a preserved tail.[35] The Solnhofen Limestone is the only known source of Scaphognathus fossils.[35]
  1. S. crassirostris was originally named P. crassirostris in 1831 by August Goldfuss who mistook the tailless specimen for a new Pterodactylus species.[35]

Invertebrate paleofauna[edit]

Crinoids[edit]

Crinoids of the Solnhofen Formation
Taxa Presence Notes Images
  1. S. [36]

Saccocoma remains are the most common macroscopic fossils in the Solnhofen limestone.[36]

Cephalopods[edit]

Cephalopods of the Solnhofen Formation
Taxa Presence Notes Images

Xiphosura[edit]

Horseshoe crabs of the Solnhofen Formation
Taxa Presence Notes Images

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Rauhut, O. W., Heyng, A. M., López-Arbarello, A., & Hecker, A. (2012). A new rhynchocephalian from the Late Jurassic of Germany with a dentition that is unique amongst tetrapods. PloS One, 7(10): e46839.
  2. ^ Schweigert, G. 2007. Ammonite biostratigraphy as a tool for dating Upper Jurassic lithographic limestones from South Germany – first results and open questions." Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen, 245(1): 117-125. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2007/0245-0117
  3. ^ a b "Table 1; Chondrostei; Coccolepidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Table 1; Halecostomi; Semionotidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Table 1; Halecostomi; Macrosemiidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Table 1; Halecostomi; Pycnodontiformes" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Table 1; Halecostomi; Pachycormidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  8. ^ a b Note: Lambers abbreviated Pseudoasthenocormus as "Pseudoasth.," "Table 1; Halecostomi; Pachycormidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  9. ^ a b "Table 1; Halecostomi; 'Halecostomi inc. sed.'" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Table 1; Halecomorphi; Caturidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Table 1; Halecomorphi; Ionoscopidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  12. ^ a b c d e f "Table 1; Halecomorphi; Furidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Table 1; Halecomorphi; 'Amiidae' and 'Ophiopsidae'" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g "Table 1; Halecomorphi; Halecomorphi incertae cedis" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  15. ^ a b c d "Table 1; Teleostei; Pleuropholidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  16. ^ a b c d e "Table 1; Teleostei; Aspidorhynchidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Table 1; Teleostei; Pholidophoridae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h "Table 1; Teleostei; Allothrissopidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  19. ^ a b c d e f "Table 1; Teleostei; Orthogonikleithridae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  20. ^ a b c d e "Table 1; Teleostei; Anaethalionidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Table 1; Teleostei; 'Elopidae,' 'Ostariophysi,' 'Clupeocephala inc. sed.,' 'Elopocephala inc. sed.,' and 'Teleostei inc. sed'" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  22. ^ Dupret, V. (2004). The pleurosaurs: anatomy and phylogeny. Revue de Paléobiologie, Vol spéc, 9, 61-80.
  23. ^ Bardet, N., & Fernández, M. (2000). A new ichthyosaur from the Upper Jurassic lithographic limestones of Bavaria. Journal Information, 74(3).
  24. ^ JOYCE, W. G. (2003). A new Late Jurassic turtle specimen and the taxonomy of Palaeomedusa testa and edusa testa Eurysternum wagleri.
  25. ^ Schwarz‐Wings, D., Klein, N., Neumann, C., & Resch, U. (2011). A new partial skeleton of Alligatorellus (Crocodyliformes) associated with echinoids from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) lithographic limestone of Kelheim, S‐Germany. Fossil Record, 14(2), 195-205.
  26. ^ a b c d e De Andrade, M. B., Young, M. T., Desojo, J. B., & Brusatte, S. L. (2010). The evolution of extreme hypercarnivory in Metriorhynchidae (Mesoeucrocodylia: Thalattosuchia) based on evidence from microscopic denticle morphology. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 30(5), 1451-1465.
  27. ^ Young MT, Brusatte SL, de Andrade MB, Desojo JB, Beatty BL, et al. (2012) The Cranial Osteology and Feeding Ecology of the Metriorhynchid Crocodylomorph Genera Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus from the Late Jurassic of Europe. PLoS ONE 7(9): e44985. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044985
  28. ^ a b c Young, Mark T., and Marco Brandalise de Andrade, 2009. "What is Geosaurus? Redescription of Geosaurus giganteus (Thalattosuchia: Metriorhynchidae) from the Upper Jurassic of Bayern, Germany." Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 157: 551-585.
  29. ^ a b c d Weishampel, David B; et al. (2004). "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic, Europe)." In: Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 545–549. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.
  30. ^ Mayr, G.; Phol, B.; Hartman, S.; Peters, D. S. (2007). "The tenth skeletal specimen of Archaeopteryx". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149: 97–116. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00245.x. 
  31. ^ Vidovic SU, Martill DM (2014) Pterodactylus scolopaciceps Meyer, 1860 (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea) from the Upper Jurassic of Bavaria, Germany: The Problem of Cryptic Pterosaur Taxa in Early Ontogeny. PLoS ONE 9(10): e110646. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110646
  32. ^ Bennett, S.C. (2002). "Soft tissue preservation of the cranial crest of the pterosaur Germanodactylus from Solnhofen." Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(1): 43-48.
  33. ^ Jouve, S. (2004). "Description of the skull of a Ctenochasma (Pterosauria) from the latest Jurassic of eastern France, with a taxonomic revision of European Tithonian Pterodactyloidea." Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(3): 542-554.
  34. ^ Bennett, S. C. (1995). "A statistical study of Rhamphorhynchus from the Solnhofen Limestone of Germany: Year-classes of a single large species." Journal of Paleontology, 69: 569-580.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g "Scaphognathus." In: Cranfield, Ingrid (ed.). The Illustrated Directory of Dinosaurs and Other Prehistoric Creatures. London: Salamander Books, Ltd. Pp. 308-309.
  36. ^ a b c Clare V. Milsom. (1994) Saccacoma, a benthic crinoid from the Jurassic Solnhofen Limestone, Germany. Palaeontology 37 (1) 121-129.
  37. ^ Lomax, Dean R. (2010). "Am Ichthyosaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyosauria) with gastric contents from Charmouth, England: First report of the genus from the Pliensbachian". Paludicola (Rochester Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology) 8 (1): 22–36. Retrieved February 8, 2011. 

General[edit]

  • Lambers, P. H. (1999). The actinopterygian fish fauna of the Late Kimmeridgian and Early Tithonian 'Plattenkalke' near Solnhofen (Bavaria, Germany): state of the art. Geologie en Mijnbouw 78:215-229.