Paleobiota of the Solnhofen Formation

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Table key[edit]

Color Explanation

Light grey

A "regular" taxon which the scientific consensus does not regard as a dubious, synonymous, undescribed, or otherwise taxonomically questionable name.

Dark grey

A taxon or parataxon that is misidentified, dubious, synonymous, undescribed, or otherwise taxonomically questionable name.

Peach

An ichnotaxon, a parataxon representing a specific kind of trace fossil.

Light blue

An ootaxon, a parataxon representing a specific kind of fossil egg.

Light green

A morphotaxon, a parataxon representing a single stage or anatomical part of a plant or plant-like organism. Examples include fossil pine cones, fungal spores, and leaves.

Chondrostei[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes

Coccolepis[1]

C. bucklandi[1]

Halecostomi[edit]

Semionotidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Lepidotes[2]

L. decoratus[2]

L. intermedius[2]

L. maximus[2]

L. notopterus[2]

L. oblongus[2]

L. pustulosus[2]

L. subovatus[2]

L. unguiculatus[2]

Macrosemiidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Histionotus[3]

H. oberndorferi[3]

Macrosemius[3]

M. rostratus[3]

Notagogus[3]

N. decoratus[3]

N. denticulatus

Propterus[3]

P. elongatus[3]

P. microstomus[3]

Eusemius[3]

E. beatae[3]

Pycnodontiformes[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Eomesodon[4]

E. gibbosus[4]

Gyrodus[4]

G. circularis[4]

G. hexagonus[4]

Mesturus[4]

M. verrucosus[4]

Macromesodon[4]

M. heckeli[4]

M. macropterus[4]

Proscinetes[4]

P. elegans[4]

P. formosus[4]

Pachycormidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Asthenocormus[5]

A. titanius[5]

Hypsocormus[5]

H. insignis[5]

H. macrodon[5]

Orthocormus[5]

O. cornutus[5]

Pseudoasthenocormus[6]

P. retrodorsalis[6]

Sauropsis[5]

S. depressus[5]

S. longimanus[5]

Others[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Heterostrophus[7]

H. latus[7]

Halecomorphi[edit]

Caturidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Amblysemius[8]

A. bellicianus[8]

A. pachyurus[8]

Caturus[8]

C. furcatus[8]

C. giganteus[8]

Liodesmus[8]

L. gracilis[8]

L. sprattiformis[8]

Ionoscopidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Ionoscopus[9]

I. cyprinoides[9]

I. esocinus[9]

I. münsteri[9]

I. striatissimus[9]

Furidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Furo[10]

F. angustus[10]

F. latimanus[10]

F. longiserratus[10]

F. microlepidotes[10]

F. microlepidotes[10]

Other halecomorphs[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Amiopsis[11]

A. lepidota[11]

Amiid.[11]

Ophiopsis[11]

O. attenuta[11]

O. procera[11]

Solnhofenamia[11]

S. elongata[11]

Amiid.[11]

Halecomorphi incertae cedis[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Brachyichthys[12]

B. radiato-punctatus[12]

B typicus[12]

Callopterus[12]

C. agassizzi[12]

Lophiurus[12]

L. minutus[12]

Teleostei[edit]

Pleuropholidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Pleuropholis[13]

P. laevissima[13]

P. pompecki[13]

P. wagneri[13]

Aspidorhynchidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Aspidorhynchus[14]

A. acutirostris[14]

Belonostomus[14]

B. münsteri[14]

B. tenuirostris[14]

Pholidophoridae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Ankylophorus[15]

Indeterminate.[15]

Eurycormus[15]

E. speciosus[15]

Pholidophoristion[15]

P. micronyx[15]

P. ovatus[15]

Pholidophorus[15]

P. armatus[15]

P. diagonalis[15]

P. falcifer[15]

P. macrocephalus[15]

P. microps[15]

P. sculptus[15]

Allothrissopidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Allothrissops[16]

A. mesogaster[16]

A. salmoneus[16]

Pachythrissops[16]

P. propterus[16]

Thrissops[16]

T. formosus[16]

T. subovatus[16]

Orthogonikleithridae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Leptolepides[17]

L. haerteisi[17]

L. sprattiformis[17]

Orthogonikleithrus[17]

O. hoelli[17]

O. leichi[17]

Anaethalionidae[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Anaethalion[18]

A. angustissimus[18]

A. angustus[18]

A. knorri[18]

A. subovatus[18]

Others[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Ascalabos[19]

A. voithii[19]

Living Elops individual.

Daitingichthys[19]

D. tischlingeri[19]

Eichstättia[19]

E. mayri[19]

Elops[19]

cf. E. sp. 1[19]

cf. E. sp. 2[19]

cf. E. sp. 3[19]

Tharsis[19]

T. dubius[19]

Tischlingerichtys[19]

T. viohli[19]

Reptiles[edit]

Lizards[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Ardeosaurus

A. brevipes

Eichtaettisaurus

E. digitatellus


Rhynchocephalians[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Acrosaurus

Homeosaurus

Kallimodon

Pleurosaurus

P. goldfussi

Crocodylomorphs[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Alligatorellus

A. beaumonti

Dakosaurus

D. maximus

Geosaurus

G. giganteus

G. gracilis

G. suevicus

Steneosaurus

S. priscus

Dinosaurs (including birds)[edit]

Possible dinosaur eggs have been located in Bayern, Germany.[20]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Archaeopteryx[20]

A. siemensii[21]

A. lithographica[20]

Compsognathus[20]

C. longipes[20]

  1. Geographically located in Bayern, Germany.[20]

Pterosaurs[edit]

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Anurognathus

A. ammoni

Ardeadactylus

A. longicollum

Formerly considered a species of Pterodactylus, it is more closely related to Gnathosaurus and Germanodactylus.[22]

Aurorazhdarcho

A. micronyx

Ctenochasma

C. elegans

Originally classified as Pterodactylus elegans

Cycnorhamphus

C. suevicus

Originally classified as Pterodactylus suevicus

Germanodactylus

G. cristatus

Originally classified as Pterodactylus cristatus

G. rhamphastinus

Gnathosaurus

G. subulatus

Pterodactylus

P. antiquus

  • Only one species is currently supported as valid, the rest represent growth stages, often of other species, synonyms, or nomina dubia.[23]

Rhamphorhynchus

R. muensteri

  • Only one species is currently supported as valid, the rest represent growth stages, often of other species, synonyms, or nomina dubia.[24]

Scaphognathus[25]

S. crassirostris[25]

  1. Only two specimens have been recovered from the formation.[25] The first was found in Eichstatt, the second in Mulheim.[25]
  • A Solnhofen genus erected in 1861 by J. A. Wagner when he recognized the rhamphorhynchoid nature of "Pterodactylus" crassirostris after the discovery of a specimen with a preserved tail.[25] The Solnhofen Limestone is the only known source of Scaphognathus fossils.[25]
  1. S. crassirostris was originally named P. crassirostris in 1831 by August Goldfuss who mistook the tailless specimen for a new Pterodactylus species.[25]

Invertebrate paleofauna[edit]

Crinoids[edit]

Crinoids of the Solnhofen Formation
Taxa Presence Notes Images
  1. S. [26]

Saccocoma remains are the most common macroscopic fossils in the Solnhofen limestone.[26]

Cephalopods[edit]

Cephalopods of the Solnhofen Formation
Taxa Presence Notes Images

Xiphosura[edit]

Horseshoe crabs of the Solnhofen Formation
Taxa Presence Notes Images

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Table 1; Chondrostei; Coccolepidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Table 1; Halecostomi; Semionotidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Table 1; Halecostomi; Macrosemiidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Table 1; Halecostomi; Pycnodontiformes" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Table 1; Halecostomi; Pachycormidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  6. ^ a b Note: Lambers abbreviated Pseudoasthenocormus as "Pseudoasth.," "Table 1; Halecostomi; Pachycormidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  7. ^ a b "Table 1; Halecostomi; 'Halecostomi inc. sed.'" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Table 1; Halecomorphi; Caturidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  9. ^ a b c d e "Table 1; Halecomorphi; Ionoscopidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Table 1; Halecomorphi; Furidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Table 1; Halecomorphi; 'Amiidae' and 'Ophiopsidae'" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "Table 1; Halecomorphi; Halecomorphi incertae cedis" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  13. ^ a b c d "Table 1; Teleostei; Pleuropholidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  14. ^ a b c d e "Table 1; Teleostei; Aspidorhynchidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Table 1; Teleostei; Pholidophoridae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h "Table 1; Teleostei; Allothrissopidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  17. ^ a b c d e f "Table 1; Teleostei; Orthogonikleithridae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  18. ^ a b c d e "Table 1; Teleostei; Anaethalionidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Table 1; Teleostei; 'Elopidae,' 'Ostariophysi,' 'Clupeocephala inc. sed.,' 'Elopocephala inc. sed.,' and 'Teleostei inc. sed'" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Weishampel, David B; et al. (2004). "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic, Europe)." In: Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 545–549. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.
  21. ^ Mayr, G.; Phol, B.; Hartman, S.; Peters, D. S. (2007). "The tenth skeletal specimen of Archaeopteryx". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149: 97–116. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00245.x. 
  22. ^ Bennett, S.C. (2002). "Soft tissue preservation of the cranial crest of the pterosaur Germanodactylus from Solnhofen." Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(1): 43-48.
  23. ^ Jouve, S. (2004). "Description of the skull of a Ctenochasma (Pterosauria) from the latest Jurassic of eastern France, with a taxonomic revision of European Tithonian Pterodactyloidea." Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(3): 542-554.
  24. ^ Bennett, S. C. (1995). "A statistical study of Rhamphorhynchus from the Solnhofen Limestone of Germany: Year-classes of a single large species." Journal of Paleontology, 69: 569-580.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g "Scaphognathus." In: Cranfield, Ingrid (ed.). The Illustrated Directory of Dinosaurs and Other Prehistoric Creatures. London: Salamander Books, Ltd. Pp. 308-309.
  26. ^ a b c Clare V. Milsom. (1994) Saccacoma, a benthic crinoid from the Jurassic Solnhofen Limestone, Germany. Palaeontology 37 (1) 121-129.
  27. ^ Lomax, Dean R. (2010). "Am Ichthyosaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyosauria) with gastric contents from Charmouth, England: First report of the genus from the Pliensbachian". Paludicola (Rochester Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology) 8 (1): 22–36. Retrieved February 8, 2011. 

General[edit]

  • Lambers, P. H. (1999). The actinopterygian fish fauna of the Late Kimmeridgian and Early Tithonian 'Plattenkalke' near Solnhofen (Bavaria, Germany): state of the art. Geologie en Mijnbouw 78:215-229.