Palmyrene alphabet

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Palmyrene
Palmyran
Palmyrenisch.jpg
Palmyrene inscribed tablet in the Musée du Louvre
Type
Languages Palmyrene dialect of Aramaic
Time period
100 BCE to 300 CE
Parent systems
Sister systems
Ammonite
Brāhmī (?)
Edessan
Elymaic
Hatran
Hebrew
Mandaic
Nabataean
Pahlavi
Parthian
ISO 15924 Palm, 126
Direction Right-to-left
Unicode alias
Palmyrene
U+10860–U+1087F

Palmyrene was a historical Semitic alphabet used to write the local Palmyrene dialect of Aramaic. It was used between 100 BCE and 300 CE in Palmyra in the Syrian desert. The oldest surviving Palmyrene inscription dates to 44 BCE.[2] The last surviving inscription dates to 274 CE, two years after Palmyra was sacked by Roman Emperor Aurelian, ending the Palmyrene Empire. Use of the Palmyrene language and script declined, being replaced with Greek and Latin.

Palmyrene was derived from cursive versions of the Aramaic alphabet and shares many of its characteristics:[3][4]

  • Twenty-two letters with only consonants represented
  • Written horizontally from right-to-left
  • Numbers written right-to-left using a non-decimal system

Palmyrene was normally written without spaces or punctuation between words and sentences (scriptio continua style).

Two forms of Palmyrene were developed: The rounded, cursive form derived from the Aramaic alphabet and later a decorative, monumental form developed from the cursive Palmyrene.[2] Both the cursive and monumental forms commonly used typographic ligatures.[4]

Numbers[edit]

Palmyrene used a non-decimal system which built up numbers using combinations of their symbols for , 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, and 20.[4] It is similar to the system used for Aramaic which built numbers using their symbols for 1, 2, 3, 10, 20, 100, 1000, and 10000.[5]

Decipherment[edit]

Examples of Palmyrene inscriptions were printed as far back as 1616 but accurate copies of Palmyrene/Greek bilingual inscriptions were not available until 1756. The Palmyrene alphabet was deciphered in the 1750s, literally overnight, by Abbé Jean-Jacques Barthélemy using these new, accurate copies of bilingual inscriptions.

Unicode[edit]

Palmyrene was added to the Unicode Standard in June, 2014 with the release of version 7.0.

The Unicode block for Palmyrene is U+10860–U+1087F:

Palmyrene[1]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1086x 𐡠 𐡡 𐡢 𐡣 𐡤 𐡥 𐡦 𐡧 𐡨 𐡩 𐡪 𐡫 𐡬 𐡭 𐡮 𐡯
U+1087x 𐡰 𐡱 𐡲 𐡳 𐡴 𐡵 𐡶 𐡷 𐡸 𐡹 𐡺 𐡻 𐡼 𐡽 𐡾 𐡿
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 7.0

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Himelfarb, Elizabeth J. "First Alphabet Found in Egypt", Archaeology 53, Issue 1 (Jan./Feb. 2000): 21.
  2. ^ a b "Palmyrenian alphabet". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  3. ^ Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William, eds. (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press, Inc. ISBN 978-0195079937. 
  4. ^ a b c Everson, Michael (17 August 2010). "N3867R2: Proposal for encoding the Palmyrene script in the SMP of the UCS". Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  5. ^ Everson, Michael (25 August 2007). "N3339: Proposal for encoding the Imperial Aramaic script in the SMP of the UCS". Retrieved 6 July 2014.