|Cape York Peninsula, Queensland|
Paman languages (green) among other Pama–Nyungan (tan)
The Paman languages are an Australian language family spoken on the Cape York Peninsula of Queensland. First noted by Kenneth Hale, Paman is noteworthy for the profound phonological changes which have affected some of its descendants.
Various classifications of the Paman languages exist. The one outlined below is that of R. W. Dixon, though he does not accept that these branches are necessarily related to each other. Another widely accepted classification, that of Ethnologue, is available online.
Geographically, running down the east coast, they are:
- North Cape York (Northern Paman and Umpila)
- Lamalamic: Umbuygamu, Lama-Lama (closely related)
- Yalgawarra (Flinders Island) (and the unclassified Marrett River language)
- Yalanjic: Guugu Yimidhirr, Gugu Yalandyi, ?Barrow Point
- Mbariman: Mbariman-Gudhinma, Gugu Warra (inland)
Down the west coast, they are:
- North Cape York (Northern Paman and Wik)
- Southwestern (See)
- Kok Narr
- Norman Paman: Kurtjar, Kuthant (closely related)
In the interior, south of Wik, they are:
- Thaypan (Rarmul Pama, closely related): Thaypan (?Rarmul), Aghu Tharrnggala, Ikarranggali–Alungul–Angkula, ?Takalak
- Southern: Agwamin, Mbabaram, Mbara, ?Walangama
The name Gugu Mini means 'good speech', and have been applied to several languages in the Thaypan area. Despite not being a specific language, it has been assigned the ISO code ggm. Koko-Possum (Possum) is another generic name of this area.
See also 
- Hale, Kenneth L. (1964). "Classification of Northern Paman Languages, Cape York Peninsula, Australia; A Research Report". Oceanic Linguistics (Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 3, No. 2) 3 (2): 248–265. doi:10.2307/3622881. JSTOR 3622881.
- Hale, Kenneth L. (1966). "The Paman group of the Pama–Nyungan phylic family. Appendix to Languages of the World: Indo-Pacific Fascicle Six, by G.N. O'Grady, C. F. & F.M. Voegelin". Anthropological Linguistics 8 (2): 162–197.
- See Dixon (2002), pp. xxx–xlii.
- Ethnologue: Paman languages
- Gugu Mini at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
- Bowern, Claire. 2011. "How Many Languages Were Spoken in Australia?", Anggarrgoon: Australian languages on the web, December 23, 2011 (corrected February 6, 2012)
- Dixon, R. M. W. (2002). Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development.