Paman languages

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Paman
Geographic
distribution:
Cape York Peninsula, Queensland
Linguistic classification: Pama–Nyungan
  • Paman
Glottolog: pama1251[1]

Paman languages (green) among other Pama–Nyungan (tan)

The Paman languages are an Australian language family spoken on the Cape York Peninsula of Queensland. First noted by Kenneth Hale,[2][3] Paman is noteworthy for the profound phonological changes which have affected some of its descendants.[citation needed]

Classification[edit]

Various classifications of the Paman languages exist. The one outlined below is that of R. W. Dixon, though he does not accept that these branches are necessarily related to each other.[4]

Geographically, running down the east coast, they are:

Down the west coast, they are:

In the interior, south of Wik, they are:

The name Gugu Mini means 'good speech', and have been applied to several languages in the Thaypan area.[5] 'Possum language' (Koko-Possum, Gugu Yawa) is another generic name of this area.[6]

The unclassified Marrett River language was presumably Paman, though distinct from its neighbors, as presumably was Wik Paach. The Mayabic languages to the southwest were once classified as Paman, but have been excluded in Bowern (2011).[7] Alodja may have been another Thaypan / Rarmul Pama language.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Paman". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Hale, Kenneth L. (1964). "Classification of Northern Paman Languages, Cape York Peninsula, Australia; A Research Report". Oceanic Linguistics (Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 3, No. 2) 3 (2): 248–265. doi:10.2307/3622881. JSTOR 3622881. 
  3. ^ Hale, Kenneth L. (1966). "The Paman group of the Pama–Nyungan phylic family. Appendix to Languages of the World: Indo-Pacific Fascicle Six, by G.N. O'Grady, C. F. & F.M. Voegelin". Anthropological Linguistics 8 (2): 162–197. 
  4. ^ See Dixon (2002), pp. xxx–xlii.
  5. ^ Gugu Mini at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
  6. ^ Alungul at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies,
    Gugu Yawa at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
  7. ^ Bowern, Claire. 2011. "How Many Languages Were Spoken in Australia?", Anggarrgoon: Australian languages on the web, December 23, 2011 (corrected February 6, 2012)

General[edit]

Dixon, R. M. W. (2002). Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development.