Pan-Arab colors

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Arab Liberation Flag[1]
Arab states (both recognized and unrecognized) using Pan-Arab colors in their flags, shown in green.[1]

The Pan-Arab colors are black, white, green and red. Individually, each of the four Pan-Arab colors were intended to represent a certain Arab dynasty, or era.[3] The black was the color of the banner of Muhammad; white was used by the Umayyad Caliphate; green was used by the Fatimid Caliphate; and red was the flag held by the Khawarij.[4]

Pan-Arab colors were first combined in the flag of the Arab Revolt in 1916.[5] Many current flags are based on Arab Revolt colors, such as the flags of Jordan, Kuwait, Palestine, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, and the United Arab Emirates,[1] and formerly in the flag of the fleeting six month union of the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan.

From the 1950s onwards, a sub-set of the Pan-Arab colors, the Arab Liberation colors, came to prominence. These consist of a tricolour of red, white and black bands, with green given less prominence . The Arab Liberation colors were inspired by the use of the Arab Liberation Flag in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.[6][full citation needed] These appear in the current flags of Egypt, Iraq, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen, and formerly in the flags of the rival states of North Yemen and South Yemen, and in the short-lived Arab unions of the United Arab Republic and the Federation of Arab Republics.[1]

Current flags with Pan-Arab colors[edit]

Sovereign states[edit]

Partially recognized states[edit]

Former national flags with the Pan-Arab colors[edit]

Flags of Arab political and paramilitary movements using Pan-Arab colors[edit]

Historical Arab flags[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Pan-Arab Colours,
  2. ^ Mahdi Abdul-Hadi, The Great Arab Revolt,
  3. ^ Abū Khaldūn Sati' al-Husri, The days of Maysalūn: A Page from the Modern History of the Arabs, Sidney Glauser Trans., (Washington D.C.: Middle East Institute, 1966), 46.
  4. ^ Mahdi Abdul-Hadi, Palestine Facts: The Meaning of the Flag,
  5. ^ I. Friedman, British Pan-Arab Policy, 1915-1922, Transaction Publ., 2011, p.135
  6. ^ M. Naguib Egypt's Destiny 1955
  7. ^ Also used as the flag of Fujairah since 1975
  8. ^ Palestinian Law No. 5 for the year 2006 amending some provisions of Law No. 22 for the year 2005 on the Sanctity of the Palestinian Flag
  9. ^ a b Kingdom of Hejaz 1915-1925,
  10. ^ a b c d e Historical Flags Overview (Syria),
  11. ^ Ha'il (Saudi Arabia) - Emirate of 'Ha'il,
  12. ^ a b Historical Flags (Jordan),
  13. ^ Kingdom of Iraq (1924-1958),
  14. ^ Used currently, 2011 onwards, by the Syrian Interim Government and the Free Syrian Army
  15. ^ a b Historical Flags (Palestine), on
  16. ^ Arab Federation of Jordan and Iraq,
  17. ^ a b c Evolution of the Iraqi Flag, 1963-2008,
  18. ^ Mahdi Abdul-Hadi, Al-Muntadha al-Adhabi,
  19. ^ Mahdi Abdul-Hadi, Jam'yiat al-'Arabiya al-Fatat,
  20. ^ a b Al-Ahwaz (Khuzestan) Political Organizations (Iran) on
  21. ^ S. T. Al-Seyed Naama, Brief History of Ahwaz, on
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^ Mahdi Abdul-Hadi, Al-Khawarij,

External links[edit]