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Panachage is the name given to the procedure – sometimes provided for in elections conducted according to the party-list proportional representation system – which allows voters to distribute their votes between individual candidates from different party lists. It is used in open-list elections in Switzerland and Luxembourg,[1] as well as in local elections in several German states,[2] and in Italy, for regional elections and municipal elections in cities with more than 15,000 inhabitants.[3]

In France, this procedure is used for municipal elections in cities that have less than 1000 inhabitants.[4]